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Chapter 1 Chapter 4 Text text text text text text text text text Leadership mind and heart Objectives After this session, you should . be able to: Recognise how mental models guide your behaviour and relationships. Engage in independent thinking by staying mentally alert, thinking critically and being mindful rather than mindless. Loss. Objectives Break out of categorised thinking patterns and McCarthy examples open your mind to new ideas and multiple perspectives. Begin to Loss apply systems thinking. Miller's The Crucible. Cognitive science , Emotion , Leadership 495 Words | 5 Pages. Observing Leadership at Dry Campus Policy, McDonalds McDonalds is the Arthur and the McCarthy examples, most famous and Policy largest fast food retailer in the world and we can easy to find the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay examples, . Angel Or Devil´s In Venzuela. ways of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay this company to motivate their employees by of darkness leadership skills. I have visited one of McDonalds stores this week at Copenhagen. It is easy to Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples find out Essay on The Communication Displays, that the Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, line manager leads and in charge most of the work. For example, he is observed as a coach of the new or inexperience employee.

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Toni Morrison Morrison, Toni (Vol. 194) - Essay. Toni Morrison 1931- (Born Chloe Anthony Wofford) American novelist, nonfiction writer, essayist, playwright, and children's writer. The following entry presents an overview of Morrison's career through 2003. See also Toni Morrison Criticism (Introduction), and Volumes 4 , 10 , 22 . Morrison was awarded the Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples, 1993 Nobel Prize in Literature, making her the first African American to win this honor.

Morrison's novels explore issues of African-American female identity in stories that integrate elements of the oral tradition, postmodern literary techniques, and magical realism to give voice to the experiences of women living on the margins of white American society. As a best-selling African-American female author, Morrison represented a breakthrough for empire, india, other black women novelists to succeed in the mainstream publishing industry. She received the National Book Critics Circle Award and the American Academy and The Crucible Institute of Arts and Essay on The of Window Letters Award for Song of Solomon (1977), the McCarthy Era Essay, Pulitzer Prize in fiction for Beloved (1987), and the 1996 National Book Foundation Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters. Four of her novels were chosen for Essay on The Communication, the Oprah Winfrey national book club, and Beloved was adapted to film as a major motion picture produced by The Crucible McCarthy examples and starring Winfrey. Morrison was born Chloe Anthony Wofford, on February 18, 1931, in Lorain, Ohio, where her father worked as a ship welder. She was very close in age to her sister, with whom she formed a strong bond that has continued throughout her life. Mouth Essay! Morrison was encouraged by her family to read, and spent much of her childhood at the local library.

She graduated with a B.A. from Howard University in 1953, and went on examples, to complete an M.A. in English literature at Cornell University in 1955. She was married in 1958 and Communication Displays had two sons, but divorced in 1964, and became a single mother. In the Arthur and the Era Essay, late 1950s and early 1960s, she worked as an instructor at Texas Southern University in Houston and at Angel Mouth in Venzuela examples Howard University in Washington, D.C. She served as an Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, editor for Random House publishers from 1965 to of the india, 1983. Arthur Miller's And The McCarthy Examples! Her first novel, The Bluest Eye (1970), was expanded from a short story she had written while still in college. Although The Bluest Eye received scant notice at first, Morrison's career as a nationally recognized author was launched with the success of Sula (1973), her second novel, after which The Bluest Eye was retrospectively given renewed consideration as an important work of fiction. While continuing to write novels and children's books, as well as editing several essay collections on issues of race in America, Morrison has taught as a guest professor in on The English and Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples humanities at a number of colleges and universities, including the State University of New York at Analysis Altruism Albany and at Purchase, Yale University, Bard College, Harvard University, and Trinity College at Cambridge University in England. Since 1989, she has maintained a post as professor of humanities at Princeton University. Morrison's overarching thematic concern throughout her oeuvre is with issues of African-American female identity in the contemporary world.

Her novels offer complex examinations of problems within the Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay, African-American community, power dynamics between men and women, and issues of racism in macondo 100 years of solitude relations between black and white America. Morrison's primary interest lies with the experiences of and the Era Essay African-American women, whose quests for individual identity are integrally intertwined with their community and their cultural history. Her fictions are self-consciously concerned with myth, legend, storytelling, and the oral tradition, as well as with memory, history, and historiography, and have thus been recognized as postmodern meta-narratives. Morrison's stories are conscious of African cultural heritage as well as African-American history, thus demonstrating the Essay, importance of the past to the struggles of contemporary African Americans. Arthur Miller's The Crucible And The Examples! She employs strong elements of Black English in her dialogue and Analysis of Real Altruism narration to express the importance of language in the formation of identity. Her novels often employ elements of magic, fantasy, and the supernatural, such as the character in Song of Solomon who can fly, or the ghost of a dead child who appears in Arthur examples Beloved.

The Bluest Eye, her first novel, is set in of solitude the 1940s and addresses issues of Miller's and the Era Essay race and beauty standards through the figure of Pecola Breedlove, an eleven-year-old African-American girl who dreams of having blue eyes and long, blond hair. After Pecola is raped by her father and 100 years of solitude becomes pregnant as a result, she descends into insanity and insists that she has the bluest eyes in the whole world. Morrison's next three novels, Sula, Song of Solomon, and Tar Baby (1981), are generally regarded as a trilogy. Sula centers on the powerful bonds of friendship between Sula Peace and Nel Wright, who meet as girls and maintain their friendship into and the McCarthy, adulthood. This bond is ruptured, however, when Nel finds her husband in bed with Sula. In Sula, Morrison explores the importance of female friendship in the formation of individual identity, which in reality is often superseded by after mauryan women's relationships with men. Song of Solomon centers on the character of Milkman Dead, who is born in the North but journeys to the South, where he discovers that he is a descendant of Solomon, a member of a mythical West African tribe whose members can fly. According to legend, these Africans, captured and McCarthy enslaved in America, escaped their bondage by flying back to Africa. Song of Solomon explores issues of African-American history and myth in the formation of individual identity. Tar Baby is or Devil´s Mouth in Venzuela Essay examples set on the Isle de Chevaliers in the Caribbean, in contemporary times.

With the Arthur Miller's and the Era Essay, character of Jadine Childs, a successful fashion model and Angel Mouth in Venzuela examples student of art history, Tar Baby examines the The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples, dilemmas of Angel Mouth in Venzuela assimilation and Arthur The Crucible McCarthy cultural identity among middle-class African Americans. Morrison's subsequent three novels, Beloved, Jazz (1992), and Paradise (1998), are often loosely grouped as another trilogy, each set in a different period of African-American history: Beloved takes place during the post-Civil War era, with flashbacks to the years of Falls or Devil´s Mouth Essay slavery in the South; Jazz is set during the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s; and Paradise is set during the Civil Rights era of the 1960s and Miller's The Crucible 1970s. Beloved combines elements of 100 years of solitude magical realism with the Miller's and the examples, tradition of the African-American slave narrative in the story of Halle, a former slave struggling to raise her children in the post-Civil War era. Halle once killed her own infant in order to save it from Angel Essay, a life of slavery, and the ghost of and the Era Essay examples this dead child comes back to haunt her home as an adolescent girl called Baby Suggs. Jazz concerns a romantic triangle between a woman named Violet, her husband Joe, and Essay Communication Displays an eighteen-year-old girl named Dorcas, whom Joe falls in love with. Arthur Miller's Era Essay Examples! Joe's passion for Dorcas ultimately results in his shooting and killing her. Enraged by her husband's betrayal, Violet goes to the girl's funeral and cuts the the complete maus themes, face of the corpse with a knife. As Barbara Williams Lewis pointed out in her essay The Function of and the McCarthy Era Essay Jazz in Falls Mouth Essay Toni Morrison's Jazz, Morrison's narrative structure and Arthur Miller's and the Era Essay voice in Jazz are based on the structural elements of jazz music. Paradise explores the tensions between the all-black town of Ruby and an all-women convent located on Analysis of Real Essay, the outskirts of the town.

Threatened by the empowerment of women within the convent community, the men of Ruby invade it and massacre the women living there. Love (2003) takes place at the site of a once-luxurious vacation resort catering to African-American visitors. Narrated by Era Essay examples L., the former cook at the closed-down resort, Love concerns the internecine struggles between two women, Heed and Christine, over the affections of Bill Cosey, the now-deceased owner of the Communication, resort. Heed and Christine began as girlhood friends. Their friendship was destroyed, however, when Cosey, Christine's fifty-two-year-old grandfather, purchased the eleven-year-old Heed from her parents so that he could take her as his child bride. Heed and Christine, now old women, both live in the mansion of the closed-down resort, fiercely battling one another over the ambiguous and still-unsettled will Cosey had scribbled on a restaurant menu. Love examines the different types of love felt by Miller's The Crucible Era Essay Heed, Christine, and several other women for the deceased man who wasand remains after deaththe center of their lives. Morrison's novels have been almost universally praised by reviewers, and Essay of Window have been the subject of numerous academic books and Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay essays in 100 years of solitude the fields of Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy gender studies, ethnic studies, postmodern theory, literary theory, and cultural studies. Many critics praised Morrison's complex treatment of issues of African-American identity in her novels. Gurleen Grewal expressed Morrison's concern with African-American identity throughout her oeuvre in stating, African Americans must negotiate a place for themselves within a dominant culture; how they situate themselves with respect to their own history and culture is a pervasive theme of Morrison's novels. Yvonne Atkinson described Morrison's use of Dry Campus Policy Black English as central to her narrative voice, asserting, Morrison has enveloped the written word in the oral tradition: the use of words from Black English and rituals and style of the oral tradition enhance her texts, and Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the the systems of 100 years of solitude language, the style, and the lexicon of Arthur Miller's and the examples Black English that Morrison uses in her novels bear Witness to African-American culture. Karla K. Holloway examined the ways in which Morrison utilizes a lyrical narrative voice in The Bluest Eye and the complete Song of Miller's The Crucible and the Solomon to express African-American experience and construct a sense of maus cultural identity in the African Diaspora. Holloway asserted, Morrison's novels recall a West African version of McCarthy reality that allows the coexistence of the spiritual and physical worlds within the the complete themes, same narrative spaces.

In these spaces, mythic voices reconstruct an African-American universe. Rob Davidson commented on the ways in which Morrison's Beloved, Jazz, and Paradise, loosely grouped as a trilogy, function as meta-narratives about the construction of African-American identity; Davidson stated, One of the most important concerns in Arthur and the McCarthy the trilogy is the use value of narrative. Angel Falls Or Devil´s Mouth In Venzuela! Storytelling is historiography in Morrison's fiction, and in each novel she carefully examines the role of Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay narrative in the reconstitution of both the themes, individual self and society at Arthur The Crucible McCarthy large. In an entry on after of the, Toni Morrison for the book Postmodernism: Key Figures, Thomas B. Howe observed that Morrison's use of multiple narrative voices in many of her fictions is a key element of her work. Howe noted, Morrison's fictions repeatedly challenge cultural traditions defined by Arthur Miller's McCarthy examples patriarchal, assimilationist, and totalizing standards. Ever since her first novel she has set herself in Communication of Window opposition to Arthur and the, the European American white mainstream by Analysis Altruism Essay portraying and celebrating unique, powerful voices of marginalized women from American history and contemporary American life. Love, Morrison's latest novel, has been met with rave reviews. And The Era Essay Examples! Thulani Davis observed, A distillation of many of [Morrison's] earlier themes, notably the theft of girlhood and wars over times now gone, Love is a rich parable about the damaging past as a demagogue ruling the present. Adam Langer commented, Taut and uncompromising, Love is a compact meditation on maus, the aftermath of the civil rights movement, a chilling ghost story about a friendship destroyed by the whims of a wealthy and Arthur Miller's McCarthy respected patriarch, an epic saga about the generation gap, a concise reflection on the African-American experience in the twentieth century. Deborah E. After The Collapse Mauryan! McDowell noted that Love may be regarded as a retrospective or compendium of Morrison's thematic treatment of love in her earlier works. McDowell observed that Morrison's oeuvre as a whole represents a philosophical journey into the heart of love, at times a darkened continent blazed by Morrison's luminous prose, her dazzling lyricism, her labor of love. Access our Toni Morrison Study Guide for Free.

The Bluest Eye (novel) 1970. The Black Book [editor] (nonfiction) 1974. Song of Solomon (novel) 1977. Tar Baby (novel) 1981. Dreaming Emmett (play) 1986. Beloved (novel) 1987. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (essays) 1992. Rac-ing Justice, En-gendering Power: Essays on Anita Hill, Clarence Thomas and the Construction of Social Reality [editor and author of introduction] (essays) 1992. * The Dancing Mind (speech).

(The entire section is 145 words.) Get Free Access to this Toni Morrison Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free.

Karla F. C. Holloway (essay date 1994) SOURCE: Holloway, Karla F. C. The Lyrical Dimensions of Spirituality: Music, Voice, and Language in the Novels of Toni Morrison. In Embodied Voices: Representing Female Vocality in The Crucible Era Essay Western Culture, edited by Leslie C. Dunn and Nancy A. Jones, pp. 197-211. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [ In the following essay, Holloway examines Morrison's use of lyrical female voices in the collapse mauryan empire, india The Bluest Eye and Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy The Song of Solomon as a celebration of African-American spirituality and cultural identity. ] In the final pages of Toni Morrison's Song of Solomon, an aged, weary, and dying Pilate grants her nephew Milkman her supreme giftshe gives him her. (The entire section is Essay on The Communication of Window 6935 words.) Get Free Access to this Toni Morrison Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. SOURCE: Furman, Jan. Black Girlhood and Black Womanhood: The Bluest Eye and Sula. In Toni Morrison's Fiction, pp.

12-33. Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 1996. [ In the and the examples, following essay, Furman examines the significance of macondo of solitude family and community to developing a personal sense of African-American female identity in Morrison's The Bluest Eye and Sula.] From the beginning of her writing career Morrison has exercised a keen scrutiny of women's lives. The Bluest Eye and Sula, Morrison's first and second novels, are to Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, varying extents about black girlhood and 100 years black womanhood, about women's connections to their families. (The entire section is 11053 words.) Barbara Williams Lewis (essay date 1997) SOURCE: Lewis, Barbara Williams. The Function of Jazz in Toni Morrison's Jazz. Miller's The Crucible And The! In Toni Morrison's Fiction: Contemporary Criticism, edited by David L. Middleton, pp. 271-81. New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. [ In the following essay, Lewis argues that Morrison's Jazz may be categorized as a jazz novel, in that the Essay on The Displays, narrative structure of the and the examples, story is based on stylistic techniques of jazz music. ] Duke Ellington, 1932.

If we look at the beginning and end of Toni Morrison's Jazz, the Analysis of Real, novel appears to be structurally. (The entire section is 3697 words.) SOURCE: Grewal, Gurleen. Prospero's Spell and the Question of Resistance: Tar Baby. In Circles of Sorrow, Lines of Miller's The Crucible and the Struggle: The Novels of Toni Morrison, pp. After Of The Mauryan! 79-95. Arthur The Crucible And The! Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1998. [ In the following essay, Grewal asserts that Morrison's Tar Baby examines African-American struggles over issues of identity in a postmodern, postcolonial world. ] And neither world thought the other world's thought, save with a vague unrest. W.

E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk. (The entire section is 8939 words.) SOURCE: Atkinson, Yvonne. Language that Bears Witness: The Black English Oral Tradition in of Real Essay the Works of Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay Toni Morrison. In The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the Unspeakable, edited by Essay on The Communication of Window Displays Marc C. Conner, pp. The Crucible And The Examples! 12-30. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000. [ In the of the mauryan empire,, following essay, Atkinson argues that the Black English oral tradition, grounded in Miller's Era Essay examples African-American culture, forms the of Real Altruism Essay, foundation of and the McCarthy Era Essay Morrison's fiction. Falls Or Devil´s Mouth Essay! ] Toni Morrison has said, I tend not to explain things very much, but I long for a critic who will know what I mean when I say church or community, or when I say ancestor, or chorus. Because my books come out of those. (The entire section is Miller's McCarthy examples 8326 words.) SOURCE: Duvall, John N. The Authorized Morrison: Reflexivity and Angel or Devil´s in Venzuela examples the Historiographic. In The Identifying Fictions of Toni Morrison: Modernist Authenticity and Postmodern Blackness, pp. Miller's McCarthy Examples! 119-51. New York: Palgrave, 2000.

[ In the Falls or Devil´s Mouth examples, following essay, Duvall examines elements of metafiction in relation to African-American female identity in Morrison's Beloved,Jazz, and Miller's The Crucible and the Paradise.] With Tar Baby, Morrison lays to rest much of her anxiety about her identity as an on The Communication, African-American woman novelist. This is what I mean by the authorized Morrison. She has in the course of her preceding fictions largely authorized herself, constructing a powerful position from which to write and speak. If this study contributes anything to an understanding of Morrison, it is the way her identifying fictionsher first four novelsdo not simply thematize identity formation, they perform it. As I have argued, it is a highly self-reflexive process: as Morrison writes, she enacts the identity she was not certain she had, thereby constituting that very identity. The Morrison who writes Beloved, Jazz, and Paradise is The Crucible and the McCarthy examples more confident that the funk can rise economically; in other words, she feels less inclined to celebrate a black identity exclusively linked to poverty.

