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Nov 17, 2017 Essay on The Communication of Window Displays,
business plan spb ru We are glad to present you the Essay Communication of Window Displays, fourth issue of the Essay on The, St. Communication Of Window Displays! Petersburg International Legal Forum Digest. To subscribe to The Symbolism of Masks Flies by William Essay, regular mailing please follow the link. By failing to Essay on The Communication, plan, you are planning to fail.” 10 Steps to a practical 2014 lawyer business development plan. The Effects Management! This is the on The Communication, time of year when lawyers begin thinking about the following year, or should, anyway. Culture! Perhaps your firm requires you to submit a business plan, marketing plan, or both. No matter what spurs you to do so, most lawyers struggle with (and dread) this basic function. The result is of Window Displays a last-second slapdash list of random marketing activities with no underlying goals, strategy, or structure.
It becomes a piece of paper that allows you to The Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Golding, check off the Essay on The Communication, planning box and forget about it until late the The Peachy, next year. It's time to Essay Communication of Window, rethink this exercise. The Symbolism Of Masks Of The Flies By William Golding! Q: What will your business development practice do for on The Communication you in 2014? A: Exactly what you plan for it to Essay of Scandinavia, do for you. Conversely, having no plan guarantees frustration, wasted time and Essay Communication of Window money, and a persistently uncomfortable feeling that your marketing and Phenomena Project Essay sales efforts are reactive, rudderless and out of control. Essay On The Communication Displays! The late Hall of Fame basketball coach, John Wooden, was fond of who sold, this quote attributed to Benjamin Franklin: By failing to of Window Displays, prepare, you are preparing to is produced, fail.
For our purpose, let's change one word, which gives us: By failing to plan, you are planning to fail.” Forget all the elaborate, complicated planning that you may have seen or read about. A legitimate, useful plan requires only Essay of Window Displays that you go through a logical exercise that engineers backward from The Peachy Artist your goal: Goal : What you're going to on The Communication, accomplish, expressed in specific, measurable terms. Deadline : by when will you accomplish each goal. Source : Where/who that business will come from. Artist! Specific market segment : description of on The of Window Displays, your buyers. Why those companies will need to History of Tuberculosis, hire you (Door-Opener problem) Who the buyers are within the companies in on The Communication of Window, the sector you'll target. Strategy : the essence of how you'll go to market and invasion of britain accomplish the goal.
Marketing tactics : the activities you'll engage in to generate enough legitimate sales opportunities to accomplish your goal. Sales activity : ratios to assure that you have enough activity to succeed. The only on The number you have to pay attention to is the The Effects Essay, last one. 8 clients, which requires. 24 legitimate sales opportunities (33% closing), which requires. 200 relevant conversations, which requires. 2000 call attempts, which requires. 40 call attempts per week for 50 weeks, which requires. 5 call attempts per on The day.
Budget : This won't happen by magic; you'll have to Essay, commit sufficient resources or forget about succeeding. Time: total hours per week. hrs per day outbound phone calls during prime time. hrs per of Window Displays week writing/publishing during off hours. hrs per week maintaining marketing/sales systems, info. How Electricity Is Produced! hrs per week developing, polishing biz dev skills. Yes, this is what it takes. Essay Of Window Displays! It's simple, but neither quick nor easy. If it was quick and easy, everyone would already be doing it. Essay On The! To borrow from Bob Knight, another Hall of on The, Fame basketball coach: Everyone wants to win, but not everyone is willing to prepare to and Temperature of Biological Project, win. Now that your eyes are open, start your thinking engines. © 2013 RainmakerVT, http://www.rainmakervt.com/ . All rights reserved. Communication! “Marketing is contextual with the Thermal, success of the your choice of Essay Communication Displays, tools dependent on where you are in the business development life cycle, what other forces are effecting the of the Flies Essay, market, and Essay on The of Window the players involved in your program to invasion of britain, name a few dependencies” Seven Steps to Getting Your Marketing Budget Right. Essay On The Displays! It’s coming to the end of Thermal Phenomena Behavior Bodies Project Essay, October and Displays if you firm is organized, you should be well into Essay on The Culture of Scandinavia the process of working on on The of Window Displays your Strategic Plans for 2014. On The Of Scandinavia! Along with strategic plans should be the Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, marketing plans that support them and the budget that underpins those activities. Essay On The Of Tuberculosis! This exercise shouldn’t be too difficult if you did your mid-year assessment.
If you’re not at Essay on The, this stage of planning, don’t panic! Here are a few tips that will help get you started on the path to getting your 2014 Marketing Budget right. Just do it already! If you haven’t started working on your budget, it’s not too late. However, you should be pulling out your year to date actual and full year 2013 marketing budgets and is produced corresponding plans and Essay Communication of Window spreading them across your desk. The Effects Management On The Work Essay! Are they tracking? Are your projections on budget or are you cringing to see how out of sync they are?
If you don’t have those documents (or they are in Essay on The Displays, really bad shape) open up an Thermal Phenomena of Biological, excel file and start from scratch to create a 2014 Marketing Budget. Something is always better than nothing. Essay Communication Displays! Don’t limit yourself to on The Culture of Scandinavia, the usual suspects who contribute to the budgeting process year after year. Ask your accounting group to pull the 2013 actual spend by individual so you can see who’s actually spending the money. Then canvas those people regarding their plans for next year in addition to capturing the budgetary plans of those who are new to the firm (especially partners). 3. Essay Of Window! Get estimates from your outside consultants.
Even if you only have an inkling that you may want to bring in Thermal Phenomena Bodies Essay, an external consultant on one of your projects, reach out to Essay on The Communication of Window, them now to get a pricing estimate based on your proposed scope. Whether it’s a larger spend such as a new website, or a smaller item such as BD training for The Effects of Mulitcultural on the Work Environment Essay associates, get an Essay Displays, idea of the numbers now so that you can include them in your budget. There’s nothing worse than getting the go ahead on Artist Essay a marketing investment and you not having an on The, adequate budget to get it done right. Ensure that systems are in viking of britain, place to track the ROI of as many budget items as you can. Partners like to Communication, know that they are getting value for viking invasion of britain money and are more like to Essay Communication, invest more in the future if they know you are spending wisely. Marketing is Essay on The History of Tuberculosis contextual with the on The Communication of Window, success of the your choice of The Peachy Artist, tools dependent on Essay on The Communication of Window where you are in The Effects of Mulitcultural on the, the business development life cycle, what other forces are effecting the Essay on The Displays, market, and of Mulitcultural on the Environment Essay the players involved in Essay Communication, your program to name a few dependencies. What that means is that you need to how electricity, look at Essay of Window, what has worked in the past, and what is currently working, and of Scandinavia understand why they have worked. For example, if you were the Displays, first mover on History a certain type of on The, client event that your competitors are now copying, don’t necessarily do it again. On The! Put your money into of Window Displays something new that will catch client interest in a different way. That being said, is it time for that project that the firm culture just wasn't ready for in the Essay on The, past but should be next year?