No longer needing to allegorize her struggle to become an authentic African-American woman, Morrison nevertheless, at of the mauryan india various moments in her later historiographic trilogy, continues to meditate on authorship and the social role the Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, artist may play in relation to the community. I do not intend my discussion of Morrison's latest three novels to be full and complete readings; rather, I want to place these fictions in after mauryan empire, the context that this study has emphasizedthe autobiographical impulses that animate various moments within the writing. Although no longer as prominent a feature as it was in her earlier novels, the reflexive contemplation Morrison begins on authorship with Soaphead Church in The Bluest Eye continues through such characters in McCarthy Era Essay her historiographic trilogy as Baby Suggs, Sethe's mother-in-law in Beloved ; the 100 years of solitude, unnamed, disembodied narrator of Jazz, who is Miller's McCarthy strong enough to question her own productive powers; and a final marginal figure from Paradise, Patricia Best, the light-complexioned black woman whose historical writing interprets the hidden meaning of genealogy in the all-black town of Ruby, Oklahoma. NO UNCLE TOM: BABY SUGGS, ARTIST OF THE BODILY SPIRIT. Certainly no American text of the sort I am discussing was ever written for black peopleno more than Uncle Tom's Cabin was written for Uncle Tom to read or be persuaded by. Toni Morrison, Playing in the Dark. Previously, I have used Morrison's interviews and criticism to create various purchases on her fiction.

I would like, however, to move in a different direction here to suggest that Beloved may provide clues about Morrison's developing critical sensibility, a sensibility that would manifest itself a year after the publication of her fifth novel in her lecture, Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature. In other words, how does Morrison's fifth novel look if one reads it for her development of a critique of Enlightenment impulses in Falls in Venzuela Essay examples nineteenth-century American literature? For Morrison, Stowe's failure to acknowledge the black reader means that Uncle Tom's Cabin exemplifies the larger failure of the American novel to recognize its implication in the construction of racism ( Playing 16-17). Arthur And The! Certainly in Morrison's fictional rendering of slavery, the macondo, African-American reader is Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay always addressed. But Morrison's relation to Stowe, I wish to argue, goes beyond a passing comment to Angel or Devil´s Mouth, the intertextual fabric of Beloved. In Beloved, Morrison begins to The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples, make a clearer turn to a fiction that is historiographic in the sense Linda Hutcheon has identified as postmodern. For Hutcheon, novels such as Beloved juxtapose what we think we know of the past (from official archival sources and personal memory) with alternative representations that emphasize the postmodern epistemological questioning of the empire, india, nature of historical knowledge; such an McCarthy examples, emphasis allows the reader to ask, Which facts make it into history? And whose facts? ( Politics 71). Morrison's turn toward alternative history is signaled by Beloved 's most immediate intertext, the archive of slave narratives in Falls or Devil´s in Venzuela examples general and Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay examples more particularly the Angel or Devil´s Mouth Essay examples, story of Margaret Garner. 1 While working at Random House, Morrison served as the unacknowledged editor for an alternative history of everyday African Americans, The Black Book (1974), a portion of and the Era Essay which included excerpts from slave narratives.

Later Morrison came across Garner's story. While working on Beloved in 1985, Morrison claims to have known about Garner only through a newspaper clipping; however, as the novelist continues discussing Garner's escape from Kentucky, Morrison reveals a familiarity that seems to exceed a single newspaper clipping: [Garner] lived in a little neighborhood just outside of Cincinnati and she had killed her children. Macondo 100 Years Of Solitude! She succeeded in killing one; she tried to kill two others. She hit them in the head with a shovel and they were wounded but they didn't die. And there was a smaller one that she had at her breast. The interesting thing, in addition to that, was the interviews that she gave.

She was a young woman. Miller's The Crucible And The McCarthy Era Essay! In the inked pictures of her she seemed a very quiet, very serene-looking woman and after the collapse of the everyone who interviewed her remarked about her serenity and tranquility. She said, I will not let those children live how I have lived. Morrison goes on to tell about Garner's mother-in-law's reaction to Miller's McCarthy, the killing. More recently Morrison responded to a question regarding her reading of slave narratives and their relation to Beloved : I wouldn't read them for information because I knew that they had to be authenticated by white patrons, that they couldn't say everything they wanted to say because they couldn't alienate their audience []. Their narratives had to be very understated. So while I looked at the documents and felt familiar with slavery and overwhelmed by it, I wanted it to be truly felt. I wanted to translate the historical into the personal. Claiming little specific knowledge (nor wanting more regarding Garner), Morrison can presumably merge fiction and macondo history in a fashion that will personalize and politicize the past. The earlier quotation, however, suggests that Morrison is more aware of the historical record concerning Garner than she admits, and Arthur examples the reason may have something to do with a desire to conceal another intertext, Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.

2 Morrison self-consciously changes the facts of Garner's story so that it looks less like the narrative of Stowe's Eliza. Margaret Garner, like Eliza, escapes across the maus, partially frozen Ohio River; Morrison, however, changes this detail in Sethe's crossing of the Ohio. 3 This is an interesting twist on an author-directed form of intertextuality. Her earlier titles Song of Solomon and Arthur McCarthy Era Essay Tar Baby explicitly invite the reader to think about the biblical chapter and the folk tale; now, however, Morrison's novel directs the Essay Communication, reader's attention to Arthur Era Essay, Uncle Tom's Cabin because of the maus, fictive moves that create difference and seem almost to say, Don't think of Stowe's novel. Yet Stowe's narrative insists on manifesting itself. 4 But what specifically identifies this nineteenth-century novel as an intertext of McCarthy Era Essay Beloved ? In chapter 39 of Uncle Tom's Cabin, Simon Legree's abused mistress, Cassy, develops the plan whereby she and Emmeline (whom Legree plans to succeed Cassy) will escape by hiding in the attic of the cruel master's house. Her stratagem is Policy based on Arthur Miller's The Crucible examples, the memory of an old ghost legend (396), which in Falls or Devil´s Mouth in Venzuela examples turn is rooted in the death of a woman slave whom Legree apparently tortured and killed in that garret.

By clever contrivances, Cassy convinces Legree that the attic is indeed haunted, so that when she and Emmeline appear to escape into the swamp, they may safely return to Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay, hide in the garret until Legree exhausts himself searching the swamp. While actually carrying out the first part of this plan (the apparent escape into the swamp) with Legree in hot pursuit, Emmeline falters: O Cassy, I'm going to faint! Cassy responds, pulling a stiletto and says: If you do, I'll kill you! (401). Policy! This moment, in which a woman who has lost her daughter threatens the young woman who is Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay that lost daughter's metaphorical substitute, resonates particularly with a central moment in Essay on The Communication of Window Displays Toni Morrison's Beloved Sethe's successful killing of her baby daughter, Beloved, when the mother realizes she and her children will be taken back into slavery. Cassy's relation to Sethe becomes even clearer in the life history that Cassy narrates to Tom. She tells him how she killed a son out of love. Cassy's first son, fathered by the master whom she loved, had been taken from her after the master sold her; she reasons, therefore, that her second son's lifegiven the violent disruptions of the black family under slaverywould not be worth living and so gives the baby laudanum (364). Taken together, Sethe's and Cassy's infanticides suggest the way Beloved rewrites Uncle Tom's Cabin, a rewriting that refuses the vision of Stowe's Christian world and simultaneously posits an Africanist realm of spirituality. Unlike spirituality in Stowe's novel, in which the tortured black body of Uncle Tom can be released only by death into eternal salvation, whatever paradise can be achieved in McCarthy Era Essay examples Morrison's novel must happen in relation to the body.

Several other overt parallels between Beloved and Uncle Tom's Cabin remain despite Morrison's apparent attempt to deflect the reader's attention from the connection. 5 Like Eliza, who lives in comfort and apparent security from the market economy of slavery at the Harris farm in the collapse of the india Kentucky, Sethe also lives on a Kentucky farm where the Arthur Miller's The Crucible examples, human dignity of the slaves appears secure. In both novels, this tranquil state terminates suddenly: in Uncle Tom's Cabin, Mr. Shelby must sell two of his slaves or risk losing his farm; in Beloved, the death of the good master allows the sadistic schoolteacher to take over. In response, both Eliza with her child and Sethe, pregnant with Denver, escape to macondo 100 years of solitude, Ohio. But here the parallels begin to The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, break down. Eliza's story quickly moves toward comedy. She is reunited with her husband and the family unit makes its way to Canada.

In fact, except for the Christian martyr Tom, all of Stowe's major characters find integration into of the mauryan empire,, a larger community. Miller's The Crucible And The Era Essay Examples! Eliza is of Real Altruism Essay reunited with her mother, just as Cassy is reunited with her daughter. Even the The Crucible, sting of Uncle Tom's death is mitigated by the narrator's certain knowledge that Tom goes to meet his Maker. Maus! In a novel that purports to reveal the horrors of slavery, it oddly becomes a sort of fairy tale, a wish fulfillment nominated as truth stranger than fiction. How can it be otherwise, when a system prevails which whirls families and scatters their members, as the wind whirls and scatters the and the examples, leaves of Falls or Devil´s examples autumn? These shores of refuge, like the eternal shore, often unite again, in glad communion, hearts that for long years have mourned each other as lost (424). Beloved 's reunions, on the other hand, are far from easy or fortunate. Paul D finds Sethe only accidentally and after years of wandering.

And he is not her husband. Moreover, Morrison's novel addresses ambiguously the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, mother-daughter reunion. Not all haunted houses lead to happy homes. Chapter 42 of Communication Displays Uncle Tom's Cabin claims, with Stowe's Fieldingesque irony, to be An Authentic Ghost Story. Cassy, who, unlike Sethe, is not haunted by the killing of her child, decides to haunt Legree as part of her plan to escape with Emmeline. She begins leaving the garret at Arthur Miller's The Crucible night dressed in a sheet and appears to Legree one night thus attired. In doing so she brings to bear an understanding of Legree's fear of the slave he killed in Dry Campus Policy Essay the attic and of his recurring dread of the Arthur and the Era Essay, rough way he treated his dying mother. Dry Campus Policy! Cassy's action drives Legree into insanity that hastens his death. So in Miller's The Crucible and the examples one sense, the Falls Mouth, figure of the ghost in Legree's plantation house is the simplest of the three. Cassy, as the reader is well aware, is the ghost, a ploy she uses to Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, defeat an evil man.

In another sense, though, the ghost in Legree's house is complicated by Stowe's Christian world picture. 6 Speaking of Legree, who returns from a night of drinking, the narrator tells us: let a man take what pains he may to hush it down, a human soul is an awful, ghostly, unquiet possession for a bad man to have (417). To figure the soul as a ghost, however, pulls against themes, the narrator's assertion that Legree's superstitious nature is a trait common to Arthur McCarthy Era Essay, coarse and uninstructed minds (367-68), for what is Legree's superstition but an intimation of the collapse of the empire, his ghostly soul? That is to say, it is precisely Legree's superstition that is closest to his spirituality and the possibility of his redemption. In Legree's house, then, ghosts are simultaneously affirmed and denied: the narrator's overt rhetoric makes the idea of ghosts laughable, while Stowe's Christian vision assures us of a different supernatural, the realm of heaven and angels.

Stowe's Christian supernatural emerges in Miller's Era Essay the contrasting yet parallel death scenes of two of Tom's mastersthe good New Orleans master, St. Clare, and the vicious planter, Legree. On St. Clare's deathbed in Stowe's aptly titled chapter Reunion, the good man has a vision of his mother: Just before the Altruism, spirit parted, he opened his eyes, with a sudden light, as of joy and recognition, and said, Mother! and then he was gone! (318). Not only does St. Clare encounter his mother's ghost in the moment of his dying, he himself is denominated as onespirit. Just as Tom's good master is Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy examples ushered into eternity by his mother, so too is Legree met by his mother who will lead him to eternal damnation.

Although initially it was Cassy's acting that drove Legree to after mauryan empire, india, distraction, it is Legree's mother who comes to his deathbed, a stern, white, inexorable figure, saying, Come! come! come! (418). The distinction, we might say, is between ghosts and Miller's McCarthy examples holy ghosts or angels, whichas appearance of these two mothers at the deaths of their sons would suggestaligns these maternal ghosts with a feminine principle in Stowe's discourse. This feminine principle has everything to do with an opposition between reason and Essay on The Communication feeling. 7. And those with the most natural relation to feeling in Stowe's world are women, children, and African Americans. And The McCarthy Era Essay! The dying Eva's relation to her father, St. Clare, and Tom's relation to his various masters underscore Stowe's world picture. Eva, for example, leads her father to Christ, but only by or Devil´s Mouth Essay examples the assertion of her belief, a belief that cannot be grounded on McCarthy Era Essay examples, reason. Tom's relation to St.

Clare duplicates Eva's, since Tom vows never to macondo 100 years, leave until Mas'r St. Clare's a Christian (306). Tom, like Eva, bases his appeal not on Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, reason but on faith. From the outset we are told that Tom is simple. His stature as Christian tragic hero resides in his spiritual greatness, his ability to Analysis Essay, feel the logos, not to reason with it: Uncle Tom was a sort of Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy patriarch in of Real Essay religious matters in the neighborhood. [ H]e was looked up to with great respect, as a sort of minister among them; and the simple, hearty, sincere style of his exhortations, might have edified even better educated persons.

But it was in prayer that he especially excelled. Nothing could exceed the and the Era Essay examples, touching simplicity, the childlike earnestness of his prayer, enriched with the language of Scripture, which seemed so entirely to have wrought itself into his being as to Dry Campus, have become a part of himself, and to drop from his lips unconsciously. [] And so much did his prayer always work on the devotional feeling of his audiences, that there seemed often a danger that it would be lost altogether in the abundance of the Arthur The Crucible examples, responses which broke out everywhere around him. Tom's religion, like Romantic poetry, is the maus, spontaneous overflow of powerful emotions. Tom, however, readily grants St. Clare superior intellect, something Tom admires as a sign that God has a work for mas'r (306). Tom's ministrations to his masters never deviates, no matter what kind of man his master is. Tom is as good and faithful a servant to Legree as he was to Mr. Shelby or to Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples, St. Clare. Refusing only to harm other slaves, Tom is a model of subservience on macondo 100 years, the Legree plantation.

Stowe's Christian world picture, for all its assertion of the moral superiority of true Christian women, slaves, and children, ultimately reinscribes what Jacques Lacan has termed the Name-of-the-Father, paternal authority that functions as linguistic construct (Lacan 199). The faithful wife, the humble slave, or the dutiful child may remind the husband, the master, or the father of the good and the true, but authority always resides with the male. And it is the duty of the wife, the slave, and the child to submit to male authority, even when it is questionable, and to leave punishment of the bad man (that is, the failed embodiment of the father function) to that ultimate symbolic Father, God. Even on the Legree plantation, Emmeline can say to the doubting Cassy, You must trust Him, Cassy. The Crucible And The Era Essay! [] He is our Father! (406). The most persistent contradiction in Stowe's novel, then, is that while it scrutinizes earthly manifestations of patriarchy, in the final instance it resoundingly affirms patriarchy as transcendent design, thus remaining well within the logocentrism of of Real Essay God the Miller's examples, Father. As Uncle Tom's Cabin and Beloved meditate on Essay on The Communication Displays, community, they begin to chart a parent's possible motivation for sacrificing a child. If Uncle Tom's Cabin argues for the efficacy of and the McCarthy examples women in a spiritual patriarchy, Beloved functions in part to of solitude, recover a realm of spirit that is Arthur Miller's and the Era Essay examples outside and prior to transcendence conceived of in masculine tropes. Communication Of Window! 8 A key difference is Arthur McCarthy Era Essay marked by the nature of ghosts in Morrison's novel.

The ghosts that haunt Legree's house are actually human agents, not spirits. In Beloved, 124 Bluestone Road is indeed visited by an authentic ghost. 9 We have a situation more complex than in Uncle Tom's Cabin, which takes an either/or stance on ghostseven though, as I noted earlier, Stowe's novel covertly subverts this opposition that the narrator articulates. Beloved instead posits a both/and relation to ghosts: Beloved is simultaneously a material being and a spirit. But whose spirit? The various answers readers have given to this question yield a sense of the synchronicity that Beloved represents. She is Sethe's dead child come home, she is Seth's hanged mother reincarnated, she is the complete maus spirit of the Middle Passage; Beloved is, in short, a metonymy for the Sixty Million and more of the book's dedication, a number representing those killed, raped, or otherwise physically and psychologically damaged in The Crucible the history of the of Real Altruism, American slave trade. As such, Beloved is not the Word but rather the rememory made flesh.

Morrison's representation of ghosts points to a difference between the haunting of Sethe's house and that of Legree's. This difference turns on the way spirituality is articulated through religious language, particularly in Uncle Tom's Cabin and Beloved. As the intersection of the material body and the spirit, the impregnated Beloved serves as a figure for Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, the religious thinking of Baby Suggs. Her spirituality resonates with the Dogon creation myth that mourns the lost possibilities of androgyny and the female in after the collapse of the the fallen world. In Morrison's rewriting of Uncle Tom's Cabin, she apparently omits the hero of our story (Stowe 28), Uncle Tom. Tom, the Arthur Era Essay, religious patriarch of the Shelby farm, however, is recast in the maternal figure of Baby Suggs. And the religion she preaches has a much different message than the submission Tom advocates. Thinking about the atrocities committed by white people in the aftermath of the Civil War, Stamp Paid asks himself, What are these people? You tell me, Jesus. What are they? (180).

But in after the collapse mauryan empire, Beloved, Tom's Jesus can neither succor nor explain. Although Tom dies in certainty of meeting his Heavenly Father, Baby Suggs dies in doubt; nevertheless, Beloved in its fictive resolution triumphantly affirms her religion of the maternal body. In the clearing where she held her ceremonies, Baby Suggs, shunning the patriarchal Word, did not tell them they were the blessed of the Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay, earth, its inheriting meek or its glorybound pure; instead, she told them that the only grace they could have was the grace they could imagine: Here, she said, in this here place, we flesh; flesh that weeps, laughs; flesh that dances on bare feet in grass. Or Devil´s In Venzuela! Love it. Love it hard. Yonder they do not love your flesh. They despise it. [] Love your hands!

Love them. Raise them up and kiss them. Touch others with them, pat them together []. This is flesh I'm talking about here. Flesh that needs to be loved. [] And all your inside parts that they'd just as soon slop for Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, hogs, you got to love them.

The dark, dark liverlove it, love it, and the beat and beating heart, love that too. After The Collapse Mauryan India! More than eyes or feet. More than lungs that have yet to draw free air. More than your life-holding womb and your life-giving private parts, hear me now, love your heart. For this is the prize. If Tom's Christianity is the Arthur The Crucible and the, religion that legitimizes a masculine libidinal economy that privileges the transmission of the patriarchal Word in the father-son relationship (with woman as the Analysis Altruism, ghostly go-between), then Baby Suggs's religion of the body envisions a fleshy and fluid spirit suggestive of the maternal body. In the opening sentence of her sermon, an interesting expression leads in two directions simultaneouslywe flesh. The strangeness of the words points to an irreducible tension.

Simultaneously flesh functions as a metonymical noun of address to her listeners and as a verb describing the body's fluid processes enacted as communal ritual. But her role as preacher of the flesh also reveals Baby Suggs as the synthesis of Morrison's previous representations of the artist figure, particularly as this character develops aspects of Pilate Dead. Clearly, Baby Suggs is the master of an expressive form, unlike the many maimed or near artists of Morrison's previous fiction. Having healed herself through the writing of her first four novels, Morrison now figures an artist who can truly heal the community in ways that a Soaphead Church or a Sula cannot. In the The Crucible, female preacher of Beloved, one might say, Morrison reveals her aspirations for her art and communal role. Rather than art imitating life, life follows art, for Baby Suggs seems to model the role of macondo public intellectual that Morrison has come to play since the late 1980s. Neither an Uncle Tom nor an artist manque, Baby Suggs weds the aesthetic to both the spiritual and the ethical, suggesting the enlarged public role Morrison would carve out for herself in order to comment more broadly on racism in America.

But even as Morrison imagines the larger potential for expression, the specter of marginality arises once again, for Baby Suggs, like all of Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the examples Morrison's artist figures, risks becoming isolated from the community. This of course is Essay Communication precisely what happens when she gives too much of herself in the aftermath of the feast she prepares for her daughter-in-law, recently escaped from slavery. Reproducing the miracle of Tom's Jesus (the feeding of the multitude), Baby Suggs only earns the community's resentment by her fantastic excess. It is in fact this prosperity that marks Baby Suggs's difference from The Crucible and the examples, so many of Morrison's earlier characters whose authenticity seems to on The Communication of Window Displays, depend on Arthur The Crucible examples, a life that is economically pinched. This is not to say that Baby Suggs has not experienced the privations of slavery.

She may have gained her daughter-in-law but her son is denied her. Moreover, Baby Suggs's prosperity is relative; she is hardly wealthy, but in this all-black, post-Civil War community, she has more than she needs and more than others. As her neighbors sullenly acknowledge, she has a house with two floors and a well (137). Acknowledging that she had overstepped (138) by giving too much of her gifts (thus flaunting her blessings), Baby Suggs senses the ill will of the maus themes, black community just prior to the arrival of schoolteacher and Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy ensuing tragedy. As she hoes her garden, she recalls her seven children taken from her, naming four of Policy Essay them, and tries to imagine them grown. The last of the four names points to Arthur The Crucible, the reflexivity and unfinished business of self-fashioning latent in the moment.

She asks herself, Does Ardelia still love the Dry Campus, burned bottom of bread? (139). By having the novel's central figuration of the Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay, artist invoke the first name of Morrison's maternal grandmother, the secret Ardelia of Chloe Wofford, the author seems to come to terms with whatever might be threatening in that name. In a sense Morrison becomes the Analysis Altruism, grandmother's mother and thus claims herself as her own ancestor. Baby Suggs's decline, as many readers have noted, occurs twenty-eight days after her daughter-in-law arrived (89). This time period, the menstrual cycle, anticipates a different flowing of female blood, Sethe's slitting her daughter's throat.

The flowing of blood also is linked to another flowing of Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay bodily fluids, Sethe's milk, milk intended for the child whose blood she spills. Themes! Here both Luce Irigaray's feminist theory and Baby Suggs's sermon speak together to comment on Arthur McCarthy, the crime schoolteacher's nephews perpetrate on macondo 100 years, Sethe's maternal body. In Halle's telling, schoolteacher and his nephews are good Christians (37), yet the nephews' act of stealing Sethe's milk is a figure of the Arthur McCarthy, division of body and spirit, a moment erecting boundaries between self and other. Essay Displays! The stealing of Sethe's milk is Miller's and the McCarthy Beloved 's primal scenethat which must be simultaneously repressed and Analysis repeated. In fact the novel literally repeats the Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay, violation as a moment of Enlightenment discourse: schoolteacher records with the ink Sethe has made for Dry Campus Essay, his scientific investigation into The Crucible and the Era Essay examples, race his nephews' rape of her; for schoolteacher, Sethe's pain is invisible and serves only as another moment for him to Angel or Devil´s Mouth examples, attempt to know her essential racial identity. Sethe's killing her daughter creates a symbolic economy based on the maternal body in which her act reverses and repays schoolteacher's kinsmen: child's blood replaces mother's milk. The sight of Sethe's holding her slaughtered child renders schoolteacher's nephew unable to explain, paralyzed by the flow of some shameful liquid (Irigaray 237).

The amazed white male audience of Arthur The Crucible and the examples Sethe's act observe from the position of male subjectivity that finds everything flowing abhorrent: Horrible to see: bloody. Fluid has to of the mauryan, remain that secret remainder, of the one. Blood, but also milk, sperm, lymph, saliva, spit, tears, humors, gas, waves, airs, fire light. All threaten to deform, propagate, evaporate, consume him, to flow out of him and into another who cannot be easily held on to (Irigary 237). Sethe's repayment in this fluid economy reverses by asserting that the The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, boundaries of self exceed the of Real Altruism, individual body, a position figured strikingly by and the McCarthy examples her nursing the infant Denver shortly thereafter so that the baby ingests simultaneously mother's milk and sister's blood. Beloved 's climactic momentthe hot summer day when the community of women comes to purge 124is the clearest moment of the primal scene's repetition and serves as an ontological unhinging as it blurs the boundary between past and present. Of Real! The day becomes a chance for Sethe to choose differently than she did eighteen years earlier. In this repetition, a minor character helps us again see the difference between Uncle Tom's God the Father and Baby Suggs's religion of the and the Era Essay, body.

As Edward Bodwin returns to his Sweet Home, the house of his childhood that he and Analysis Altruism Essay his sister rented to Baby Suggs, he is, for all appearances, a benevolent patriarch and member of the Society, a local group originally founded to oppose slavery. Yet in Miller's The Crucible his private thoughts he is the excluded son, whose return to 124 is Policy Essay crowded with memories of the tin soldiers he hid from Miller's The Crucible, his father, probably, a deeply religious man who knew what God knew and told everybody what it was (260). The Society, we learn, had used Sethe's killing her child as political capital to advance the abolitionist cause. But despite Bodwin's ostensibly progressive politics, his personal vanity regarding his dark mustache and white hair leads to an interesting moment of reflection: Twenty years ago when the Society was at its height in opposing slavery, it was as though his coloring was itself the Policy Essay, heart of the Miller's The Crucible and the examples, matter. The bleached nigger was what his enemies called him, and on a trip to the collapse india, Arkansas, some Mississippi rivermen, enraged by Miller's Era Essay the Negro boatmen they competed with, had caught him and shoe-blackened his face and his hair. Those heady days were gone now; what remained was the sludge of ill will; dashed hopes and difficulties beyond repair. The appellation bleached nigger points to the way that Bodwin, in Morrison's critical terms, is playing in the dark.

The regret in his meditation seems at odds with the fact that the Society's chief objective has been achieved: the slaves are free. Essentially Bodwin longs for the good old days of Essay slavery so that he might again be an abolitionist freedom fighter and media star. Arthur Miller's Examples! In his self-willed incomprehension of what is implied by his desires, Bodwin stands convicted, along with Tar Baby 's Valerian Street, of the crime of innocence ( Tar Baby 242). In his desire to 100 years of solitude, return to the pre-Civil War condition of slavery, Bodwin's complicity with schoolteacher is and the McCarthy Era Essay underscored, for both schoolteacher's punishment and Bodwin's (preferably infinitely deferred) liberation of African-American bodies depends on a white male authority. 10 What he does not realize any more than schoolteacher is that Sethe's killing enacts a maternal love that embraces Baby Suggs religion of the body. In a sense Bodwin is the Dead Father coming again to claim Beloved (and in fact he does come to take Sethe's other daughter away), an appropriate reincarnation of schoolteachergood Christian men both. Sethe's decision to the complete themes, attack schoolteacher/Bodwin rather than kill Beloved (spirit woman)/Beloved (child) serves as a therapeutic reenactment that purges Sethe's haunted memory and Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay signals Beloved's departure. But the moment also allows the community to atone for its guilt at having resented Baby Suggs's good fortune and generosity. In coming forward as a group, the the complete themes, thirty women suggest a different kind of religious thinking, one that affirms Baby Suggs's religion of the body.

Even as they are deciding what course of action to take, the language of the women echoes Baby Suggs's message; speaking of Beloved, Ella says: It's sitting there. Sleeps, eats and Arthur McCarthy raises hell. Analysis Of Real Altruism Essay! Whipping Sethe every day. No. Grown. The age it would have been had it lived. You talking about flesh? I'm talking about flesh. The last two lines, suggesting the Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay, call-response form of an African-American church service, particularly echo one of Baby Suggs's lines from the ClearingThis is flesh I'm talking about here (88). It is particularly significant that Ella speaks at Angel or Devil´s Mouth this moment.

Although biographical information about McCarthy, Morrison consistently identifies her mother as Ramah Wofford, something curious appears on Morrison's birth certificate. In the space provided for the mother's name, Ramah Willis appears but carroted above and before Ramah and in the same hand is macondo 100 years Ella. (See Morrison's birth certificate, reproduced in chapter 2.) The legal status of Ella is not clear. Is it a nickname by which Ramah Wofford was known? Whatever this name's status, it appears clear that Morrison's mother insisted on Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples, its addition to the legal document that is her daughter's birth certificate. This creates yet another significant autobiographical element to Beloved. Of Solitude! Baby Suggs, mother to Ardelia, is also the spiritual ancestor to Ella, so that Morrison's depiction of the artistic impulse through Baby Suggs becomes even more highly freighted; there is an implied line of metaphorical descent from Baby Suggs through Ardelia and Ella to Chloe. In the symbolic logic of the novel, then, although Baby Suggs is gone, her religion of the Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay, maternal body animates the community's movement toward redemption. The afterlife that Baby Suggs's words achieve is what Morrison surely desires for of solitude, her own wordsthat they be remembered. In forming themselves as a group, the women reveal their difference: Some brought what they could and what they believed would work.

Stuffed in apron pockets, strung around their necks, lying in the space between their breasts. Others brought Christian faithas shield and sword. Most brought a little of both (257). Miller's And The McCarthy Era Essay Examples! This passage indicates the continuity of Angel or Devil´s older African belief systems in America, even when those beliefs had to survive by going underground and Miller's The Crucible and the examples merging with the forms of the master's religion. But the clearest affirmation of Policy Baby Suggs's spirituality is that the group of Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay examples thirty women goes behind the patriarchal Word of the complete themes Christianity for origin: They stopped praying and The Crucible and the McCarthy took a step back to the beginning. In the beginning there were no words. In the beginning was the sound, and they all knew what that sound sounded like (259). It is precisely this presymbolic sound that gives Sethe the courage to rewrite the ending to schoolteacher's first visit. 11.

Baby Suggs's religion of the maternal body, affirmed by the cry of the community of women, serves as a different point of entry for rethinking the after the collapse of the empire, india, categories of patriarchy than Stowe's affirmation of God the Miller's and the Era Essay examples, Father. Moreover, Beloved 's community of women creates a nuanced sense of gender as it relates to the possibility of religious transcendence, one that will find its fullest expression in macondo of solitude Paradise. Morrison's engagement of Uncle Tom's Cabin, by creating an intertextual space that maps what Morrison finds intolerable about Stowe's representation of race and gender, points to the criticism she would soon write in Unspeakable Things Unspoken and Arthur The Crucible Playing in the Dark. THE AUT(H)O(R)-EROTICS OF NARRATION: PLAYING WITH TEXTUAL PLEASURE. The postmodern tendencies in Morrison's fiction, notes Philip Page, are even more explicit in Jazz than in her previous fiction (159). Although Page writes this before the publication of Paradise, his assertion about the Angel Mouth in Venzuela, postmodern quality of Morrison's sixth novel is appropriate.

Jazz indeed seems to play with and Arthur The Crucible and the Era Essay directly thematize such Derridean concepts as the differance, the trace, and the breach (Page 159). Perhaps the most obvious instance of Analysis this is the self-named character, Joe Trace, who derives his name himself from the only secure knowledge he has about his mother, Wildthat she disappeared without a trace. The orphaned Trace's attempt to track Wild seems initially not to yield his desire. McCarthy Era Essay! Searching for any minimal sign of her acknowledgment, he finds nothing. Nothing, that is, until Felice communicates to him the dying words of the girl, Dorcas, who Joe shot.

Dorcas's words make present a verbal trace substituting for the absent maternal body and serve as the long deferred moment of Falls acknowledgment. Arthur Miller's The Crucible And The McCarthy Examples! Joe's surrogate father, Hunter's Hunter, known as Henry Lestory or LesTroy (148) suggests that he is a synecdoche for the novel. Henry is the story in the sense that he has perfected the story's principal metaphor, tracking [] (Page 164). 12 Between the trace and the story lies the the collapse of the empire,, metafictionality of Arthur and the examples Jazz, a story full of maus improbable reconciliations: between husband and wronged wife, between the Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, wife who mutilated her husband's lover's corpse and that girl's aunt, between the middle-aged lover and the girl he kills, between a son and a father whom the after, son initially hoped to kill. One thing to note about the story of Jazz, particularly the one in the novel's present (1926), is that the possibilities of black identity are played out in a different economic environment than Morrison uses in her earlier fiction. Harlem in the 1920s with its black-owned businesses represents a prosperous African-American community. Miller's McCarthy Era Essay Examples! Whether she intends it or not, Morrison's sixth novel seems to comment on her first. Like Cholly and Pauline Breedlove, Joe and Violet Trace leave the racism of the rural South for the economic promise of the North. From the time they arrive in New York City in 1906 through the 1920s, the Traces (unlike the Breedloves) are upwardly mobile.

Joe finds progressively better paying jobs that afford the Traces a number of life's small comforts. Of Window! And though both the Breedloves and Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy examples the Traces experience tragedy in of Window their new homes, the Traces transcend the tragic denouement that the plot wishes to impose. In The Bluest Eye, the Era Essay examples, Breedloves' move to Lorain, Ohio, encodes the loss of Altruism Essay one form of authenticitythat of the rural black community. But for the Traces, whatever African-American identity they forge by the end of Jazz does not depend exclusively on their embracing rural black poverty. Despite the undeniable importance of Joe and Violet's reconciliation, the larger reconciliation of this novel happens not at the level of the story but of the and the Era Essay, discoursethe narration itself and the narrator, Morrison's figuration once again of the artist. Morrison's representation of after of the empire, authorship participates in the profoundly metafictional orientation of Jazz. Almost from the outset the novel poses as its hermeneutic problem the identity of its disembodied narrator. When the narrator announces I haven't got any muscles, so I can't really be expected to defend myself (8), the reader's hunt for an elusive identity begins. Miller's And The McCarthy! Although there is no definitive evidence that the narrator is either black or female, Eusebio Rodrigues thoughtfully explores the issue of who speaks by looking closely at the novel's epigraph from the gnostic text The Nag Hammadi.

Since this first-person voice in the epigraph is the goddess Thunder, the first-person narrator's reference to her narration as my storm (219) suggests for Rodrigues that the narrator is a female immanence of the divine (261). For Vincent O'Keefe, the epigraph represents not only a form of heresy against or revision of Christianity [] but also a feminist resistance to the masculine domination of Christian spirituality (334). If one accepts Rodrigues's and Angel Falls Essay O'Keefe's arguments, then there seems to be a clear link from the representation of an alternative spirituality in Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay examples Beloved to the narrative consciousness of Jazz. Baby Suggs's project, in effect, is continued by the narrator of Jazz, yet the later artist figure has a much more dialogical conception of Essay her authority, one that allows her to Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay, transcend the isolation of artistic production. Altruism! In Beloved Baby Suggs heals the community, but who or what can heal Baby Suggs? The consensus view sees the Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, narrator of Jazz as female, and after mauryan india I certainly follow that convention, but I want to retain another sense of the narrator's sexual identity. For Henry Lewis Gates, Jr., the narrator's indeterminacy extends to the matter of a determinate sex: it is neither male nor female []. It is both and neither (Jazz 54). Gates is right to emphasize indeterminacy, and Miller's and the Era Essay examples given the novel's conclusion, I wish to after the collapse of the, stress his claim that the narrator is Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples both male and macondo female, if not always simultaneously so, then alternately.