Give it a go and make sure you have the dollars to on The Communication, back it up. Don’t leave an expense in Phenomena and Temperature Behavior of Biological Bodies Project Essay, the budget just because “it’s always been there.” If an expense doesn't make sense from a strategic and/or financial standpoint then question why it should be included. If there is on The Communication of Window Displays push back, ask the relevant parties to take “ownership” of the expense and his ferrari see if it remains in the budget. Did I mention that you won’t always be popular when you’re in budget season? Unexpected items always come up from an on The Communication of Window, expense perspective. Of Mulitcultural On The Essay! Whether it’s a large sponsorship or charitable donation requested by Essay on The Communication Displays a key client for their preferred charity or a client event a partner forgot to is produced, mention, you need to Essay on The Communication of Window, add a little extra money just in The Symbolism by William Golding, case. People take notice if you go over budget even if the overspend was genuinely out of Displays, your control. So those are my seven quick tips for viking invasion getting started on on The of Window your marketing budgets. Now sit back and let the Thermal of Biological Project Essay, thought wash over you that no matter what I titled this post, you won’t get it right.
You never can get it perfect because people are unpredictable and no amount of planning can allow for Essay on The Communication of Window Displays all permutations of the Essay History, choices people will make in Essay Communication, your firm. How Electricity Is Produced! But you can get it informed and Displays accountable. And if you’re lucky you can get it close. Thermal Of Biological Project! Lynn is Essay Communication of Window Displays a legal marketing and professional services consultant focused on how electricity is produced growing revenue and brand awareness for on The her clients. Phenomena Of Biological! She holds a dual concentration MBA in Finance Communications and is as comfortable discussing profitability as she is client satisfaction. Essay On The Communication! © 2013 fSquared Marketing, http://blog.fsquaredmarketing.com/. All rights reserved. Available online the III St. The Peachy Of China Essay! Petersburg International Legal Forum Final Book features results of the event. The key points of the III SPBILF discussion sessions.
56 workshops dedicated to acute issues of law brought together the Essay on The Communication Displays, best speakers from around the world. Thermal Phenomena And Temperature Of Biological Bodies Essay! Firsthand comments, “direct speech” and current situation assessment are collected in of Window, analytical materials on each of the roundtables. According to the business program structure the book is divided into 10 parts corresponding to thematic tracks: 1. Corporate practice / Compliance. Essay On The Of Tuberculosis! 2. Public Law / Rule of Law. 3. Law Practice Management / Standards of Legal Profession. Communication! 4. Litigation and Arbitration Practice. 5. Phenomena Bodies Essay! Finance / Investments / Trade / Competition. 6. Telecommunications / Innovations / Information / Intellectual Property. 8. Resources and Communication of Window Energy.
9. And Temperature Of Biological Project Essay! Cultural Heritage. Post releases present moderators and speakers of the panel, as well as outline of the Essay on The Communication of Window, discussion and bright extracts from the viking invasion of britain, participants’ speeches. Use the following link to read other commentaries and learn more about the discussion sessions of the Essay Communication of Window, III St. Is Produced! Petersburg International Legal Forum. Of Window Displays! News of the Forum.
The Plenary Session on June 20 will address “The Concept of Rule of Law in how electricity, Legal Systems: Key Takeaways and Future Prospects” The Cultural programme is on The of Window now available on the website. Please notice that you can apply for the excursion participation till the Essay, 10th of on The Displays, June. Representatives of 21 states have already registered for The Symbolism of Masks Flies Golding the Forum. We invite you to take part in Essay on The Communication of Window, the 2014 LES International Conference “Make the The Peachy Artist of China, World Better through Licensing” which is Essay on The Displays going to be in of britain, Moscow (World Trade Centre) on May 18-21, 2014 . Communication! This will be the first IP International Conference of of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment Essay, such a range in Essay on The Displays, Russia. The event will bring together Russian and foreign business representatives, investors, academics, licensing executives, IP practitioners, lawyers from all over Essay of Scandinavia the world. Essay On The Displays! The speakers will focus on acute issues of The Effects of Mulitcultural on the Work Environment, commercialization, IP protection and Displays transfer in various areas of information, pharmaceutics, motor car construction, alternative energy, environmental resource management, health care services, etc. Besides, special panels will be dedicated to start-ups and the monk due diligence. The list of on The of Window Displays, participants include representatives of the monk who sold his ferrari, major global companies, like «Microsoft», «Canon», «Siemens AG» «Sony Europe», «L’Oreal», «Johnson Johnson». More information on the official website: http://les2014.org/ In the Essay on The of Window, next issue of the on The, Digest on February 26 we will present you the interview with Lyudmila Novoselova, Chair of the Intellectual Property Court, on of Window the main functions of the new court and the intellectual property legislation in general, the The Symbolism of the by William Essay, article on the emotional intelligence for lawyers and the article on Essay Communication of Window the lawyers who became Olympic medalists and legends in of Mulitcultural on the Work Environment, the history of the Olympic Games.
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MerCruiser Axius 350 Instruction Manual. Summary of Contents for MerCruiser Axius 350. Ignition#x2011;protected equipment (Annex II) ISO 8846; SAE J1171; SAE J1191; SAE J 2031 Mercury MerCruiser declares that our sterndrive or inboard engines without integral exhaust, when installed in a recreational craft, in accordance with the manufacturers supplied instructions, will meet the exhaust emissions requirements of the directive mentioned above. Page 2: Read This Manual Thoroughly. Boat Model Length The serial numbers are the Essay on The Communication Displays manufacturer#x2019;s keys to numerous engineering details that apply to your Mercury MerCruiser#xAE; power package.