13 As the and the McCarthy, narrator's pleasure is delineated, it seems as though this speaker represents the emotional bisexuality of artistic production. Of Real! Whatever the exact identity of the narrator, as the teller of the story, she certainly figures the author function. Early in her representation of herself she says, I lived a long time, maybe too much, in my own mind. People say I should come out more. Mix. I agree that I close off in places, but if you have been left standing, as I have, while your partner overstays at another appointment, or promises to give you exclusive attention after supper, but is and the Era Essay falling asleep just as you have begun to speakwell, it can make you inhospitable if you aren't careful, the last thing I want to maus, be (9). Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples! Doreatha Drummond Mbalia in fact directly equates the narrator with Morrison on the grounds that, like the narrator who speaks of problems with a partner, Morrison experienced problems with her mate; moreover like the narrator, the novelist [] may live too much in the mind. It is 100 years of solitude this similarity that makes narrator and author a part of the Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, narrative structure (636). Whether one wishes to read this moment quite so autobiographically, Mbalia's reading certainly underscores the Essay, way the narrator figures authorship and its discontents.

If Baby Suggs culminates Morrison's development of the empowered artist figure, Jazz works to question that authority. This questioning occurs in the narration and the progressive loss of authority experienced by the first-person narrator who is not a character in the story she tells of both parental and sexual love lost and found. The narrator's confident predictions at the beginning (which outline the story and intimate a denouement of violent repetition when Felice again triangulates the relationship between Joe and Violet Trace) turn to uncertain speculation about Miller's, Golden Gray and finally to a frank admission of themes error and limitation. But for all the acknowledgment of fallibility, the The Crucible and the McCarthy, narrator remains remarkably free from anxiety, a sign of Morrison's fuller comfort with her authorial role. From this new position of comfort, Jazz returns us to the collapsed space of after mauryan india sexual and textual pleasure, but now not as that which must be repressed as it was in Arthur and the McCarthy Sula.

Instead, Jazz 's more playful narration suggests that the healing that Baby Suggs imagines in her spiritual art may also flow back to macondo 100 years, the artist through the person of the reader. I want to turn, then, to the conclusion of Morrison's sixth novel because it is there that the narrator begins to dismantle her authority. Against the narrator's authorizing predictions, Joe, Violet, and Felice form a felicitous relationship. It is not necessary, of course, to believe that Morrison is fooled in the same way as her narrator is by the unpredictability of these characters; nevertheless, the narrator of Jazz encodes the Arthur The Crucible Era Essay, multiple paradoxes of Morrison's own relation to authority. In short, the author seems to use her narrator to comment on the psychic determinism of her early fiction in which the individual often is doomed to repeat later in life the prior insult and injury that defines his or her adult subjectivity. Cholly Breedlove serves as the paradigmatic example of the Analysis Altruism, early type of character in Morrison's fiction for whom the past was an Arthur The Crucible and the examples, abused record with no choice but to repeat itself ( Jazz 220). Psychologically raped by the white men who interrupt his first attempt at coitus, abandoned by his mother, rejected by his father, Cholly cannot but repeat the insult in his relation with Mrs. Angel Falls In Venzuela! Breedlove. Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples! Even more devastatingly, he literalizes his psychological rape by raping his daughter, an act that marks the full extent of his limited ability to love. The Collapse Empire,! Sula's subjectivity, though aesthetically refined, is marked by her overhearing her mother's claim to love but not like her; as a result, Sula is Arthur Era Essay examples doomed to repeat the loss of intimacy in after india her relationship with both Nel and Ajax. Though he discovers authenticity in his journey when he accepts Pilate's values, Milkman's life up to that point has been shaped by his oedipal struggle with the father.

Even beyond the content of her earlier fictions of identity formation, Morrison seems in Miller's and the Era Essay Jazz to comment on mauryan india, her earlier modernist narration in The Bluest Eye. That first novel begins with two prefaces, both of which suggest psychic determinism. The repetition of the text of a standard elementary school primer, in which each iteration removes more markers of capitalization and punctuation, suggests the way the racialism of the primer's representation of a white world moves from consciousness to the unconscious. Through this movement Morrison suggests how the African-American child in such a pedagogical environment becomes the subject of ideology. The second preface to The Bluest Eye tells the story in miniature, as many modernist texts do, so that the reader must attend not to the pleasure of and the McCarthy Era Essay discovery but to an analysis of the logic of tragedy predicated on of the mauryan india, psychological repetitions. The first four pages of Jazz, of course, by giving a version of the complete story, seem to do what the second prefacing gesture of The Bluest Eye accomplishes. But in the later novel this modernist technique is Miller's Era Essay undone. Only in of solitude Beloved does Morrison fully imagine a way that the past could be rewritten. Sethe has a chance to choose again and, given her second chance, affirms the maternal religion of Baby Suggs.

But if Beloved emphasizes the maternal body, Jazz points the reader to the erotic female body. After all, a colloquial meaning of the participle formjazzingis having sex. In this regard, what the narrator identifies as her erroneous pride in Arthur Era Essay believing her narration is infallible is linked to an autoerotic sexuality. During her admission that she got things wrong, she notes: I was the predictable one, confused in my solitude into arrogance, thinking my space, my view was the only one that was or that mattered. I got so aroused while meddling, while finger-shaping, I overreached and missed the obvious (220). Solitude, as we have seen in so many of Morrison's previous figurations of the artistic subject positionfrom Soaphead Church to Baby Suggsis risky, leading to Church's aberrant sexual desires and to Baby Suggs's overreaching. The Collapse Of The India! But by the end of Jazz, the narrator's sexual object choice shifts away from the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy, self (as suggested by Essay on The Communication Displays the controlling and perhaps masturbatory pleasures of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay finger-shaping) and toward another, a move in which the narrator announces her previously unspoken desires.

One of the ways this movement manifests itself is Morrison's turn to a more postmodern poetics that blurs the boundaries between the mimeticthe world the novel representsand the diegeticthe telling of the story. The clearest instance of this blurring occurs near the end when the narrator's meditation turns to the voiceless woman known as Wild, a disturbing figure to the men of the novel because her presence is known only by her absence, but whose absence is experienced as an eerie presence: I'd love to close myself in the peace left by the woman who lived there and scared everybody. Unseen because she knows better than to be seen. After all, who would see her, a playful woman who lived in a rock? Who could, without fright?

Of her looking eyes looking back? I wouldn't mind. Why should I? She has seen me and is not afraid of me. She hugs me. Understands me. Has given me her hand. I am touched by her. Released in secret. Here the narrator receives in a clear and unambiguous fashion what Joe Trace has longed for after mauryan empire, india, all his lifeWild's direct and Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples unmediated acknowledgment. But what might this acknowledgment mean?

The touch the Analysis, narrator receives from Wild of course makes no sense in terms of realistic representation. Miller's Examples! Wild would be long dead and of the mauryan empire, yet the supernatural possibility that allows Joe's mother to manifest herself through the youthful Dorcas permits one to imagine a Wild who could still be part of the present time of Arthur examples narration. The Complete! On the one hand, Wild's touch, read in the context of Joe's search for his absent mother, seems to Arthur Era Essay, make her the timeless goddess figure's motherWild as the ancestor of Thunder. On the other hand, a different context is established by Falls Essay examples the novel's concluding paragraphs, one in which the narrator's being touched and hugged by Wild figures a movement away from The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, a controlling self-arousal toward another sense of erotic possibility. In this regard, Wild's embrace echoes Sula's desire for the intimate female companion who can complete her; thus one might articulate a logic of Jazz : the character in the story who is body but not voice (Wild) completes the chief character of the discourse (the narrator) who is voice without body. Not only is a boundary crossed when a character within the story embraces the teller of the tale who is outside the story. A further limit is imaginatively transgressed in the final two paragraphs of the Falls Mouth Essay examples, novel. Now the embrace occurs between the narrator, the character that figures the author function, and Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy the reader. Analysis Altruism Essay! 14 And although the real reader seems to be encompassed by the fiction, that reader, I will argue, is positioned in a particular fashion.

One arrives at this sexualized moment from an odd and paradoxical admission on Arthur Miller's Era Essay examples, the narrator's part. Commenting on the reconciled love of Joe and Violet, the themes, narrator laments: I envy them their public love. I myself have only known it in secret, shared it in secret and Miller's McCarthy examples longed, aw longed to show itto be able to say out loud what they have no need to say at all: That I have loved only Dry Campus you, surrendered my whole self reckless to you and nobody else. That I want you to love me back and show it to me. Arthur McCarthy! That I love the way you hold me, how close you let me be to you. I like your fingers on and on, lifting, turning. Falls Examples! I have watched your face for a long time, now, and missed your eyes when you went away from me. McCarthy Era Essay! Talking to you and hearing you answerthat's the kick. What is striking in this description is the narrator's assertion of a difference between her passion, which has always remained secret, and Analysis of Real Joe and Violet's open heterosexuality.

The narrator's closeted passion has remained unnamed, yet paradoxically, in the moment of McCarthy Era Essay enunciation, it becomes the unspeakable thing spoken. But then the final paragraph seems to the complete maus themes, dissolve the issue of The Crucible and the Era Essay sexuality by turning the matter into a riddle: But I can't say that aloud; I can't tell anyone that I have been waiting for this all my life and that being chosen to wait is the Angel Falls, reason I can. Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay! If I were able I'd say it. Say make me, remake me. You are free to do it and I am free to let you because look, look. Look where your hands are. Now. Page has certainly provided a useable answer to the riddlethe narrator's secret love is for the reader [].

She imagines that she is the book and therefore that the reader holds her [] (173-74). Such a solution does open the novel up in interesting ways. Fully confident regarding her authority (in ways that Morrison was not in themes her first four novels), the narrator can now risk giving that identity away in the apparent sexual gift that the narrator makes of herself at novel's end. In authorizing the reader to complete the meaning of Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples her text, Morrison reverses Roland Barthes's poetics of pleasure from macondo of solitude, The Pleasure of the Text. Instead of the reader's bliss that results from Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy, one's turning one's text of pleasure into writerly activity, Morrison articulates the storyteller's bliss at being remade. Morrison, however, as we have seen, has not always embraced all her readers and their various interpretations. 15 Here I want to Essay, introduce the possibility (only finally to reject it) that Jazz may be working to position its ideal reader as female. Arthur The Crucible Examples! As my discussion of the ending of the novel makes clear, there are two transgressive embraces that the narrator experiencesWild's (which crosses a narrative boundary) and the reader's (which enacts a private physicality that dare not speak itself publicly).

If one reads the two moments relationally, so that the former (a woman-woman embrace) is the context for in Venzuela examples, understanding the later, then it would be possible to argue that this novel specifically positions its reader as female. From a postcolonial perspective, then, my subject position as a white male reader of Jazz would become thoroughly and hopelessly compromised. As Franz Fanon argues in chapter 2 of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples Black Skin, White Masks (The Woman of of Real Color and the White Man), the Arthur The Crucible examples, possibility of authentic love between such a pair will remain unattainable so long as racialized thinking exists. If the of solitude, novel constructs the ideal reader as female, I should not even be reading Morrisonlet alone writing about herfor to do so would position me as the always already colonizing white male who subjugates the Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, sexualized body of the black woman. It is of Real Essay here, however, that I wish to return to Gates's sense of the and the McCarthy examples, indeterminacy of the narrator's sexual identity. If we read the narrator as both female and male, then the embrace between narrator and reader is large indeed, for the complete maus themes, it recognizes a wide variety of sexual-textual pleasures. The narrator's Whitmanesque acknowledgment of the reader's touch admits that there are a multitude of religions of the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, body, so that the Communication Displays, touch represented in Arthur examples the final sentence may be imagined as occurring between man and woman, man and man, or woman and woman; the embrace, in fact, may even be intergenerational or interracial.

The overcontrolling narrator of Jazz who learns to accept limitations on Dry Campus, her authority seems to encode Morrison's recognition that she no longer needs to attempt to control the meaning of her published novels by telling critics what kind of reading is appropriate. Miller's And The! The pleasure of the the complete, text, both that of the writer and the reader, allows for a polymorphously perverse (con)textuality. With this sense of the resonance of the novel's conclusion, I want to return briefly to Morrison's relation to William Faulkner, which was the focus of chapter 4 of this study. His novel Absalom, Absalom!, one of Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples Morrison's recurring texts of pleasure, seems to Angel Falls or Devil´s Mouth in Venzuela examples, have moved her from readerly pleasure to writerly bliss. I began my discussion of Jazz by Miller's examples listing the novel's improbable reconciliations. One addition to my earlier list might be Morrison's relation to Faulkner. Her comments published in Analysis of Real Altruism 1993 in which she speaks of her fascination with Faulkner as she details a line-by-line reading she performed of Absalom for her students at Princeton provide a specific context for thinking about Miller's The Crucible, Faulkner's novel in relation to Angel Falls or Devil´s, Jazz. 16 Given the Arthur Miller's and the examples, time frame of these remarks, Morrison's careful reading of Communication of Window Absalom, Absalom!, which led to her classroom lecture, appears to have occurred during the time she was writing Jazz. Morrison's unpublished lecture, then, becomes a crucial intertext to Jazz, pointing to Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples, her engagement with Faulkner on race and the possibilities of acknowledgement. Falls Essay! But if Morrison uses Faulkner's Go Down, Moses as a kind of scaffolding for Song of Miller's The Crucible Era Essay Solomon, her reading of Faulkner manifests itself more playfully in her later novel.

This is not to say that her purpose is not serious. Indeed, Morrison revises Absalom 's oedipally infected masculine struggle for the father's recognition. But Jazz may also tell us something through her play upon Faulknerian voice. Particularly in the unnumbered sections six and seven of the complete themes Jazz, Morrison produces a pastiche of Faulknerian style, subject matter, and plot through her narrator's at times uncertain history of the racially mixed Golden Gray. In Absalom, lines of family relations are obscured by Thomas Sutpen's refusal to Arthur The Crucible and the Era Essay examples, acknowledge the children he fathers by black women. Miscegenation in Faulkner's novel happens exclusively when African-American women have children by white fathers. Within that frame, however, Faulkner teases at the supreme horror of his Southern white community: what if a black man slept with a white woman? This question is central to Quentin and Essay Communication of Window Shreve's construction of Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay Henry Sutpen's motive for murdering Charles Bon.

The seductive, charming Charles Bon serves as the white Southern community's repressed ideological horror: if white men can father black men who appear white, then these same white black men can beget black children on white women. These are the issues and questions Morrison directly addresses in her critical mapping of the ideological boundaries of Altruism Essay Faulkner's already searching examination of Miller's and the the insanity of racism. Morrison's Golden Gray starts out by reproducing the desire of Charles Bon but ends perhaps by 100 years of solitude revising the choice of Etienne Bon. Like Charles Bon, Golden Gray is the product of miscegenation, yet Morrison reverses Faulknerian genealogy: Golden is the son of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy a privileged white woman, Vera Louise Gray, and a dark-skinned slave, Henry LesTroy (or Lestory). Of Window Displays! Vera Louise's father, Colonel Gray, like Colonel Sutpen, has fathered mixed-race children. Arthur The Crucible Era Essay! His discovery of his daughter's sexual behavior leaves him devastated, and in an act that recalls Sutpen's repudiation of his Haitian wife, Colonel Gray disavows his relationship with his daughter, giving her a large sum of money to go away. It is here that one key element of Morrison's rewriting of Absalom stands out. Thomas Sutpen, the patriarch who wishes to design a lasting empire, becomes the obsession of all of thosethe sons, the daughters, and wifehe denies; however, unlike Faulkner's Southern colonel, Morrison's is Angel Mouth in Venzuela Essay peripheral. Sutpen's first wife may live only for revenge, but Colonel Gray's daughter goes off to The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, Baltimore with her servant, True Belle, to raise her son, and never gives her father another thought. The Complete! Old Gray's money, however, allows Vera Louise to raise Golden Gray as a gentleman, much as Sutpen's money allows his first wife to raise their light-complexioned, mixed-race son, Charles Bon, in luxury.

Structurally, however, Golden Gray's upbringing more closely parallels and revises that of Charles Bon's son, Charles Etienne Bon. Both Gray and Etienne are raised by a white woman and a black woman. Both have their sense of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay their white identity disrupted by Angel Falls Mouth unexpected knowledge of their mixed racial background. Still, in Gray's desire to discover the absent father, he recalls Charles Bon's obsession, though with a difference: Bon seeks Sutpen, the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the, white father, for Analysis, recognition; Gray initially seeks LesTroy to kill him. Raised culturally white in the code of noblesse oblige, Gray is confronted with Henry Sutpen's dilemma. LesTroy, after all, is the black man who slept with his white mother, and his white identity tells him he should kill the scoundrel.

Yet when he enters LesTroy's cabin and sits on his father's bed, Golden Gray is faced with Charles Bon's sense of Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay examples loss. What Bon desires from his father, is the living touch of that flesh warmed before he was born by the same blood which it had bequeathed him to warm his own flesh with, to be bequeathed by him in turn to run hot and loud in the complete veins and limbs after that first flesh and then his own were dead (255). Returning to Gray's experience of loss in Jazz, one can see how Morrison's novel creates a pastiche of Faulkner's distinctive language: 17. Only now, he thought, now that I know I have a father, do I feel his absence: the place where he should have been and was not. Before, I thought everybody was one-armed, like me. Now I feel the Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, surgery. The crunch of bone when it is Analysis of Real Altruism Essay sundered, the sliced flesh and the tubes of Arthur Miller's Era Essay examples blood cut through, shocking the bloodrun and disturbing the nerves. They dangle and writhe.

Singing pain. Maus! Waking me with the sound of itself, thrumming when I sleep so deeply it strangles my dreams away. There is nothing for it but to go away from where he is not to where he used to Arthur Miller's Era Essay, be and might be still. Let the dangle and the writhe see what it is missing; let the pain sing to the dirt where he stepped in the collapse mauryan empire, the place where he used to be and might be still. I am not going to be healed, or to find the arm that was removed from me. I am going to freshen the pain, point it, so we both know what it is Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay for.

Does Morrison's pastiche of after the collapse empire, india Faulkner mean that Morrison gains no critical distance on Arthur and the, his text? 18 No, but that distance arises not intertextually but intratextually. Having reproduced one version of Faulknerian masculinity, potentially tragic in its sense of fatality and intention, Morrison fashions a way to avoid that tragedy. Gray's rhetorical flight, the double of Charles Bon's, is Communication grounded when LesTroy returns home. He tells Gray that he will accept the Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples, young man as a son if he can act like a son but warns, don't bring me no whiteboy sass (173), an expression that works to deflate Gray's Faulknerian tragic rhetoric. Morrison, however, in activating the Faulknerian intertext, invites the the complete maus, reader to participate in a reexamination of his work. The only clear intersection between Absalom, Absalom! and Jazz may be the way Golden Gray's pain parallels Charles Bon's. But having made this move, Morrison authorizes the reader to Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, think in the space between the of Real Altruism, two novels.

If I am less certain of other moments where Morrison gestures to Faulkner, my movement from father (Charles) to son (Etienne), although less sure, remains in the spirit of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples Morrison's novelistic reading of Faulkner. If one accepts the Faulknerian resonance in Morrison's narrator, then there is a striking passage, one underscoring the metafictional nature of her narration, when the narrator stops to comment on her construction of the story. She claims to have gotten the portrayal of Golden Gray wrong in a way that eerily recalls Morrison's discussion of Faulkner's delayed and disguised portrayal of race in Absalom, a portrayal that she characterized in The Paris Review interview, quoted earlier, as not the Dry Campus, point anyway: What was I thinking of? How could I have imagined him so poorly? Not noticed the hurt that was not linked to the color of his skin, or the blood that beat beneath it. But to The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, some other thing that longed for authenticity, for a right to the collapse of the india, be in Arthur The Crucible examples this place, effortlessly without needing to acquire a false face []. Now I have to think this through, carefully, even though I may be doomed to Altruism Essay, another misunderstanding. Arthur Miller's And The McCarthy! I have to do it and Essay on The not break down. Arthur! Not hating him is not enough; liking, loving him is on The not useful. I have to alter things.

I have to be a shadow who wishes him well, like the smiles of the dead left over The Crucible McCarthy, from their lives. The repeated pronouns in this passagehe and himseem not simply to describe the relation between narrator and character but perhaps also to point to a commentary from one author to another. In this moment, Morrison appears almost to speak in coded form of after the collapse mauryan empire, india her revision of and relation to Faulkner. Whether Morrison here stands to Faulkner as the narrator does to Golden Gray, it is in Morrison's second, revised portrayal of Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples Golden Gray that the the complete maus themes, figure who seems to be altered is Charles Bon's son, Etienne. If LesTroy demands that Gray choose between black and white identity, this father's articulation of the need to chose seems predicated on the choice Etienne Bon has already made. Like Golden Gray, Etienne is presented with a clear choice between black and white, but how he chooses sets him apart in Faulkner's depiction of racially mixed characters.

Faulkner's most fully developed black male characters of mixed race choose whiteness as the core of their identity. (When they do choose blackness, as Etienne Bon does, it is portrayed as a terrible mistake.) Lucas Beachamp in Arthur and the examples Go Down, Moses, for example, fixes his genealogical pride in his descent from Carothers McCaslin, the man who has raped Lucas's grandmother and great-grandmother. The Complete Maus Themes! 19 Etienne chooses blackness through an identification with his mother, but only to emphasize his cultural wounding; Gray also finally chooses blackness, ostensibly through an identification with a black father, though in fact it is as much his union with the voiceless African-American woman, Wild, that creates identity. Morrison initially leaves Gray's decision much less clear than Etienne's, but through Joe Trace's quest for acknowledgement from Wild, Joe's absent mother, the reader discovers the material trace that reveals Gray's choice. (Joe Trace, one of the central figures of the Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples, novel's plot of the present, must be read through his relation to after the collapse, his lost mother, so that his desire for acknowledgement from his mother also comments on and revises Charles Bon's desire for examples, acknowledgement from his father.) The personal items and male clothing belonging to Golden Gray that Joe discovers in Wild's cave reveal that Golden has chosen blackness through cohabitation with Wild. In this regard, Wild works to reclaim the figure of the Analysis of Real Altruism, nameless black woman whom Etienne Bon marries. Clearly one of Faulkner's most embarrassing representations of race (even acknowledging its source as Mr. Compson), this woman, who never is given a voice, is described as coal black and ape-like (166). Etienne's choice of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples blackness, an act that seems to defy black masculine identity even while proclaiming such identity, suggests a racial self-loathing; his marriage to the African-American woman, as Mr. Compson imagines, is done to injure Judith, the white woman who urges him to pass for white.

Etienne's defiance of the white woman who helped raise him serves as an Angel Falls or Devil´s Mouth Essay examples, ongoing act of vengeance against white culture. Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay! Golden Gray, however, learns to the collapse india, love the black woman whom he initially found disgusting. Arthur And The Era Essay! Once again, Faulknerian pastiche seems to be an appropriate way to name Morrison's use of Communication of Window Displays language when she records Gray's immediate nausea at the sight of the obviously pregnant berry-black woman; his revulsion at Arthur The Crucible McCarthy the black, liquid female (Faulkner, Light 144-45) almost exactly duplicates Joe Christmas's fear and Analysis of Real loathing of women. Gray, however, is able to put aside his youthful sense of injury and move past his fear of the feminine. As a result his choice of Miller's and the blackness becomes an act of love, one in Essay which he accepts a new identity and creates his earthly paradise with Wild. THE ANXIETY OF WRITING YOUR BEST: PARADISIACAL DE-SCRIPTION. As I argue previously in this study, Tar Baby begins Morrison's critique of the all-black agrarian community as the site of African-American authenticity. Milkman Dead's paradiseShalimar, Virginiasours in examples Jadine Child's experience of of Real Altruism Essay Eloe, Florida. Paradise expands this critique by thoroughly exploding Milkman's sense of both completed authenticity and the essential goodness of a racially pure black community. Ruby, Oklahoma, stands as Morrison's most economically prosperous all-black community, one desperately in Arthur The Crucible need of spiritual renewal; that spiritual renewal, however, does not (as her earlier fiction so often did) demand the return to poverty as the the collapse mauryan empire,, ground of identity.

Despite this novel's expansion of the critique of Song of Solomon 's stand on authenticity, Paradise in a number of Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay ways represents Morrison's return to Falls Mouth in Venzuela Essay examples, the thematics and Miller's McCarthy Era Essay tropes of Angel Falls Mouth in Venzuela her third novel particularly and of her early fiction more generally. In her early fiction, female subjectivity almost always grows out of violationchild abuse, spousal abuse, molestation, or rape. In particular, Paradise returns us to the troubled relation between men and women, particularly when African-American men's sense of identity parallels that of the patriarchal structures of Miller's and the middle-class white culture. Song of Dry Campus Policy Essay Solomon criticizes a masculine identity that sees women as property; Milkman may have worked through this problem, but it is an identity that makes Jadine reject even Son and his agrarian community. Gender politics, however, moves to the background in both Beloved and Jazz, concerned as they are with building bridges between African-American women and men. In Beloved, white men are the rapists of both African-American women and men, and in Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay Jazz even the middle-aged man who murders his teenage lover becomes a sympathetic figure. 20 But in the tensions between the the complete maus themes, patriarchal town of Ruby and the women-centered space of the Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples, Convent, Morrison comes back to gender and the issue of who has the right to define and name. What is Dry Campus Essay ours? and what must we protect and defend? are the questions the men in Paradise constantly ask themselves. What the men do, they do for Ruby (18). The name itself is Arthur McCarthy Era Essay a metonymy inasmuch as how the men perceive and protect their townnamed for Angel Falls, one of their womenis reflected in how they treat each individual wife and daughter. I argued earlier that Song of Solomon uses the Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, figure of doe hunting to define and macondo of solitude critique a particular form of patriarchal masculine identity.

This figure returns in the opening chapter of Paradise in which a group of men from Ruby, good hunters whose ostensible goal is to protect their cult of true black womanhood, makes the seventeen-mile trek to the Convent to slaughter the women who have created a home there. The men who enter the Convent discover what they want to Arthur and the Era Essay examples, seethe devil's bedroom, bathroom, and the complete his nasty playpen (17)gathering the rumors of the past twenty years into Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay, a narrative that make these women the dangerous Other; unlike their decorous women, the Convent women in these men's eyes are child murderers, lesbians, temptresses, and witches who have turned the former Convent in to a coven. What is actually more threatening is examples that these women have claimed, out of their abuse, the power to name and identify themselves. Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples! This is the unspoken reason for the raid on the Convent. The Convent women's proximity to Ruby means that Ruby's women have an alternative model for conceiving of themselves.

In resorting to murder, these men simply take the of Real, logic of Song of Solomon 's Seven Days a step further. Despite claiming to Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, kill white people out of a love for black people, the Seven Days, as I pointed out in the collapse india chapter 4, actually functions to protect African-American men's property interests in black women. The men of Ruby construct a narrative in which their protection of Miller's Era Essay examples their black women authorizes their killing of one white girl and four [b]odacious black Eves unredeemed by of Real Altruism Mary who in the moment of the killing run like panicked does (18). 21 The collective male perspective on their task is articulated in the thoughts of one of the men who has invaded the Convent: Certainly there wasn't a slack or sloven woman anywhere in town and the reasons, he thought, were clear. From the beginning its people were free and protected. A sleepless woman could always rise from The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay, her bed, wrap a shawl around her shoulders and sit on macondo 100 years, the steps in Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay the moonlight. And if she felt like it she could walk out the yard and on down the road.

No lamp and no fear. A hiss-crackle from the side of the road would never scare her because whatever it was that made the sound, it wasn't something creeping up on her. Nothing for ninety miles around thought she was prey. She could stroll as slowly as she liked, think of food preparations, war, of of the empire, family things, or lift her eyes to stars and think of nothing at all. Lampless and without fear she could make her way. And if a light shone from a house up a ways and Miller's The Crucible and the examples the cry of a colicky baby caught her attention, she might step over to the house and call out softly to the woman inside trying to soothe the baby. Dry Campus! The two of them might take turns massaging the infant stomach, rocking, or trying to get a little soda water down. When the baby quieted they could sit together for Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy, a spell, gossiping, chuckling low so as not to wake anybody else. In his mind, Ruby represents the best of Analysis of Real all possible worlds for women, but clearly Morrison exposes through this character's thoughts the central unacknowledged contradiction of the male communal narrative that authorizes the Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay, hunting of women in the name of protecting womanhood.

The women of Ruby may walk without fear but they also do so without a lamp, and they are, by and large, unenlightened about anything but their domesticity. Dry Campus Policy! They walk but do not drive and Era Essay there is really nowhere to go since the nearest town is macondo ninety miles away. It is a safety based on isolation that approximates the Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, carceral. The safety of the women of on The Communication Displays Ruby, moreover, depends on Arthur McCarthy examples, the good will of Ruby's men. Themes! Any reader familiar with Morrison's fiction knows that women who place their dreams of safety in and the McCarthy Era Essay examples men are compromised, for this fiction repeatedly illustrates that only when women give up such dreams can they begin to form their own identities. The women who subscribe to the town's patriarchal ideology do so at the cost of limiting their possible identities to that of the tender of a man's home and the nurturer of a man's children. But even this cost may be insufficient to purchase safety, since any woman who ever threatens the male order of things immediately moves from the set of not prey to that of prey. The attack on Analysis Essay, the women, set as it is in July 1976, the Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, month of America's Bicentennial, surely serves to remind the reader that the land of the free historically depended on those who were not. Although the historical contraction of macondo 100 years of solitude American freedom lies in slavery, race is not central to the novel.

Race matters, but in an upside down, through-the-looking-glass kind of Arthur The Crucible McCarthy examples way. The racially pure black community of Ruby emerges out on The, of the doubled insult of class and colorism. The Crucible And The McCarthy Examples! Having migrated from the South to Oklahoma and been denied entry into a community of prosperous, lighter-complexioned African Americans, those who push on to found the town of Haven construct themselves as God's chosen people. After World War II, Haven falls on after, hard times economically. The sons of Haven's founders move west to form a new town, Ruby, dedicated to the preservation of the same sense of exceptionalism born when their fathers were rejected by the lighter-skinned blacks. Haven and Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Ruby stand as displaced representations of early American exceptionalism; if the white American male's freedom was enhanced by the presence of the enslaved racial other, as Morrison argues in Playing in the Dark (42-44), something strangely similar occurs in Paradise. For Ruby's men, their exceptionalism and sense of freedom lies in their genetically pure African heritage, unsullied by any drop of white blood.

This need for racial purity, of Dry Campus course, explains why the Arthur and the examples, men pay such careful attention to the morality of their women and why a man must own his woman's sexuality. Although it is not the macondo 100 years of solitude, dominant matter of Paradise, Morrison once again considers the role of artistic production as if to ask what role remains for the artist or writer living in a world with such violent gender and racial politics. Artistic identitycertainly central to Morrison's personal identityis radically divided in Paradise, figured principally in two very different charactersthe orphaned Connie of the Convent and the marginalized Patricia Best of Ruby, two women who specifically attempt to appropriate the power to name and narrate, though in very different ways. Patricia analyzes and critiques; Connie becomes a visionary. Connie once again reminds the reader of the significance of names. Known through most of the novel as Connie, she becomes spiritually reborn after her encounter with a divine presence, a moment that enables her to reclaim her birth name, Consolata Sosa. With this renewed identity, she becomes the spiritual leader of Arthur Miller's The Crucible examples this community of wounded and abused women. Dry Campus Policy! Consolata's spirituality represents a kind of syncretic belief. Arthur Miller's Era Essay! This belief encompasses, on the one hand, her love for themes, the Reverend Mother (and by extension for the tropes and Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples rituals of the Catholic Church) who saved her from poverty and prostitution in her third-world home.

On the other hand, Consolata's faith finds expression in her miraculous powers to heal the body, a power that precedes the Angel Falls Mouth in Venzuela Essay, logic of the Christian Word. In this latter regard, Consolata is the Arthur Miller's and the examples, latest in of Window a line of fictional descent that may be traced back through such earlier characters as Pilate Dead and Baby Suggs. But Consolata takes their spiritualized healing art to another level. Consolata achieves her transcendent art through her ministering relation to the women of the Convent. In order to initiate the communal healing and to ritualize her invitation to follow her, Consolata prepares a feast for the women and tells them that she will attempt to lead them to the encounter with the divine that she experiences.

Outlining the women's naked bodies in Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples the position they select, Consolata address the macondo 100 years of solitude, prone women: My child body, hurt and soil, leaps into the arms of a woman who teach me my body is nothing my spirit everything. I agreed her until I met another. My flesh is so hungry for itself it ate him. When he fell away the Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples, woman rescue me from my body again. Twice she saves it. When her body sickens I care for it in every way flesh works.

I hold it in my arms and between my legs. Clean it, rock it, enter it to keep it breath. After she is dead I can not get past that. My bones on hers the only good thing. Not spirit. Bones. No different from the man.

My bones on his the only true thing. So I wondering where is the or Devil´s Mouth Essay, spirit lost in this? It is true, like bones. It is good, like bones. One sweet, one bitter. Arthur Miller's The Crucible And The McCarthy! Where is 100 years of solitude it lost? Here me, listen.

Never break them in two. Never put one over the other. Eve is Mary's mother. Mary is the daughter of Eve. Rejecting Christianity's mind-body dualism that devalues the body, Consolata articulates her message through a language that rediscovers heretofore unremembered cadences. (Her dialogue earlier in the novel was conventional spoken English with no articles missing in front of nouns.) Consolata's speech to the women is a newer version of Baby Suggs's religion of the maternal body. Yet this new articulation represents a complicating turn in Morrison's representation of religious thinking. This complication grows out of the fact that one of the ways the flesh works is Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples sexual. In her address, Consolata conflates the india, daughterly love she feels for Mary Magna, the Mother Superior of the former convent, and Miller's examples the sexual love she had with a married man from Ruby, Deacon Morgan. This affair with Deacon ended when in their lovemaking she bites him and draws blood. But in the logic of Analysis Altruism Essay Consolata's representation, this bodily hunger is simultaneously a spiritual hunger, so that the sexual passion figures the Passion of Christ and the EucharistTake, eat, this is my bodyanother instance of the Miller's and the examples, syncretic faith Consolata imagines.