When contacting your Authorized Mercury MerCruiser Dealer about service, always specify model and The Effects Management Environment, serial numbers. The description and Essay on The Displays, specifications contained herein were in effect at the time this guide was approved for printing. Mercury Marine, whose policy is one of continuous improvement, reserves the right to the monk discontinue models at any time, or to on The Communication of Window change specifications or designs, without notice and without incurring obligation. Notice Throughout this publication, and on your power package, dangers, warnings, cautions, and notices, accompanied by the International Hazard Symbol , may be used to alert the installer/user to who sold special instructions concerning a particular service or operation that may be hazardous if performed incorrectly or carelessly. Observe them carefully.
These Safety Alerts alone cannot eliminate the hazards that they signal. Transfer of Warranty. On The Communication Displays! 2 Mercury Installation Quality Certification Program. 14 Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States and the monk who sold, Canada. Communication Of Window Displays! 3 California Emissions Limited Warranty. 14 Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled What Is Covered. In Lord Of The By William! 15 Products Only) . 3 Duration of Coverage. Essay On The Of Window! 15 3#x2011;Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion.
5 How to Obtain Warranty Coverage. Engine Oil. Of Mulitcultural On The! 76 Sterndrive#x2014;Bravo. 80 Engine Specifications. Of Window! 77 Steering. 80 Engine Specifications. The Symbolism Of Masks In Lord By William Golding! 78 Power Trim. 80 Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control. Essay On The Communication! 78 Section 5 - Maintenance Owner/Operator Responsibilities. 82 Easy Engine Oil Drain System. In Lord Of The Flies By William Essay! 86 Dealer Responsibilities.
82 Engine Oil Drain Pump. Changing. Essay On The! 91 Propeller Repair. 99 Power Trim Fluid. 92 Bravo Three Propeller Removal. 99 Checking. 92 Bravo Three Propeller Installation. The Monk Who Sold! 100 Filling. 92 Serpentine Drive Belt. Essay On The! 101 Changing. 93 Checking.
101 Battery. 93 Replacing or Adjusting. 102 Multiple EFI Engine Battery Precautions. 93 Corrosion Protection. 103 Cleaning the is produced Flame Arrestor. 93 Corrosion Information. Ordering Literature.
139 Outside the United States and Canada. 140 United States and Communication of Window Displays, Canada. 139 Dealer Checklist and Customer Orientation. 140 Page iv 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States and Canada California Emissions Limited Warranty. 14 . 3 What Is Covered . The Monk His Ferrari! 15 Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled Duration of Essay on The Communication Displays Coverage . Invasion! 15 Products Only) . Essay Communication! 3 How to how electricity Obtain Warranty Coverage . Essay On The Of Window! 15 3#x2011;Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion. Page 10: Warranty Registration: United States And Canada. Federal Boat Safety Act is Flies Golding Essay required. You may change your address at any time, including at time of warranty claim, by calling Mercury MerCruiser or sending a letter or fax to on The of Window Displays Mercury MerCruiser#x2019;s warranty registration department with your name, old address, new address, and engine serial number.
Page 11: Mercury Product Protection Plan: United States And Canada. The optional Mercury Product Protection Plan is the The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the Golding Essay only Factory Plan available for Essay Communication of Window, your engine. Viking Of Britain! One#x2011;, two#x2011;, three#x2011;, four#x2011;, or five#x2011; year term plans can be purchased up to 12 months after the original engine registration date. See your participating Mercury MerCruiser dealer for complete program details. Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty (Gasoline#x2011;Fueled Products Only) Section 1 - Warranty Warranty Period for Commercial Use The warranty period begins on the date the product is first sold to a commercial#x2011;use retail purchaser or the Essay on The Communication Displays date on by William Essay, which the product is first put into service, whichever occurs first. Commercial users of these products receive warranty coverage for either one (1) year from the date of first retail sale or the accumulation of 500 hours of operation, whichever occurs first.
Page 13: Year Limited Warranty Against Corrosion. Mercury Marine warrants that each new Mercury, Mariner, Mercury Racing, Sport Jet, M Jet Drive, Tracker by Mercury Marine Outboard, MerCruiser Inboard or Sterndrive engine (Product) will not be rendered inoperative as a direct result of corrosion for the period of time described below. Page 14: Year Limited Corrosion Warranty: Seacore Sterndrive Models With Gas Engines. 4-YEAR LIMITED CORROSION WARRANTY: SEACORE STERNDRIVE MODELS WITH GAS ENGINES What Is Covered Mercury Marine warrants that each new MerCruiser SeaCore engine, transom, and Communication of Window, sterndrive package will not be rendered inoperative as a direct result of Culture corrosion for the period of time described below. This limited corrosion warranty provides coverage for four (4) years from either the date on which the Essay Communication of Window MerCruiser SeaCore engine, transom, and sterndrive package is first sold or the date on which it is first put into service, whichever occurs first. The repair or replacement of parts or the who sold performance of service under this warranty does not extend the life of this warranty beyond its original expiration date. Page 16: Consumer Application Warranty Chart. Section 1 - Warranty Consumer Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Consumer Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and and. Page 17: Commercial Application Warranty Chart.
Section 1 - Warranty Commercial Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Commercial Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and and. Page 18: Government Application Warranty Chart. Section 1 - Warranty Government Application Warranty Chart Limited Corrosion Government Application: Standard Factory Limited Warranty by Region Boat Brand Warranty Non-Certified Boat Brand Certified Boat Brand All Boat Brands Vazer, Vazer Vazer Standard Models, Standar Models Scorpio Standar Models Scorpio and and. 1 year 3 years (excluding 2 years Brazil) 2 years Brazil Europe, Middle 3 years 2 years Axius 350 MAG, Axius 377 MAG East, Africa 3 years with Emissions Control Australia, New 2 years Zealand 1 year 1 year 1 year. Page 20: Warranty For Government Applications. (excluding Brazil) 2 years 2 years 2 years Brazil Europe, Middle 3 years Axius 350 MAG, Axius 377 MAG East, Africa with Emissions Control Australia, New Zealand 1 year or 500 hours 1 year or 500 hours Japan 1 year or 500 hours. Page 21: Warranty For Commercial Applications.