Her healing relation to Angel Falls Mouth Essay examples, Mary Magna also blurs the sacred and the secular. The biblical references to Miller's and the Era Essay, Eve and Mary are clear, but Consolata is also the fallen Eve who gives life to (indeed almost seems to maus themes, give birth to Mary Magna) by McCarthy Era Essay holding the older woman between her legs. From this moment, the women of the Convent leave traditionally spoken words behind for Essay Communication, a new communion of the body. Morrison describes this practice as their loud dreaming (264), a designation that almost seems to describe the language used by Sethe, Denver, and Beloved to express their desires when they close themselves off within 124 Bluestone Road. But what is represented in Beloved is only described in Paradise : In loud dreaming, monologue is no different from a shriek; accusations directed to the dead and long gone are undone by murmurs of love (264). Arthur! From this language/not language, the women move to a different medium, painting, in order to fill in the empty spaces of their bodily outlines that Consolata had traced. Shaving their heads, the women return the Convent to a site of spiritual searching. In the climactic expression of their multimedia spirituality, Consolata leads the women into a perfumed summer rain for a cleansing dance on the eve of the men's attack on the Convent:

Consolata started it; the rest were quick to join her. There are great rivers in the world and on their banks and the edges of Policy oceans children thrill to water. In places where rain is light the thrill is almost erotic. Miller's! But those sensations bow to the rapture of holy women dancing in hot sweet rain. They would have laughed, had enchantment not been so deep. In her combination of multiple expressive formsthe very forms, one may recall, denied to SulaConsolata becomes Morrison's performance artist of the soul. Consolata's spiritualized artistry is even represented as having triumphed over the grave. Visiting their families after their own deaths, the spirits of the Convent women continue to enjoy food and sex. Walking the earth, they are so many Beloveds, paradoxical embodied spirits. But although Consolata represents the most transcendent embodiment of artistic possibility in all of Morrison's fictionone able to overleap even the horizon of death itselfthe flight of the artist is grounded by after the collapse of the mauryan empire, india the presence of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay another artist figure, Patricia Best, who perhaps more directly figures Morrison's own subject position; Patricia, like Morrison herself, writes the story of Ruby. This character seems to register Morrison's recognition that Consolata's expressive formsbody painting and the danceare not her media.

Though she writes of such expression, she still writes. As a writer within the novel, Patricia (known to the community more androgynously as Pat) metafictionally represents Morrison in the act of authoring both her best and Angel Falls Mouth in Venzuela Essay examples worst selves. Arthur McCarthy Era Essay Examples! In a sense, Morrison's Best returns us to the anxieties of after mauryan india authorship that Soaphead Church represents in The Bluest Eye. Patricia is the sixth section of Paradise, and the widowed schoolteacher serves (except for a few brief moments) as the focalizer throughout the chapter. 22 At times, when we have direct access to her writing, she serves as the narrator.

The matter in time present of this section (December 1974) is the preparation for and performance of the town's apparently conventional annual Christmas pageant, as well as Pat's ongoing work on a history of Ruby. In the space between these two textsPatricia's writing and Miller's The Crucible the children's playemerges her troubled understanding of the unconscious sexual politics of Ruby's fetishized blackness. Patricia's history is conceived of as a gift to the citizens of Rubya collection of the complete maus family trees; the genealogies of each of the fifteen families (187). Having completed the family trees, she decides to supplement them with interesting facts about the origin of Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples people's names. At this point, her project, begun in of Real Altruism Essay innocence, immediately meets a certain resistance when she talks to Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples, her fellow townspeople and asks, for research purposes, to see family bibles, letters, and Angel Falls or Devil´s Essay marriage certificates. In the Miller's, face of this resistance, Pat's interest in her supplemental notes grows. In her text, the the complete maus themes, logic of the Miller's The Crucible McCarthy, supplement takes over, and the unspeakable of the community's sexual politics becomes spoken. In large part, what is macondo 100 years of solitude unspeakable is the identity that Pat labels in her charts as 8-rock; this geological metaphor refers to a pure African genealogy that can be traced back to these families' arrival in America in the eighteenth century. So what began as a gift becomes Pat's attempt to read between the lines of the entries in the family bibles, to get at the meaning of the names that have been struck through. As her writing turns from celebration to critical inquiry of the Miller's and the Era Essay examples, town's official story, Pat believes that she is the on The Displays, only one capable of the Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples, task since she has the after india, keen imagination and the persistence of a mind uncomfortable with oral histories (188). But in order to fashion her history, she realizes that she cannot rely exclusively on what is Miller's and the McCarthy officially documented and so must move into the realm of speculation: she interpretedfreely but, she thought, insightfully because she alone had the Falls or Devil´s Mouth in Venzuela Essay, required emotional distance (188).

Her emotional distance derives from her sense of difference. Miller's And The Era Essay Examples! But it is after of the precisely this emotional distance that we see collapse in her writing because she and her family are so directly impacted by the town's racial and sexual ideology. As her section unfolds, Pat arrives at a clearer understanding of her doubled otherness. Given Ruby's color code, her outsider status is primarily a function of Arthur The Crucible Era Essay her lighter complexion, but this exclusion on Essay Communication, the basis of racial identity is doubled by Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples her identity as a writer. As Morrison's artist figuresSoaphead Church, Sula, Pilate, Baby Suggs, and the narrator of the complete Jazz repeatedly suggest, to be the artist or writer may necessarily entail one's marginality in the very community that one constitutes through the attempt to interpret and represent it. Pat's inquiry turns deeply personal when she includes her own family history in the larger history of the and the Era Essay examples, community. All pretense of emotional distance drops out as she addresses her father, Roger Best, yet by turning to what is intensely personal she begins to inscribe the unspeakable things of Ruby. Referring to Falls Mouth in Venzuela examples, one of her father's business interests, his work as the town's mortician, she writes, Daddy, they don't hate us because Mama was your first customer.

They hate us because she looked like a cracker and was bound to have cracker-looking children like me, and although I married Billy Cato, who was an Miller's The Crucible and the examples, 8-rock like you, like them, I passed the skin on Essay on The Communication, to my daughter, as you and everybody knew I would (196). Making connections between and The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples among the genealogies, Pat realizes the semi-incestuous nature of her community and Essay that certain unrecorded unions of McCarthy men and women have occurred outside the sanction of marriage in Dry Campus order to keep the racial bloodline pure. What clearly troubles Pat is the estranged relationship with her daughter, Billie Delia. Mother and daughter have fallen out over Billie's love for two brothers of one of the 8-rock families, the Pooles. But rather than address this immediately, Pat's manuscript shifts from an Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, address to her father to a letter to her dead mother.

Pat believes the town is implicated in Angel or Devil´s Mouth Essay her mother's (as well as her stillborn sister's) death during childbirth, interpreting the men's slowness to act on the midwives request to get help as a passive-aggressive sign of the men's desire to get rid of those with lighter skins. Putting aside her file on the Best family, Pat picks up a notebook, presumably her journal, and continues her writing. With her focus on the trouble with her daughter, Pat's writing becomes confessional. The previous October, their fight over Billie's relation with the Poole boys turned violent, and Pat nearly killed her daughter with an electric iron. Pat writes: I didn't mean to hit her so hard. I didn't know I had. I just meant to stop her lying mouth telling me she didn't do anything. I saw them. All three of them back behind the Oven and Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay she was in the middle.

Plus I am the one who washes sheets around here. Pat stopped, put down her pen and, covering her eyes with her hand, tried to separate what she had seen from Essay, what she feared to see. Arthur And The McCarthy Era Essay Examples! And what did the sheets have to do with it? Was there blood where there should not have been or no blood where there should have been? Pat's instinctive question of the role that the sheets play points to a crucial metafictional turn. Three pages earlier, the narrator interrupts Pat's address to her dead mother to note: The words had long ago covered the macondo, back of the Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples, page, so she was using fresh sheets (199). Altruism! The space thus collapses between what the pen inscribes on Arthur McCarthy Era Essay examples, the manuscript sheets and the blood traces (whether they mark phallic penetration or the absence of menstrual blood) on the sheets of the bedding. Therefore, the (paper) sheetswhich decode the racial blood laws of Rubyhave everything to do with Pat's anger directed toward her daughter. Interestingly Morrison herself has spoken of her anger in maus themes relation to McCarthy Era Essay, this mother-daughter relationship: Now, I did get angry recently, about this daughter [Billie Delia].

And I hadn't felt that furious about someone who isn't in my personal life (Jaffrey). This interesting conjunction of the author's and her character's anger reminds us of the doubled role Toni and Pat share: they both are engaged in writing the history of Ruby, a writing that maps the abuses of on The patriarchal cultural. Unconsciously connecting her textual pleasure (her work on Ruby's history) with what she imagines to be her daughter's sexual pleasure, Pat begins to realize that she too is implicated in the communal judgment of her daughter as sexually promiscuous, a judgment that turns out to be untrue. As was the case with Soaphead Church's writing, Pat's words create simultaneously a communal and a self-critique. The community has seen Billie as sexually precocious since a childhood incident. At age three, when Billie was too little, still, for everyday underwear (150), she would ride with one of the men on a horse named Hard Goods, taking pleasure in the firmness of the horse's spine. One Sunday, when offered the ride, she pulled down her Sunday panties before raising her arms to be lifted (151). Miller's And The! For this, she received a whipping from Pat and a sense of shame.

Despite being relegated to promiscuity by both the mauryan empire, india, community and her mother, Billie has remained a virgin. Patricia's troubled confrontation with genealogy, I think, needs to be read against Milkman's triumphant interpretation of his family's genealogy that is coded in the song sung by Miller's and the McCarthy examples the children of Communication of Window Displays Shalimar. Like Milkman, who is suddenly able to interpret the Arthur The Crucible, hidden meaning of a coded genealogical textthe iterated children's songPat finds the Dry Campus, final key to decoding the meaning of her genealogies in Arthur Miller's the annual play that the children perform. 100 Years! Having returned home from the pageant, Pat understands that the multiple Marys and Josephs stand for the founding families of Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples Ruby. Essay On The Displays! Originally the pageant had represented all nine of the founding families, but that number had dropped to Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples, eight and finally seven in the most recent production. She realizes that yet another family has been disallowed for Mouth examples, violating the community's rigid rule of blood.

Patricia's epiphany, which allows her a full recognition of her complicity with the community in creating its other (even to the point of making her own daughter an other), leads to Arthur The Crucible examples, a final act that oddly comments on Morrison's own very personal relationship to fire. Overwhelmed by her sense that she has decoded the meaning of the family genealogiesthat the purity of the all-African blood lines depends on the men's ownership of macondo their women's sexualityshe understands the and the, threat posed by the Convent women, who aggressively claim their sexual potential, and Billie Delia and herself, who are light-complexioned. Although the fire that destroyed Morrison's beloved home on the Hudson River was entirely accidental, Patricia's relation to the fire is macondo 100 years of solitude ambiguous. It appears initially that she is fully conscious of what she is doing, standing in front of a fire that she started in Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay an oil drum out in Dry Campus Policy Essay her garden and methodically dropping file after file into the flames. Miller's McCarthy Examples! Yet her final words point to a sense of love's labor lost: Dear God, she murmured, Dear, dear God. I burned the papers (217), words that suggest the destruction is accidental (or at least not fully conscious) and that record her sense of loss. It is hard not to read Pat's line as Morrison's fictionalized expression of grief over the things she lost in her house fire. Not long after the fire, Morrison says in of solitude a piece that appeared in the New York Times Magazine, When I think about the fire, I think I may not ever, ever, ever get over it. And it isn't even about the things.

It's about the photographs, plants I nurtured for Arthur The Crucible McCarthy, 20 years, about the Falls in Venzuela Essay, view of the Hudson River, my children's report cards, my manuscripts (Dreifus 74). In 1998 Morrison speaks of her initial sense of loss: And I lost I write by Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay hand I was able to save some books, but I had all my manuscripts, notes from old books, in my bedroom on the second floor, in Falls or Devil´s Mouth in Venzuela Essay examples a little trundle underneath the bed, where there was some storage space. It went up first. I said to Miller's and the examples, somebody later, Why did I think that having those things near me was safer than having them in the basement? (Jaffrey). 23 These holographic manuscript pages were, as I have argued, the very site and thus the visible traces of the emergence of Morrison's class, racial, gendered, and authorial identities. Early in this study I suggested that one might locate the Morrison who wrote The Bluest Eye in themes the space between Pecola Breedlove and Maureen Peal, because in terms of class origin Morrison was closer to Pecola but in terms of childhood appearance, the author more closely approximated Maureen. Miller's The Crucible And The McCarthy! I would like to conclude with a different pairthe two author figures of Paradise because I think they help measure the distance Morrison has traveled in of Real Altruism Essay her career to Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples, date, and I believe they provide a point of departure for future consideration of this Nobel prize-winning author. Morrison hopes that her art performs the Dry Campus Policy, same healing that the The Crucible examples, gifts of Consolata enact but simultaneously fears that her writing, like Pat Best's, may only be able to of solitude, diagnose the disease of American racialized discourse. Locatable neither exclusively in the realm of spiritual transcendence nor in the throes of Arthur Miller's and the McCarthy Era Essay examples authorial doubt, Morrison continues to write her best thing, which since The Bluest Eye has been her identity as an African-American woman novelist. Having come to the end of what I wish to say about how one might discern the reflexive presence of Morrison within her fiction, a presence that suggests that all writingmuch like Consolata's body art with the Convent womenserves as a tracing of the self, I am aware that what I have written can only be a harbinger for a project to come, one fashioned by a different critic.

This study will be informed by the as yet unwritten authorized biography of Toni Morrison. But despite that valuable authorization, I hope that this future scholar will take whatever new stories become available to her or him and read them not as the revealed truth, but instead as subsequent chapters in after empire, the identifying fictions of Toni Morrison. Ashraf H. McCarthy Examples! A. Rushdy has thoroughly laid out the historical documents surrounding Margaret Garner, both in Essay the popular press and in abolitionist journals. Rushdy's central assertion, that Morrison has added a feminist voice to revisionist historiography and contemporary fiction, is unassailable (568). My thanks to Catherine Gunther Kodat who suggested Morrison's apparent desire to Arthur and the McCarthy examples, conceal the extent of of Real Essay her knowledge about Margaret Garner. Eileen Bender argues that Beloved clearly shows the traces of Stowe as literary ancestorperhaps most visibly in its cast of characters (134). The characters Bender is most interested in are Eliza and Sethe. For a different reading of Miller's and the McCarthy intertextual possibility placing the white and black texts against Dry Campus, one another, see Moreland's discussion of Beloved and Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn (37-63). In her review of Beloved, Margaret Atwood, for example, suggestively notes that Sethe's escape makes the ice-floe scene in Miller's and the examples Uncle Tom's Cabin look like a stroll around the block (1). Christina Zwarg provides a useful summary of feminist readings of Uncle Tom's Cabin of the last decade.

Her own work examines the radical nature of Stowe's feminism through an examination of Stowe's treatment of fatherhood (274). Her nuanced reading of the way the Angel Falls Mouth Essay, blackface George Washington hanging on the wall of Tom's cabin enters a symbolic economy with Tom's own role as black Christ and with the character of The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay Black Sam as politician reveals several gaps in maus patriarchal authority; however, Zwarg's acknowledgement that, despite these subversions of the father, Tom and Stowe become subsumed under the hierarchical representations of Christianity and McCarthy patriarchy corresponds much more closely to my own sense of Essay on The Communication Displays Stowe's reinscription of a transcendent patriarchy. As Myra Jehlen puts it quite succinctly, Uncle Tom's Cabin seeks to end slavery, not racism or sexism (398). Jehlen sees a clear limit to Stowe's feminism and poses a particular challenge to those who would assert a matriarchy in the novel. For Jehlen, Rachel Halliday, whose kitchen is the ultimate cite of domesticity and women power, blesses the Arthur Era Essay, restoration of patriarchal power to the slave [George Harris] whose manhood is inextricably a matter of self-possession and of the Analysis Altruism, possession of others, of his wife and child (392).

The conflict between the Ohio senator and his wife over whether one should help runaway slaves provides a case in point. John Bird tells Mary: Your feelings are all quite right, dear, and Arthur Miller's Era Essay examples interesting, and macondo of solitude I love you for them; but then, we mustn't suffer our feelings to run away with our judgment. You must consider it's not a matter of private feeling; there are great public interests involved [] (85). And The McCarthy Era Essay! John's words divide the world in sharp dichotomies that gender the public and private spheres: men and the public sphere govern by macondo 100 years reason; women and the private sphere are the appropriate site of emotion. Yet a woman's feelings, informed by the bible, may lead reason to Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, a higher truth that emotion has intuited. So when Eliza appears at the Birds' house, the senator eventually takes the leading role in assisting her escape.

Mary's reactions to her husband's reversal is telling: Now, little Mrs. Bird was a discreet womana woman who never in her life said, I told you so! and, on the present occasion, though pretty well aware of the Dry Campus Essay, shape her husband's meditations were taking, she very prudently forebode to meddle with them, only sat very quietly in her chair, and looked quite ready to hear her liege lord's intentions, when he should think proper to Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay, utter them. Although a touch of irony flirts in the narrator's description of Mary's role here, it is impossible to Policy Essay, forget that the word lord cannot signify without nodding toward the Lord, the transcendent model for masculine earthly rule. Lori Askeland has explored a similar thesis, arguing that Morrison examines and revises the ideology of Uncle Tom's Cabin in a way that avoids reification of a patriarchal power structure (787).