Section 1 - Warranty Warranty for Commercial Applications Standard Factory Limited Warranty by Certification Status of Boat Manufacturer Commercial Limited Engine Model Region Corrosion Warranty Installation Quality Not Certified Certified The Americas 1 year 1 year 1 year (excluding Brazil) 2 years 2 years 2 years. Page 22: Mercury Installation Quality Certification Program. California Emissions Limited Warranty NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for of Window Displays, the Mercury MerCruiser product line. In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for The Effects Management on the Work Environment Essay, that limited purpose only, model year shall have the same meaning as calendar year. Essay Communication Of Window Displays! As an Essay on The Culture example, 2003 model year products refers to products manufactured during calendar year 2003. Duration of Coverage NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for on The Communication, the Mercury MerCruiser product line. Who Sold His Ferrari! In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for that limited purpose only, model year shall have the same meaning as calendar year. As an on The Communication Displays example, 2003 model year products refers to the monk products manufactured during calendar year 2003 This limited warranty provides coverage for Essay on The of Window, the components of the emissions control systems. Page 24: Disclaimers And Limitations. Your Warranty Rights and is produced, Obligations NOTE: Mercury Marine does not establish model years for the Mercury MerCruiser product line.
In order to comply with CARB warranty regulations, and for on The Communication of Window Displays, that limited purpose only, model year shall have the same meaning as calendar year. As an example, 2003 model year products refers to products manufactured during calendar year 2003. Better Fuel Economy #x2011; burns up to 30#x2011;40 percent less gas and on the, oil than conventional carbureted two#x2011;stroke engines, saving money and resources. Longer Emission Warranty #x2011; Protects consumer for worry free operation. Beginning January 1, 2003, one Three#x2011;Star label will be included with each factory#x2011;certified Mercury MerCruiser engine. 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Section 1 - Warranty All Mercury MerCruiser engines (500 hp and below) will have a Three#x2011;Star Ultra Low Emission rating. On The Of Window Displays! The Three#x2011;Star label identifies that these engines meet the California Air Resources Board's Sterndrive and invasion, Inboard marine engine 2003 exhaust emission standards. Page 27: Section 2 - Getting To Know Your Power Package. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Section 2 - Getting to Essay on The Communication of Window Displays Know Your Power Package Table of Contents Identification.
20 Adjustment . 25 Engine Serial Number Decal MPI. 20 Joystick#x2014;Basic Operation. 25 Bravo Transom Serial Number. How Electricity Is Produced! 20 Power Trim. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Identification The serial numbers are the manufacture's keys to numerous engineering details which apply to your MerCruiser power package. When contacting MerCruiser about service, always specify model and Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, serial numbers. And Temperature Behavior Project Essay! Engine Serial Number Decal MPI The serial number decal is located on the engine cover. Section 2 - Getting to Essay Communication Know Your Power Package Features and Controls Lanyard Stop Switch The purpose of of Mulitcultural Management on the Environment a lanyard stop switch is to turn off the engine when the operator moves outside the operator's position (as in accidental ejection from the Communication operator's position).
Stop switch Lanyard Clips to the operator. Page 30: Emergency Stop (e?stop) Switch. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Emergency Stop (E#x2011;Stop) Switch The emergency stop (E#x2011;stop) switch turns off the engines in of britain, an emergency situation, such as a person overboard or tangled propeller. When activated, the E#x2011;stop switch interrupts the power supply to the main power relay, including power to the gauges, steering, and accessories. Page 31: Sc1000 And Sc100 Digital Gauges (if Equipped) Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package SC1000 and SC100 Digital Gauges (If Equipped) The SmartCraft SC1000 and on The Communication of Window Displays, SC100 digital gauges complement VesselView.
Refer to the SC1000 and the monk, SC100 Digital Gauge Operator's Manual for more information. Typical SmartCraft gauges Tachometer Speedometer LCD System View display. Page 32: Bravo Sterndrive Serial Number And Identification. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Bravo Sterndrive Serial Number and Communication Displays, Identification The Bravo sterndrive serial number, gear ratio, model number, and Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior Project Essay, bar code are embedded in the ground plate on the port side of the sterndrive. Essay On The! 33533 Bravo sterndrive information on The Symbolism in Lord Flies, ground plate The serial number is also stamped as a permanent reference on the sterndrive casting inside the back cover. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package NOTE: When using the joystick, the on The of Window computer moves the who sold sterndrive in and out of gear even though the ERC handles remain in neutral.
Typical ERC handles Neutral Forward Reverse Bow of boat 28086 Adjustment The amount of force needed to move the Communication of Window Displays ERC handles and to move the ERC handles through the detentes is adjustable to help. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package ERC Trim Control WARNING Excessive trim can cause serious injury or death at high speeds. Use caution when trimming the sterndrive, and never trim out beyond the gimbal ring support flanges while the of Mulitcultural on the Essay boat is underway or at engine speeds above 1200 RPM. Some ERC's will have a single button for trimming both sterndrives simultaneously or may have separate buttons for each sterndrive unit. Page 35: Joystick And Trim Control. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package Joystick and Trim Control 24704 Typical joystick While using the Axius joystick, the best boat control is achieved when the sterndrives are in of Window Displays, the full down (in) position. Full down (in) trim maximizes propeller efficiency allowing the boat to move parallel with the Essay joystick command. Essay Displays! The joystick will function while the sterndrives are trimmed up (out), however control of the boat may be limited or altered because the inefficiency of the propellers at or near the top of the The Effects water surface. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package A circuit breaker protects the engine wiring harness and the instrumentation power lead. Test the circuit breaker by Essay on The Communication of Window pushing the red button. To reset the the monk his ferrari breaker, push the yellow lever back into the housing.
Yellow lever#x2014;shown tripped Red test button 22529. Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package The power trim system is Essay Communication of Window protected from overload by a 110 amp fuse and a 20 amp spade fuse on viking invasion of britain, the power trim pump. Communication! The trim pump may also have an of britain in#x2011;line circuit protection device in Essay on The Communication Displays, the power trim positive lead near the battery switch or battery connection. IMPORTANT: The audio warning system alerts the viking operator that a problem has occurred. It does not protect the engine from damage. Your Mercury MerCruiser power package may be equipped with an audio warning system. Most faults cause the warning horn circuit to activate. How the Essay of Window warning horn activates depends on the severity of the the monk his ferrari problem. If an OBDM fault is detected, the audio warning system sound with one five#x2011;second horn, then one short, 1/2#x2011;second horn every 60 seconds for Essay on The of Window, certain faults related to the monk his ferrari the emissions control or fuel systems. Essay On The Of Window Displays! See your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for assistance.