The evidence that she uses is quite different, based on The Crucible and the Era Essay examples, the ideology of Displays nineteenth-century domesticity, and she does not take up intertextual possibilities between Uncle Tom and Arthur The Crucible examples Baby Suggs. Elizabeth House's closely argued case that the Analysis, young woman who appears at 124 is not the ghost of Arthur and the examples Sethe's daughter but simply a young woman who has herself suffered the horrors of slavery (17) usefully corrects those who would take ghostliness to be a simple matter in the novel. However, House's argument overnaturalizes a novel that insists upon the complete maus, a realm beyond the natural. At the The Crucible examples, outset 124 is unquestionably haunted by an authentic ghost and this ghost's disappearance, occasioned by Paul D's arrival, ushers in the arrival of Beloved. For Askeland, Bodwin is the good-intentioned whiteman who still carries in macondo 100 years him the ghosts of the Arthur Miller's The Crucible, patriarchal institution (801).

Harryette Mullen has described this scene in terms of Kristeva's chora, a space prior to naming and associated with the Analysis of Real Altruism, maternal semiotic that parallels Morrison's chorus of mothers unnaming the unspeakable desire that precedes language (263). The limitation of this fictive resolution is that, while an emotionally satisfying conclusion to the narrative, it does not provide a clear guideline for overturning patriarchal language. Arthur Era Essay! The cry of the women is before language. Does this mean that there is Falls or Devil´s Mouth Essay no language a woman can speak that will not speak her own oppression? The ending of The Crucible McCarthy Beloved does not resolve the the complete maus, issue, and we are left with the implication at least that to enter the Symbolic compromisingly positions women much as Sethe is positioned in relation to a different fluid produced by her laboring body, the ink she makes. This flowing substance is appropriated by her master, schoolteacher, who writes the scientific treatise that authorizes his nephews' the appropriation of her milk. Still, as Morrison notes, the novel's role is to stage a problem, not to provide a recipe for solving it (Rootedness 341). Rubenstein also argues that Henry's patronymic signals the narrative's deliberate fictionality (158).

One reason for thinking of the Era Essay examples, supernatural narrator of Jazz in this fashion comes from the representation of spirituality in Paradise. In Morrison's most recent novel, Consolata is visited by 100 years a god/goddess figure that alternately manifests itself as male and as female. Rubenstein notes that Morrison explicitly places in the reader's hands the responsibility for constructing the meaning of her text, affirming the imaginative collaboration between narrator and reader (162). Arthur Era Essay! What needs to be underscored, though, is the profoundly sexual figuration of this collaboration. For example, in chapter 3 I detail Morrison's repudiation of the lesbian reading of Sula. In chapter 4 I quote more fully her comments regarding her lecture on Absalom, Absalom! Philip Weinstein also uses this passage as a clue to Policy, Morrison's rewriting of Arthur Miller's McCarthy Faulkner (147-48). Morrison's relation to Faulkner may complicate one particular debate about postmodernism.

In particular, I am thinking of the debate between Fredric Jameson and Linda Hutcheon. For Jameson, postmodern narrative is ahistorical (and hence politically dangerous), playing only with pastiched images and aesthetic forms that produce a degraded historicism (see chapter 1 of Postmodernism ); for Hutcheon, as I discuss in my opening chapter, postmodern fiction remains historical, precisely because it problematizes history through parody, and thus retains its potential for cultural critique. Analysis Essay! Thus, Hutcheon's celebration of the power of postmodern parody to Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, produce historical thinking stands in direct opposition to Jameson's despair over postmodernism, which for him is not an oppositional aesthetic but only the cultural logic of multinational capitalism. Essay! Jazz 's pastiche of Faulknerian textuality complicates Jameson's and Hutcheon's positions because Morrison's pastiche may actually perform the cultural work that Hutcheon ascribes to parody. Some readers may object to my use of the Arthur Miller's and the examples, word rape, but the dynamics of of Real Altruism master and slave make any notion of consent impossibly problematic. Beloved in particular seems like an intervention in the critical commentary by African-American writers, such as Ishmael Reed, who were critical of the portrayal of the African-American male in Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples the fiction of on The Communication of Window black women authors such as Alice Walker. Patricia Storace's review of Paradise is excellent on the gender dynamics of the novel. Storace notes that the women of Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples Ruby [] live in the mansion of freedom, a freedom granted to Analysis Altruism, them, which they do not possessthey are free to The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay, live the lives whose purpose and limits are imagined for them by Ruby men []. When asked by an interviewer about Angel Falls Mouth, her sense of achievement in Paradise, Morrison somewhat cryptically remarks, I wanted another kind of confrontation with Patricia, the one who kept the genealogies together (Jaffrey). In the next paragraph, Morrison devalues the manuscripts (which included seven versions of The Bluest Eye ), saying that they only had value as an inheritance for her sons (Jaffrey).

The fact, however, that Morrison chose to focus on them first (rather than the loss of her children's report cards) and Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay the halting fashion in which she expresses the loss suggests that the later comments serve as a kind of cover for the deep sense of Policy loss she feels regarding the manuscripts. I. Primary Morrison Material. Beloved. New York: Knopf, 1987. The Bluest Eye. 1970.

New York: Plume, 1994. Jazz. New York: Knopf, 1992. Paradise. New York: Knopf, 1997. Song of Solomon. Miller's Examples! New York: Knopf, 1977. Sula. New York: Knopf, 1973. Tar Baby. New York: Knopf, 1981.

Criticism and Altruism Essays. Faulkner and Women. Faulkner and Women. Ed. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Arthur The Crucible Era Essay Examples! Abadie. Of Solitude! Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1986. 295-302. The Official Story: Dead Man Golfing. Birth of a Nation'hood: Gaze, Script, and Spectacle in the O. J. Simpson Case. Ed. Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples! Toni Morrison and Claudia Brodsky Lacour.

New York: Pantheon, 1997. vii-xxviii. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1992. Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation. Evans, 339-45. A Slow Walk of Trees (as Grandmother Would Say) Hopeless (as Grandfather Would Say. The New York Times Magazine 4 July 1976: 104+. Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature. Michigan Quarterly Review 28 (1989): 1-34. [Chloe Ardellia Wofford]. Virginia Woolf's and William Faulkner's Treatment of the Alienated. M.A. thesis. Cornell U, 1955. Of Solitude! [Note: Morrison uses the middle name recorded on her birth certificate on the title page of her thesis, but it is spelled Ardellia rather than Ardelia.] Interviews and Profiles. Although MLA style calls for 1) listing interviews by The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay the last name of the figure interviewed and 2) internal citations using a short title, this becomes confusing since so many of Morrison's interviews have identical or similar titles; therefore, I cite interviews by the last name of the interviewer. Themes! Whenever the interviews have been reprinted in Conversations with Toni Morrison (Jackson: UP of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy examples Mississippi, 1994) edited by Danille Taylor-Guthrie, I have cited that volume.

The term profile includes any article or review for which Morrison has supplied oral or written comments to macondo, the author. Bakerman, Jane. The Seams Can't Show: An Interview with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 30-42. Rpt. from Black American Literature Forum 12.2 (1978): 56-60. Bigsby, Christopher. The Crucible And The Era Essay! Jazz Queen. The Independent [London]. 26 April 1992, Sunday Review Page, 28. Online. Nexis. 20 Ap. 1996. Brown, Cecil. Interview with Toni Morrison. Massachusetts Review 36 (1995): 455-73.

Charles, Pepsi. An Interview with Toni Morrison. Nimrod 21.2 (1977): 43-51. Conversation with Alice Childress and Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 3-9. Analysis Of Real! Rpt. from Black Creation Annual 1974-1975. Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay! 90-92. DeWitt, Karen. Song of Solomon. Washington Post. 30 Sept 1977: C1, C3. Dreifus, Claudia. Chloe Wofford Talks about Toni Morrison. New York Times Magazine 11 Sept. Dry Campus Policy! 1994: 72-75. Gray, Paul. The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay! Paradise Found. Time 19 Jan.

1998: 62-68. Jaffrey, Zia. Altruism! The Salon Interview. Salon 2 Feb. 1998. Arthur Miller's And The! 20 Oct. 1998. Jones, Bessie W. and Dry Campus Policy Essay Audre Vinson. An Interview with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 171-187.

Rpt. from The World of Toni Morrison (Debuque: Kendall Hunt, 1985): 127-51. Koenen, Anne. The One Out of Sequence. Taylor-Guthrie, 67-83. Rpt. from Arthur and the McCarthy Era Essay, History and Tradition in Afro-American Culture, ed. Gunther Lenz. (Frankfurt: Campus, 1984): 207-21. LeClair, Thomas. The Collapse Of The Mauryan Empire, India! The Language Must Not Sweat: A Conversation with Toni Morrison. Conversations with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 119-128. Rpt. from New Republic 21 March 1981: 25-29.

McKay, Nellie. An Interview with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 138-55. Rpt. from Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the examples, Contemporary Literature 24 (1983): 413-429. Medwick, Cathleen. Toni Morrison. Vogue April 1981: 288+. Morales, Robert. Toni Morrison. The Vibe Q May 1998. 19 Nov. 1998. Morrison, Toni. Contemporary Authors. Vol. Maus! 29-32.

1972. Morrison, Toni. Current Biography Yearbook. Arthur The Crucible And The Era Essay! 40th ed. 1979. Naylor, Gloria. A Conversation: Gloria Naylor and Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 188-217. Rpt. from Southern Review 21 (1985): 567-593. Neustadt, Kathy. The Visits of the Angel or Devil´s Essay, Writers Toni Morrison and Eudora Welty. Taylor-Guthrie, 84-92. Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay! Rpt. from Bryn Mawr Alumnae Bulletin Spring 1980: 2-5. Ruas, Charles. Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie 93-118.

Rpt. from Conversations with American Writers (New York: McGraw Hill, 1984): 215-243. Schappell, Elissa. Dry Campus Essay! The Art of Arthur The Crucible Fiction CXXXIV. The Paris Review 129 (1993): 83-125. Stepto, Robert. Intimate Things in Place: A Conversation with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie, 10-29. Rpt. from Massachusetts Review 18 (1977): 473-489. Strouse, Jean. After The Collapse Of The Empire, India! Toni Morrison's Black Magic. Newsweek 30 March 1981: 52-56. Tate, Claudia. Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie 156-170. Rpt. from Black Women Writers at Work (New York: Continuum, 1983): 117-131. Watkins, Mel. Talk with Toni Morrison. New York Times Book Review 11 Sept. 1977.

48, 50. Wilson, Judith. A Conversation with Toni Morrison. Taylor-Guthrie 129-37. Rpt. from Essence July, 1981: 84-6, 128. II. Secondary Sources. Barthes, Roland. The Pleasure of the Text. 1973.

Trans. Arthur McCarthy Era Essay Examples! Richard Miller. New York: Hill, 1975. . The Complete Maus Themes! Roland Barthes. 1975. Trans. Richard Howard. New York: Hill, 1977. Fanon, Franz. Black Skin, White Masks. Trans. Charles Lam Markmann. Arthur And The McCarthy! New York: Grove, 1967. Faulkner, William.

Absalom, Absalom! 1936. New York: Vintage International, 1990. . Go Down, Moses. 1942. New York: Vintage International, 1990. . 100 Years Of Solitude! Light in August. 1932. New York: Vintage International, 1990.

Gates, Henry Lewis, Jr. Arthur Era Essay Examples! Jazz (1992). Gates and Appiah, 52-55. . Preface. Gates and Appiah ix-xiii. . Altruism! The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Afro-American Literary Criticism. New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Gates, Henry Lewis, Jr., and K. Arthur The Crucible And The McCarthy! A. Appiah, eds.

Toni Morrison: Critical Perspectives Past and Present. New York: Amistad, 1993. Irigaray, Luce. Volume-Fluidity. 1974. Speculum of the Other Woman. Trans. Gillian C. Gill. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1985. 227-40. Page, Philip. Dangerous Freedom: Fusion and Fragmentation in Falls Mouth in Venzuela Essay Toni Morrison's Novels. Jackson: UP of Miller's and the Era Essay examples Mississippi, 1995.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher. 1852. New York: Dutton, 1909. SOURCE: Jones, Carolyn M. Sula and Beloved : Images of Cain in the Novels of Toni Morrison. In Understanding Toni Morrison's Beloved and Sula: Selected Essays and Criticisms of the Works by the Nobel Prize-Winning Author, edited by Solomon O. Communication Of Window! Iyasere and Marla W. Iyasere, pp. The Crucible And The McCarthy Examples! 338-56. Troy, New York: Whitston Publishing Company, 2000.

[ In the following essay, Jones examines the significance of maus themes references to the biblical story of Cain and and the Era Essay examples Abel in the complete themes Morrison's Sula and Beloved. Jones argues that Morrison's references to this mythical story suggest a connection between memory, community, and Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples individual identity. ] (The entire section is themes 7471 words.) Rob Davidson (essay date fall 2001) SOURCE: Davidson, Rob. Racial Stock and 8-Rocks: Communal Historiography in Toni Morrison's Paradise. Twentieth-Century Literature 47, no. 3 (fall 2001): 355-73. [ In the following essay, Davidson examines the role of Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay narrative as a means of constituting community identity in Morrison's Paradise.] There is no document of civilization which is not at after of the mauryan empire, india the same time a document of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay barbarism. Walter Benjamin (258) With the Dry Campus Policy, publication of Paradise in and the Era Essay 1998, Toni Morrison completed a trilogy of historical novels that began with Beloved (1987) and Jazz (1992). Falls Or Devil´s Mouth In Venzuela Essay! Broadly.

(The entire section is 6687 words.) SOURCE: Hove, Thomas B. Toni Morrison. In Postmodernism: The Key Figures, edited by Hans Bertens and Joseph Natoli, pp. 254-60. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 2002. [ In the following essay, Hove provides an overview of elements of postmodernism in Morrison's fiction. ] Although she regards herself first and foremost as an African-American writer, Toni Morrison's work shares several features with a widespread tendency in postmodern fictionshared by American writers as diverse as Leslie Marmon Silko, Ishmael Reed, and Thomas Pynchonto confront, question, and ultimately supplement dominant cultural narratives.

Morrison's fictions repeatedly challenge cultural. (The entire section is 3010 words.) Peter J. Arthur The Crucible McCarthy! Capuano (essay date spring 2003) SOURCE: Capuano, Peter J. Truth in Timbre: Morrison's Extension of Slave Narrative Song in Beloved. 100 Years! African American Review 37, no. 1 (spring 2003): 95-103. [ In the The Crucible McCarthy examples, following essay, Capuano examines references to Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845), by Frederick Douglass, in Morrison's Beloved.] His voice was faint. A rustle of leaves.

Then Reb lifted his head and began to croon in a tongue incomprehensible to on The of Window Displays, me. Another mourner began to Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy, sing. Then another. The sound swelled, expanded, ate space, filled the woods like a splash of wind, blended with the air, turned and touched off, one by one, the. (The entire section is 5125 words.) Toni Morrison and maus Anne-Marie O#039;Connor (interview date 15 October 2003) SOURCE: Morrison, Toni, and Anne-Marie O'Connor. Arthur The Crucible And The McCarthy! Love and the Outlaw Women. Los Angeles Times (15 October 2003): E1. [ In the the complete maus, following interview, Morrison discusses her career and her novel Love.] Distinguished American novelist Toni Morrison is in Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples her Manhattan apartment, talking about outlaw women. Dressed in a flowing black shirt and pants, with luminous strands of pearls around her neck and long, graying braids twisting down her back, Morrison chooses her words carefully, her voice low, soft and Dry Campus forceful. Outlaw women who don't follow the rules are always interesting to me, she begins, her eyes thoughtful and expressive. (The entire section is 1412 words.)

Ron Charles (review date 28 October 2003) SOURCE: Charles, Ron. Prisoners of One Man's Affection. Christian Science Monitor (28 October 2003): 15. [ In the following review, Charles discusses the interrelationships among the characters in Arthur and the Era Essay Morrison's Love.] Readers who know Toni Morrison's work only from Policy, her surreal classic Beloved will be surprised by the subtlety and humor of her new novel. And those who have held off from Morrison, intimidated perhaps by her complicated structures, her graphic subject matter, or even her politics (she and O. J. are the only ones still looking for that small-gloved killer), should start here with Love. This is the carefully crafted work of a storyteller. (The entire section is 824 words.) Hilary Mantel (review date 8 December 2003) SOURCE: Mantel, Hilary. Ghost Writer. New Statesman 132, no. 4667 (8 December 2003): 50-1. [ In the following review, Mantel provides a plot synopsis of The Crucible and the McCarthy Morrison's Love, and offers a favorable assessment of the novel. ] Toni Morrison has said in interviews that readers sometimes ask her: Why don't you write about Essay of Window, white people? You could come off your ground and on to ours, they suggest; because you are an artist you transcend divisions.

They mean to flatter her; yet what they mean is and the McCarthy examples both insulting and absurd. No group has a bigger share in the power of narrative than any other. All Morrison's work exists to remind us of this. The cultural. (The entire section is 1070 words.) Thulani Davis (review date 15 December 2003) SOURCE: Davis, Thulani. Not Beloved. Nation 277, no.

20 (15 December 2003): 30-2. [ In the following review, Davis offers a favorable assessment of Morrison's Love.] Toni Morrison's slim new novel, Love, may seem, at first glance, to fit within a group of books one could crudely call Morrison Lite, not requiring any heavy lifting from the reader like her masterpieces, Beloved and Song of Solomon. But the appearance is deceptive. A distillation of many of her earlier themes, notably the theft of girlhood and wars over times now gone, Love is a rich parable about the damaging past as a demagogue ruling the present. And as with a number of. (The entire section is 1724 words.) Deborah E. McDowell (review date December 2003) SOURCE: McDowell, Deborah E. Philosophy of the Heart. Women's Review of Books 21, no.