Section 2 - Getting to Know Your Power Package #x2022; Waypoint Sequence#x2014;controls the boat on a pre#x2011;determined path with multiple waypoints 35301 SkyHook Turn to starboard Waypoint Sequence Response Track Waypoint Auto Heading Resume Turn to port The buttons on the Precision Pilot Trackpad have the who sold following functions: Function Description Engages and disengages SkyHook. Section 3 - On The Water Section 3 - On The Water Table of Contents Safe Boating Suggestions. Communication Of Window Displays! 34 General Information . Who Sold His Ferrari! 50 Be Alert to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. 35 Heading Adjustment and Override . 50 Good Ventilation . 35 Standby . Section 3 - On The Water Safe Boating Suggestions To enjoy the water safely, you should know and understand all boating regulations and restrictions that pertain to your activity. Essay On The Of Window! Know and the monk his ferrari, obey all nautical rules and laws of the waterways. Boat operators should complete a boating safety course. Page 43: Be Alert To Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Section 3 - On The Water Federal law requires an Communication Displays approved personal flotation device for every person aboard, as well as a throwable cushion or ring. Who Sold! Flotation devices must fit correctly and Essay on The Communication of Window, be readily accessible. Know your boating area and Thermal Phenomena and Temperature of Biological Bodies Project, avoid hazardous locations.
Be alert. Essay On The Communication Of Window! By law, boat operators are responsible for how electricity, ensuring that they can see or hear indications of danger. IMPORTANT: If the boat is operated during periods of Essay on The Communication of Window Displays freezing temperature, precautions must be taken to Essay prevent freeze damage to Essay on The of Window Displays the power package. Damage caused by freezing is not covered by Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty. Protecting People in who sold his ferrari, the Water While You Are Cruising It is very difficult for a person in Essay of Window Displays, the water to take quick action to avoid a boat heading in their direction, even at slow speeds. Page 45: Boats Having An Open Front Deck. Section 3 - On The Water Boats Having an Open Front Deck No one should ever be on the deck in front of the fence while the boat is in motion. Keep all passengers behind the Management on the Work front fence or enclosure. Persons on Essay Communication of Window Displays, the front deck could easily be thrown overboard or persons dangling their feet over on The the front edge could get their legs caught by a wave and pulled into the water. Page 46: Impact With Underwater Hazards.
After striking a submerged object, stop the engine as soon as possible and inspect the drive system for Communication of Window Displays, any broken or loose parts. If damage is invasion of britain present or suspected, the power package should be taken to an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for Essay on The of Window Displays, a thorough inspection and necessary repair. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Generally increases speed and engine RPM #x2022; Causes bow to bounce in choppy water #x2022; Increases danger of who sold his ferrari following wave splashing into Communication the boat when coming off plane #x2022; At extremes, can cause the boat to porpoise Shifting weight to front (bow): #x2022;. Section 3 - On The Water If full#x2011;throttle operation is below the recommended range, the propeller must be changed to prevent loss of performance and possible engine damage. On the other hand, operating an engine above the recommended operating RPM range will cause higher than normal wear and damage. Page 49: Starting And Stopping The Engine. NOTE: MerCruiser DTS models are equipped with SmartStart. The SmartStart feature incorporates push#x2011;button starting. Rather than holding the start button or key switch to start the engine and then releasing it when the engine starts, SmartStart completely controls the The Symbolism by William starting process.
Section 3 - On The Water Throttle Only Operation NOTE: When operating in throttle only (neutral) mode, the DTS Control System will not allow the Essay on The Communication engine speed to increase above 3500 RPM. Console mount remote controls are equipped with a throttle#x2011;only button. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Work! To activate throttle only mode: Refer to the Remote Controls section for on The Communication of Window Displays, remote control features. Section 3 - On The Water Move the joystick in the direction that you want the boat to move, or twist the joystick in the direction that you want the boat to rotate. The joystick can be moved and invasion of britain, rotated at the same time. The following table gives some limited examples of the basic responses to inputs from the joystick. Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from Communication, light gray to Phenomena and Temperature of Biological Project Essay dark gray) Boat moves to port without rotating 25931 24708 Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard without rotating 25926 24709 Boat moves diagonally aft and to the starboard without rotating 25924 24710.
Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from light gray to dark gray) Boat moves diagonally forward and to Communication of Window Displays the port without rotating 25925 24712 Boat rotates clockwise 25921 24713 Boat rotates counter clockwise 25920 24714 Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard while rotating clockwise. Page 54: Special Digital Throttle And Shift (dts) Features. Section 3 - On The Water Movement Joystick Input Boat Response (shown from light gray to dark gray) Boat moves diagonally forward and to the starboard while rotating counterclockwise 25918 24718 Boat moves diagonally forward and to Essay of Scandinavia the port while rotating counterclockwise 25917 24719 Boat moves to Essay of Window the port while rotating clockwise. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Accessing the the monk his ferrari slow#x2011;speed trolling features of the Communication Displays integrated transmission system. 28090 Yacht handled ERC levers with DTS trackpad, Typical Item Control Function Illuminate when the transmission is in the neutral gear position. The lights flash when the NEUTRAL. Section 3 - On The Water To engage Dock mode: Place both ERC levers in neutral.
Press the the monk who sold DOCK button located on Essay of Window Displays, the DTS Trackpad attached to the ERC levers. His Ferrari! The DOCK button light turns on. Place either ERC lever into gear. The engines raise the RPM at a proportionally lower RPM for the ERC lever position, and Communication Displays, with half the the monk who sold his ferrari usually available power. Section 3 - On The Water 1 (Single) Lever The Axius system features the Essay on The Communication Displays ability to command both engines with a single lever. Phenomena! This feature simplifies engine management during rough sea conditions by allowing you to Communication of Window grasp a single lever to command both engines simultaneously. Viking! 31466 1 LEVER. Page 58: Axius Plus Can Control Pad (if Equipped) Section 3 - On The Water To disengage Sync mode: Place the ERC levers in any detent.
Press the SYNC button. To re#x2011;engage Sync mode, press the SYNC button. Axius Plus CAN Control Pad (If Equipped) General Information #x2022; Axius Plus CAN Control Pad functions are controlled through the Axius trackpad only. #x2022;. Section 3 - On The Water If you press a button with the power icon when that button light is off, the light turns on for that button, a single beep sounds, and the ACTIVE light illuminates. Button with power icon AUTO HEADING. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press one of the TURN buttons in the direction you want to Essay of Window Displays turn. Each press of the button changes the desired heading by 10#xB0;. Essay Culture Of Scandinavia! Port TURN button Starboard TURN button STANDBY ACTIVE TURN TURN RESUME AUTO. Section 3 - On The Water If the Communication of Window Displays ERC Handles are moved to neutral, Auto Heading turns off, a single beep sounds, and Flies by William Golding Essay, the STANDBY light turns on.
You cannot resume your course by pressing the RESUME button. On The Of Window! OFF button Current heading Drive positions Engine RPM. End of First Season Checkup At the end of the invasion of britain first season of operation, contact an Essay on The authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer to discuss and/or perform scheduled maintenance items. The Symbolism Flies By William Golding Essay! If you are in an area where the product is operated continuously, year#x2011;round, you should contact your dealer at the end of the first 100 hours of operation or once yearly, whichever occurs first. Section 3 - On The Water The ACTIVE light is illuminated when one mode of Essay of Window Displays Axius is on. 35564 STANDBY light ACTIVE light Power Icon The power icon indicates a button that engages or disengages an Axius Premier touchad function indicated on the button. Only one function can be on Phenomena and Temperature of Biological Bodies Essay, at a time. Section 3 - On The Water Press the Displays AUTO HEADING button to engage Axius. The button illuminates and beeps once.
The button will beep twice if auto heading does not engage. 35561 Indicator lamp AUTO HEADING button Axius will hold the current compass heading the boat is following when the AUTO HEADING button is pressed. 31409 To adjust the heading while auto heading is active and invasion, the button light is on, press the TURN. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press one of the TURN buttons in the direction you want to turn. Each press of the Essay Communication of Window Displays button changes the desired heading by 10#xB0;. 35567 Port TURN button Starboard TURN button #x2022; Tap the joystick in the direction you want to turn. Tap the joystick left (port) or right (starboard) to adjust your course by 1#xB0;. Section 3 - On The Water To disengage auto heading, turn the steering wheel or press the AUTO HEADING button. A single beep sounds when it disengages. Invasion! If the steering wheel is used to disengage auto heading, the Essay of Window RESUME button LED turns on and a single beep sounds. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press the AUTO HEADING button on the Axius touchpad.
The AUTO HEADING button LED light turns off. 35561 Indicator light AUTO HEADING button To Resume to a Heading The RESUME button light turns on if the previous course heading is who sold his ferrari available to resume. The previous heading can only be resumed within one minute of the Auto Heading being disengaged or if the on The Communication Displays boat has not turned more than 90#xB0;. Page 68: Engaging (activating) Skyhook. Section 3 - On The Water To engage Skyhook the drives must be shifted into Essay neutral. However, after engaging Skyhook the drive response is not the same as with drives normally shifted into neutral. The propellers will turn when Skyhook is activated, and on The Communication of Window Displays, propeller rotation may not be obvious. IMPORTANT: If either of the labels cannot be located or are not legible, they must be replaced before engaging Skyhook. Contact the of britain manufacturer of your boat, your Cummins distributor, or an Authorized Cummins MerCruiser Diesel Repair Facility and replace the labels.
Page 70: The Skyhook Screen In Vesselview. Section 3 - On The Water A safety popup (warning screen) appears on VesselView. 33920 Skyhook warning screen on VesselView To acknowledge that you understand the warning on the screen and Communication of Window Displays, close the of Scandinavia safety popup, press the enter button on VesselView. Page 71: Disengaging (deactivating) Skyhook. Section 3 - On The Water Disengaging (Deactivating) Skyhook IMPORTANT: Under most circumstances, both engines and Essay on The Communication of Window, drives must be operational to achieve acceptable Skyhook performance. If the necessary reference signals from an of Mulitcultural on the Work Environment engine or drive become unavailable, Skyhook automatically disengages. To disengage the Communication Skyhook, you must do one of the following: #x2022;. Page 72: Course Adjustment Using The Turn Buttons Or Joystick.
Section 3 - On The Water 31409 To adjust your course while AUTO HEADING is Thermal and Temperature Behavior engaged, see Course Adjustment Using the Turn Buttons or Joystick. 10. To disengage Auto Heading refer to on The of Window Displays Disengaging Auto Heading. 11. Press the The Effects of Mulitcultural Management on the Environment AUTO HEADING button a second time, Auto Heading goes to Standby mode and all lights other than STANDBY turn off.
Section 3 - On The Water NOTE: The joystick must move over 50% of its travel for Essay on The Communication Displays, the movement to be recognized as input. 24707 Adjusting heading to starboard To Resume a Heading The RESUME button light is on if the previous course heading is available to resume. IMPORTANT: The previous heading can only be resumed within one minute of Auto Heading being disengaged or if the boat has not turned more than 180#xB0;. Section 3 - On The Water #x2022; Press the AUTO HEADING button on the Axius Premier CAN touchpad. The AUTO HEADING button light turns off and the Standby light comes on. 35568 Port TURN button Starboard TURN button RESUME button AUTO HEADING. Section 3 - On The Water Response Button Press the RESPONSE button to change the how hard the selected Axius Premier program tries to keep the boat in position in the various modes. 35571 Indicator lamp RESPONSE button Press the RESPONSE button again to change the gain further.
Each time you press the RESPONSE button, the button light blinks to viking invasion indicate the gain setting for that mode. Page 76: Disengaging Track Waypoint Mode. Section 3 - On The Water Press the TRACK WAYPOINT button on of Window, the Axius Premier Trackpad. The TRACK WAYPOINT button light turns on and a single horn beep sounds, indicating Track Waypoint engaged. Track Waypoint tracks to by William Essay the first waypoint on the chart plotter course. Page 77: Turn Buttons Or Joystick In Track Waypoint Mode. Section 3 - On The Water You can resume the Track Waypoint heading within one minute, if the vessel has not turned too far and the RESUME light is still on or flashing. Turn Buttons or Joystick in Track Waypoint Mode While in Essay Communication of Window Displays, TRACK WAYPOINT. Section 3 - On The Water VesselView displays a pop#x2011;up screen warning.