3 (December 2003): 8-9. [ In the following review, McDowell discusses the theme of love in Morrison's Love.] What is this thing called love that cannot stand alone, but depends on modifiers and conjunctions to complete it, to give it heft and meaning? There is brotherly love, platonic love, puppy love, courtly love, and of course, that most vexing, confounding, ever-elusive romantic love. Love often shows up in of Window Displays common parlance with a partner, as in love and The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay death, love and lust, love and Analysis of Real Essay hate, love and war, and that reverent, consecrated pairing. (The entire section is 2219 words.) Middleton, David L. Toni Morrison: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1987, 186 p. Includes considerable criticism on Morrison's first four novels, as well as other writings, interviews, and anthologies. Mix, Debbie. Toni Morrison: A Selected Bibliography. Modern Fiction Studies 39, nos.

3-4 (fall-winter 1993): 795-818. Bibliography covering selected criticism on Morrison's novels. Beaulieu, Elizabeth Ann. Gendering the Genderless: The Case of Toni Morrison's Beloved. Obsidian II 8, no. 1. (The entire section is 1105 words.) Toni Morrison Homework Help Questions.

Cisneros' technique is similar to Arthur The Crucible McCarthy examples, Morrison's in the sense that both are references to fairy tales, where the main protagonists are women who manage to transcend adversity and Angel Falls in Venzuela Essay examples misfortune. Arthur And The McCarthy! In. In Toni Morrison's Recitatif, indications of a difference in race and class between the two main characters begin in the shelter where the youngsters meet. Of Solitude! That the girls come from different. In the novel The Bluest Eye, Toni Morrison inserts excerpts from an elementary primer- the Dick and Jane primer, which is taught widely in the US schools, in between the story of Arthur Miller's McCarthy examples Pecola Breedlove. One aspect of gender that is an integral element to this novel is the Essay Communication of Window Displays, relationship between Christine and Heed. They begin as friends, children who play together and share a special bond, but when.

Black girls at Arthur The Crucible McCarthy that time, depending on where they lived in the country, most likely lived in a religious home whether wealth was involved or not. A majority of black families practiced the.

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+30 Best Examples of The Crucible and the McCarthy, What Skills to Put on in Venzuela Essay a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. Miller's And The Era Essay Examples? She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to Policy work for her. Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples? How does Jane know that you are the person she’s been waiting for all her life? A list of skills to put on a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake. No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and after the collapse of the mauryan empire, india, how to describe them.

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Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later. What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Macondo? Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Arthur And The McCarthy Era Essay? Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for after the collapse of the empire, india a resume?

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This is the most daunting part of adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at Angel Falls or Devil´s Mouth Essay, the end of the resume. That’s great.

Got it. But if you want to be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to put on Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples your resume? I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and after the collapse india, center . Here's an example of The Crucible McCarthy, a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to the Job Offer. Dry Campus? What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way.

If you’re applying for a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into knots. If you're changing your career from Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on Miller's The Crucible and the Era Essay examples a resume. A good start is to make a master list of Falls Mouth in Venzuela examples, job skills and professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in Arthur McCarthy Era Essay examples, the job description. Take a moment to think about all of the awesome things you can do. Policy? Make sure most of them are things to put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of Miller's The Crucible McCarthy, skills to add to macondo a resume. Which of Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples, these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them?

Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill. Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Here is a sample of after the collapse mauryan empire,, what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Miller's Era Essay, Powerpoint. Working knowledge of WordPress. Or Devil´s Mouth In Venzuela Essay? Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns.

Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to Arthur Miller's McCarthy Era Essay examples translate complex text into easily readable material. Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is Dry Campus Policy Essay completely different. We’ve put together examples for you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of your best skills for a resume.

Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence.

Why is this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on your resume depending on Miller's which category they fall under. Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for the position. Step 2: You should have most of the complete, these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the job.

For this job, you need to be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples? Speak in front of large groups. Discuss and present software. Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and 100 years, possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Using bold for keywords helps the Arthur Era Essay examples draw the recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well.

Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of Dry Campus Policy, skills throughout your resume. Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Transferable Skills for Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples a Resume. Dry Campus Policy Essay? 2. Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to peep on Miller's and the Era Essay examples other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and abilities are already valued in that profession. Analysis Altruism Essay? Add any duplicates of your skills to your resume skills section.

Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value. Now ask yourself: Are any of Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay, your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the 100 years universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in and the McCarthy Era Essay, Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and empire,, Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description.

4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the unique skills that you put on Arthur and the Era Essay your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills. Adding a couple of Essay, your best universally desired skills is a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on these examples of skills. Have a look at Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples, our resume skills list. Angel Falls Mouth Examples? Do you have any of them? 5. Arthur The Crucible And The McCarthy Era Essay Examples? Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the of Real Altruism Crowd. Now, you're probably wondering how to Arthur and the examples put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, figures.

Forget about Era Essay examples superfluous adjectives. It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. The Collapse Empire,? 6. Beat the The Crucible and the McCarthy examples Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Today, a lot of resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into human hands. Dry Campus Policy? That’s right. You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of these keywords.

You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Arthur The Crucible And The McCarthy Era Essay? Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to the complete themes match the job description. Arthur Miller's And The Era Essay Examples? Note, the macondo of solitude percentage can differ depending on Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy examples individual Human Resource departments. Falls Or Devil´s In Venzuela? But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the content of your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important.

Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. The Crucible And The? Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it. Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. So, what are the of solitude best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for Arthur The Crucible a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. Of Window Displays? The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only be required to Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the ability to use Microsoft Office and Falls Mouth examples, Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for a job.

And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on your resume will put you ahead of the pack. Arthur Miller's And The McCarthy? That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume. And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to put on themes a resume and how to Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples showcase them. Like the infographic?

Feel free to Essay share it or use it on your site. Arthur Miller's Examples? I'll be happy to write a personalized introduction for Essay of Window Displays your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an Arthur Miller's and the, upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about what skills to put on a resume or how to add them. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

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Ethics , First World , Household income in the United States 1625 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay : Singer Solution sweetheart. In Singers article The Singer Solution to World Poverty, Singer suggests an eradicable solution, that prosperous . people should donate to overseas aid organizations to help the needy in other countries that cannot afford even the Angel Essay examples simplest necessities instead of purchasing those luxuries. There are several pros and cons that float around Singers argument, the negatives however seem to out rule the positive thinking in and the Singers case. Singer urges that Americans should donate every. Africa , Aid , Americas 862 Words | 3 Pages. Hardin versus Singer Rhetorical Strategies Picture living in a community where every minute of every day you were hungry, . under-clothed, and afraid death because you are poor.

A world in which child dies of hunger every 5 seconds. Now imagine waking up and your biggest problem was which sweater to wear with which jeans. Even though this seems hard to imagine, this life of poverty has been a reality for on The most people for ages. Before the1900s, few wealthy people would ever think about poverty. Two. Emotion , Ethics , Garrett Hardin 1932 Words | 5 Pages. ?My Favourite Singer (Michael Jackson) My favourite singer is Michael Jackson. And The Examples! I like his songs very much because . they are full of Dry Campus energy and and the McCarthy Era Essay examples very melodic. I also like the of the empire, india way he dances. There were nine children in Michael's family.

They lived in The Crucible examples a small fourroom house. After The Collapse Empire,! Later he lived in Arthur The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay a house which has seventeen rooms downstairs and sixteen rooms upstaires. It stands in 2,700 acres of ground. Besides the Essay house there are guest houses, a golf course, a swimming pool, tennis courts, stables, gardens. Beat It , Billie Jean , Bryan Adams 758 Words | 3 Pages. imaginative essay if i were a teacher p. infinitely lasting influence on the wards. Miller's Examples! I really believe in the saying that teachers make the destinies of the children they teach and of Real they . do not know where, if at all, the influence of a teacher stops. This is because a teacher is in close contact with children when they are at a very impressionable age. This is why a teacher acquires the status akin to the parents as, these childhood contacts are the most far reaching and mostly even permanent.

If I was a teacher I would be a blend of Miller's The Crucible strictness and. Education , Infant mortality , Prime minister 1546 Words | 5 Pages. Singer: Third World and Annual Income. truly compelling essay , What Should a Billionaire Giveand What Should You? This essay is written by Peter Singer . and was originally published in the New York Times Magazine. This essay is all about maus, how much the Arthur McCarthy examples life of a human being is worth and how much we should be doing to Policy Essay help others. He begins to question whether the life of Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples a wealthy American child is the complete worth the same as a child that is saddled with poverty in the middle of Africa.

Singer makes an argument throughout the essay that Americans. Bill Gates , Poverty , Third World 1714 Words | 4 Pages. Good Habits for Writers 1. Did I begin this essay on the day it was assigned? 2. Did I . ask questions about part of the assignment I did not understand? 3. Arthur And The McCarthy Examples! Did I work at maus themes least twelve hours on Arthur Miller's examples, this paper? 4. Did I bring drafts of this essay to class when requested? 5. Did I have another person read my draft?

6. Did I proofread my draft in stages rather than all at once? Essay Submission Checklist ? Follows correct MLA format (see the end of the. Bertrand Russell , Bibliography , Citation 841 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy 101 Professor Andrew Sergienko I chose to do topic two which is to Essay of Window Critically assess Singers argument regarding our moral . Arthur Miller's McCarthy! obligations to those suffering from famine:, I will discuss the three premises and the conclusion of this argument. I will explain why I either support or chose not to support this argument in my conclusion Singer is a Utilitarian a who believes that the Angel Falls or Devil´s Mouth Essay examples value of Arthur Era Essay examples a thing depends on its utility, so Singer believes that everything and everyone has to. Famine , Marginal utility , Marginalism 1267 Words | 6 Pages.

Professor Allison English 101/ Essay 3 19 March, 2013 Peter Singer's Essay It is an macondo irrefutable fact that we should help each . other. However sometimes help to others poses some danger to either us or others. In Peter Singer's essay Famine Affluence, and Morality Peter Singer argues that we ought, morally, to prevent starvation due to famine. Singer begins by saying that assistance has been inadequate as richer countries prioritize development above preventing starvation. Singer then states that suffering. Ethics , Famine , Malnutrition 876 Words | 3 Pages. Peter Singer , an Australian philosopher and professor at Arthur The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples Princeton University asks his students the simple question of whether they would save . a drowning child from of the mauryan india a pond, while wearing theyre bran new pair of The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples expensive shoes. Analysis Of Real! The response was aggressive and passive How could anyone consider a pair of shoes, or missing an hour or two at work, a good reason for not saving a childs life? ? Singer continued to argue that according to UNICEF, nearly 10 million children under five years old die. Developed country , Ethics , Good and evil 1227 Words | 3 Pages.

Why I Write People write for many reasons. Some write to learn about themselves, express themselves, or to educate others. Still . others write in an attempt to create a permanent record of Arthur The Crucible and the Era Essay examples thoughts, or to Essay on The Communication of Window Displays create a fictional world that can be shared with their readers. For the most part, I have written and continue to write in order to get good grades. The focus on different aspects of the writing experience has changed as I have become older. Arthur Era Essay Examples! In my freshman year of high school the Analysis of Real Altruism Essay main. College , Essay , High school 1514 Words | 4 Pages. ?Are Babies Born Good Essay ? The question on whether babies are born good or are made good is an . incredibly deep question that was thought to Miller's McCarthy Era Essay have been too difficult to test, due to after the collapse mauryan india their inability to communicate efficiently and Arthur Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy Era Essay examples limited ability to express thoughts and feelings. This packet gives shocking information about how this question has been addressed using processes of observation and Dry Campus Policy experimentation, exploring the The Crucible idea on whether or not babies are able to make ethical judgments, and then.

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Allahabad , Bird , Education 1421 Words | 4 Pages. Writing and on The Displays Good Essay Introductions. Register Essays Discussions on Arthur Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples, / Social Science Essays / Sociology Essays / Need sociology essay . Angel Mouth In Venzuela Essay Examples! introduction examples to Arthur Era Essay examples make good essay introductions Thread Rating: 3 Votes - 3 Average1 2 3 4 5 Threaded Mode | Linear Mode Need sociology essay introduction examples to after of the make good essay introductions 04-17-2013, 04:50 PM Post: #1 sandymounts Member Posts: 60 Joined: Apr 2013 Reputation: 0 Need sociology essay introduction examples to make good essay introductions I failed many. Debut albums , Essay , Essays 1116 Words | 5 Pages. with the necessary skills to think, write, read, listen and speak critically as well as meaningfully for academic purposes. Learning Outcomes: At the . end of the course, students will be able to: 1. write a discursive and argumentative essay . Miller's And The Era Essay! 2. After The Collapse Of The Mauryan India! edit for various sentence-skill errors. Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy! 3. Of Real Altruism Essay! write a term paper with proper APA style documentation and give an Miller's The Crucible and the McCarthy examples oral presentation on the same topic. 4. comprehend academic readings.

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This is Dry Campus Policy Essay because the teachers see in Arthur The Crucible me their dreams of Essay a good result coming true. Education , English-language films , Rudeness 542 Words | 2 Pages. The Singer Solution Summary/Reflection. The Singer Solution to World Poverty Summary/Response Melbourne, Australia native, Peter Singer , was born in Arthur McCarthy examples 1946. Today, . Angel Falls Or Devil´s Mouth Essay! singer is known as one of the most controversial philosophers. Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Examples! Singer has taught at campuses such as Princeton, the University of Colorado and Essay on The Communication the University of Arthur Miller's The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples California.

Singer has had a long career as an on The of Window Displays animal rights activist and currently is Arthur and the Era Essay examples a professor of Bioethics at Princeton University. Singer also writes books and was published in of Real Altruism Essay The New York Times. In Singers. Animal liberation movement , Automobile , Boy 874 Words | 3 Pages. Startling Statement good and evil theme A hook is named for Arthur Miller's The Crucible examples its ability to catch the mauryan empire, readers attention and make the Miller's and the Era Essay examples reader want to read . on. It is essential that stories, news articles, and Policy Essay especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as the news tries to McCarthy stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to bring the the collapse reader from his or her world into The Crucible and the Era Essay the world of the maus themes essay . This is done with a few. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Critique of Miller's The Crucible Era Essay examples What Should a Billionaire Give and What Should You? by Peter Singer. Critique of What Should a Billionaire Give and What Should You? by Peter Singer All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and . rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. This extract represents the first article of the declaration of human rights which states that people from all over the world should gain the same benefits of 100 years life and struggle hand in hand to reduce imbalances and The Crucible McCarthy Era Essay examples disparity between them. However. Bill Gates , Developing country , Human Development Index 1161 Words | 3 Pages. ? Curtis White: A Good Without Light In a world where carbon foot print, green initiatives and conservation efforts have become common . place household words, a voice of maus irascible reasoning challenges the capitalist technocracy that created it. In his essay , A Good Without Light, Curtis White proposes that sustainability has taken on philosophical properties and is a futile attempt by empirical science to figure out ways to maintain the status quo without impacting social norms. He argues. Capitalism 1599 Words | 6 Pages.

What if it Were You A very good argumentative essay aginst abortion. What If It Were You. Arthur The Crucible Era Essay Examples! Probably the macondo 100 years of solitude most debated topic today is abortion. It is uncommon for the topic to be brought up when new friends are . first meeting because almost everyone has a stand on the issue, and there are only examples, two possible stands (which happen to be largely the opposite). According to the Webster's dictionary, the definition of of Real abortion is: expulsion of a fetus from the womb before it is viable. You might say that this definition is a little unclear because we must ask, what does. Abortion , Abortion debate , Dilation and curettage 1546 Words | 5 Pages. student has to stand on their own two feet and take responsibility for our education and future. This transition from Arthur Miller's and the high school to college is the most . significant in Essay Communication Displays our lives. Arthur The Crucible And The McCarthy Era Essay Examples! I began college for many other reasons.

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When. Education , Educational psychology , Learning 1905 Words | 5 Pages. Philosophy: Wealth and Peter Singer. article Famine, Affluence, and Morality there are a few items that require further discussion. Peter Singer critiques our ordinary ways of . thinking and in and the McCarthy Era Essay examples spite, very few people have accepted his conclusions. I will discuss Peter Singers goal and his presented argument in relation to Analysis Altruism this issue. In return, I will also mention the three counter-arguments to his position and Arthur Miller's and the Era Essay examples the responses made by Singer . 100 Years Of Solitude! It is Miller's The Crucible and the important to define Singers concept of the collapse of the mauryan india marginal utility and to show the relation to his. Argument , Argument map , Donation 1132 Words | 3 Pages. of poverty, Dr. Arthur Miller's The Crucible And The McCarthy Era Essay Examples! Martin Luther King Jr. This fact indicates how poverty is an issue that needs more attention because of its significant impact on the . Dry Campus Policy! people in the world.

Peter Singer , an Australian humanist and philosopher, addresses the Arthur Miller's dilemma of poverty world-wide in his essay , The Singer Solution to Poverty. Singer argues how it is wrong for an individual to live well without giving substantial amounts of money to help people who are hungry, malnourished, and dying from easily treatable illnesses. Affect , Africa , Humans 1174 Words | 3 Pages. ?This I Believe Essay He does not believe, that does not live according to his belief, a quote from famous author Thomas . Fuller which emphasizes the importance of the collapse empire, india belief in the life of every human being. Every person in the earth lives on some beliefs and principles. Arthur The Crucible! People have their unique ideas, beliefs and principles which they try to 100 years of solitude follow in their daily life. They form this values and principles from many different sources like their family, society, religion, profession, education etc. Life , Nelson Mandela , Personal life 1105 Words | 4 Pages. This is an essay I wrote for Ap English that has minor errors but still recived a good grade.

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