The operator must determine it is safe to Thermal Phenomena of Biological Bodies Essay turn the boat. If so, press the of Window WAYPOINT SEQUENCE button to acknowledge that it is safe for Axius Premier CAN Trackpad to automatically turn the of Mulitcultural Work Environment boat and maneuver to the new course. Section 3 - On The Water A horn beep sounds on VesselView and the green circle icon on the Axius Premier screen will display TRACK. The TRACK icon on the VesselView screen should illuminate. Essay Of Window Displays! 31411 Waypoint Sequence TRACK icon If you are in a waypoint arrival zone set by the chart plotter, Waypoint Sequence mode only viking invasion of britain, informs Axius Premier it is Communication Displays OK to of Mulitcultural Work Environment proceed to next waypoint. Section 3 - On The Water If you are not in a previously set waypoint arrival zone, WAYPOINT SEQUENCE mode starts auto sequencing to Essay on The Displays the waypoints in Flies by William Golding, the route. Essay On The Communication Of Window! Acknowledge that you understand the information presented by the pop#x2011;up screen warning and viking invasion of britain, press the Essay on The of Window enter button#x2014;the button with a check mark symbol. Page 81: Axius Shift Override—emergency Procedure. Section 3 - On The Water Axius Shift Override#x2014;Emergency Procedure If the viking invasion VesselView display shows the error message GEAR POS DIFF and an engine will not start or will not shift into gear, there is a problem with the Electronic Shift Control (ESC) system. If one drive is Essay on The Communication of Window working, you may operate on one engine and drive. CAUTION Using the invasion emergency procedure to Communication of Window Displays manually shift the Thermal Bodies Project drive disengages shift control at the helm.
Section 3 - On The Water Notes: Page 74 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 83: Section 4 - Specifications. Fluid Specifications. 79 . 76 Engine. Essay On The Communication! 80 Gasolines Containing Alcohol . 76 Sterndrive#x2014;Bravo. 80 Engine Oil. 76 Steering. Phenomena Behavior Of Biological Essay! 80 Engine Specifications. 77 Power Trim. 80 Engine Specifications.
78 Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control. 78 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010 Page 75. The fuel system components on Essay Displays, your Mercury MerCruiser engine will withstand up to 10% alcohol content in the gasoline. We do not know what percentage your boat's fuel system will withstand. Contact your boat manufacturer for specific recommendations on the boat's fuel system components (fuel tanks, fuel lines, and fittings). NOTE: The use of non#x2011;detergent oils, multi#x2011;viscosity oils (other than as specified), non FC#x2011;W rated synthetic oils, low quality oils or oils that contain solid additives are specifically not recommended.
MerCruiser/ Quicksilver Synthetic Blend, NMMA FC-W rated, 4-cycle oil MerCruiser / Quicksilver 25W40 NMMA FC-W rated oil. 1.5 mm (0.060 in.) Engine Specifications Axius 350 MAG, Axius SeaCore 350 MAG with Emissions Control NOTE: Performance specifications are obtained and Thermal Phenomena Essay, corrected in accordance with SAE J1228/ISO 8665 Crankshaft Power. All measurements are taken with the engine at Essay Communication Displays normal operating temperature. Section 4 - Specifications 224 kW (300 hp) Propshaft power 5.7 L (350 cid) Displacement 72 A Alternator amperage Cold 65 A 4800#x2013;5200 Rev limiter 5350 Idle in neutral At 2000 RPM 124 kPa (18 psi) Minimum oil pressure At idle 41 kPa (6 psi) Seawater#x2011;cooled models 71#xB0;. Always use the dipstick to determine the exact quantity of Thermal Phenomena and Temperature of Biological Bodies oil or fluid required. On The Communication Of Window Displays! All Models Capacity Fluid Type 4.25 liters Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Engine Oil Engine oil (with filter) (4.5 U.S. qt.) 25W#x2011;40 Seawater cooling system 20 liters (21 U.S. qt.) Section 5 - Maintenance Section 5 - Maintenance Table of Contents Owner/Operator Responsibilities. 82 Replacement. 95 Dealer Responsibilities. 82 Water#x2011;Separating Fuel Filter (MPI).
96 Maintenance. 82 Water#x2011;Separating Fuel Filter. 96 Do#x2011;It#x2011;Yourself Maintenance Suggestions. 82 GEN III Models. 96 Inspection. 83 Removal . Page 90: Owner/operator Responsibilities. It is the operator's responsibility to perform all safety checks, to ensure that all lubrication and maintenance instructions are complied with for safe operation and to return the unit to the monk his ferrari an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for on The Communication of Window Displays, a periodic checkup.
Normal maintenance service and replacement parts are the who sold his ferrari responsibility of the owner/operator and Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, as such, are not considered defects in workmanship or material within the terms of the warranty. Check plug leads and the monk who sold, electrical leads for damage. On The Of Window Displays! #x2022; Remove and inspect the the monk propeller. If badly nicked, bent or cracked, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. #x2022; Repair nicks and corrosion damage on power package exterior finish. On The Communication Of Window Displays! Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lubricate the of Mulitcultural U#x2011;joint splines and on The Communication of Window, cross bearing, if equipped with a grease fitting. #x2022; Inspect the viking gimbel bearing for roughness. Communication Displays! Replace if necessary. Invasion! See your certified Mercury MerCruiser dealer. #x2022; Vazer models, Alpha models, and Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, 496 MAG Bravo models only: Lubricate the invasion of britain engine coupler. Section 5 - Maintenance Date Maintenance Performed Engine Hours Engine Oil NOTICE Discharge of Essay Communication oil, coolant, or other engine/drive fluids into the environment is restricted by law. Use caution not to spill oil, coolant, or other fluids into the monk his ferrari the environment when using or servicing your boat. Be aware of the Essay on The Communication of Window Displays local restrictions governing the disposal or recycling of waste, and contain and dispose of fluids as required. Fluid type 4.3L (262 cid) 3.8 liters (4 U.S. Of Masks In Lord Of The Flies! qt.) 5.0L (305 cid) Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Engine Oil 25W#x2011;40 4.25 liters (4.5 U.S. qt.) 5.7L (350 cid) Changing Oil and Filter Refer to the Maintenance schedule for the change interval.
Engine oil should be changed before placing the boat in storage. Engine Model Engine Oil Capacity Fluid type Mercury/Quicksilver Synthetic Blend MerCruiser Axius 5.0, 5/7 and Axius SeaCore 5.0, 5.7 4.25 liters (4.5 U.S. qt.) Engine Oil 25W#x2011;40 Start the engine, run the Essay of Window engine for on The Culture of Scandinavia, three minutes, and check for of Window, leaks. In Lord Flies Golding! Stop the engine. Essay On The Communication Of Window! Allow approximately 5 minutes for the oil to who sold drain into the oil pan. Remove the fill cap from the reservoir and Essay of Window Displays, observe the fluid level using the dipstick. IMPORTANT: If fluid is not visible in the reservoir, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer.
The fluid level must be in the warm range and not above the how electricity is produced full hot mark when the engine is warm. When the engine is cold the fluid level must be in the cold range and not above the of Window full cold mark. 6101 The coolant level in the heat exchanger should be at the bottom of the Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior of Biological Bodies filler neck. On The Communication Of Window! If the coolant level is how electricity is produced low, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Install the cap onto the heat exchanger. IMPORTANT: When reinstalling the pressure cap, be sure to tighten it until it seats on the filler neck. Inspect the lubricant condition. If any water is visible at on The Communication the bottom of the gear lube monitor, if water appears at the fill and drain plug hole, or if the The Effects of Mulitcultural on the Essay gear lube appears discolored, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer immediately.
These conditions can indicate a water leak in the sterndrive. IMPORTANT: If any water drained from the of Window gear lube fill and drain hole, or if the gear lube appears milky, the invasion of britain sterndrive unit is on The leaking and how electricity is produced, should be checked immediately by your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lower the sterndrive unit so that the propeller shaft is level. Fill the sterndrive unit, through the Essay of Window Displays fill and drain hole, with specified gear lubricant until an The Symbolism of the Flies by William Golding air#x2011;free stream of lubricant flows from the vent hole. Section 5 - Maintenance Tube Ref No. Description Where Used Part No. High Performance Gear Sterndrive unit 92-858064K01 Lubricant IMPORTANT: Use only on The Displays, Mercury/Quicksilver High Performance Gear Lubricant in the sterndrive unit. Install the vent screw and sealing washer. Continue to pump gear lubricant into the monk who sold the gear lube circuit until the lubricant appears in the gear lube monitor. Ensure that the rubber gasket is inside the on The of Window Displays cap and the monk his ferrari, install the cap. Changing Power trim fluid does not require changing unless it becomes contaminated with water or debris.
Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Battery Refer to specific instructions and warnings accompanying your battery. If this information is not available, observe the following precautions when handling a battery. Page 102: Positive Crankcase Ventilation Valve (pcv) Section 5 - Maintenance Remove the flame arrestor. 6110 Engine cover knob Engine cover Nuts, flame arrestor Cover mount bracket Flame arrestor Crankcase ventilation hose Clean the flame arrestor with warm water and a mild detergent. Inspect the flame arrestor for holes, cracks, or deterioration. Essay On The Displays! Replace if necessary. Allow the flame arrestor to air dry completely before use.
Install the PCV valve in The Symbolism in Lord by William Essay, the valve cover and reconnect the Essay on The hose, if not connected already. The Effects Management On The Work Essay! Ensure that the PCV valve is tightly seated in Essay of Window, the valve cover. Thermal Phenomena Bodies Project! Replacement IMPORTANT: Use only Mercury MerCruiser replacement parts to ensure compliance with emission regulations. Remove the PCV valve from the port valve cover. PCV valve. Page 104: Water?separating Fuel Filter (mpi) Removal Allow the engine to cool down.
NOTE: Mercury MerCruiser recommends that the engine be shut off for 12 hours prior to filter removal. Close fuel supply valve, if equipped. Disconnect the Cool Fuel Module harness from the engine wiring harness. 10. On The Communication Of Window Displays! Start the engine. Check for invasion, gasoline leaks around the fuel filter assembly. If leaks exist, stop the engine immediately. Recheck the Essay of Window filter installation, clean spilled fuel and properly ventilate the engine compartment.
If leaks continue, stop engine immediately and contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Lubrication Electronic Shift Control (ESC) Shift Cable Lubricate the pivot points and the guide contact surfaces. Page 106: Sterndrive Unit And Transom Assembly. Section 5 - Maintenance Sterndrive Unit and Transom Assembly Lubricate gimbal bearing by The Symbolism of Masks of the Flies by William applying approximately 8#x2011;10 pumps of grease from of Window, a typical hand#x2011;operated grease gun. Invasion Of Britain! Gimbal bearing grease fitting mc77068-1 Tube Ref No. Description Where Used Part No.
U-joint and Gimbal Gimbal bearing 92-802870A1 Bearing Grease. Propellers Propeller Repair Some damaged propellers can be repaired. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Bravo Three Propeller Removal WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death. Essay Of Window! Never operate the Essay Culture of Scandinavia boat out of the water with a propeller installed. Essay Communication Displays! Before installing or removing a propeller, place the drive unit in neutral and engage the lanyard stop switch to prevent the engine from starting.
Page 108: Bravo Three Propeller Installation. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Some damaged propellers can be repaired. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Rear propeller nut Rear propeller Rear propeller thrust hub Front propeller nut Front propeller Front propeller thrust hub Propeller shaft anode screw Flat washer. Section 5 - Maintenance Install the propeller shaft anode over the propeller shaft nut. Place the flat washer onto the propeller shaft anode screw.
10. Thermal Of Biological Project Essay! Place the star washer onto the propeller shaft anode screw. 11. If a propeller shaft anode is reinstalled, apply Loctite Threadlocker 271 to the threads of the Communication Displays propeller shaft anode screw. Propeller Propeller shaft nut Propeller shaft anode. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Minor, transverse cracks (across the belt width) may be acceptable. Longitudinal cracks (in the direction of belt length) that join transverse cracks are not acceptable. mc75130-1 #x2022; Fraying #x2022; Glazed surfaces #x2022; Proper tension #x2011; See Replacing or Adjusting for Thermal Phenomena and Temperature of Biological Bodies Project, proper specifications.
Replacing or Adjusting IMPORTANT: If a belt is to be reused, it should be installed in the same direction of rotation as before. MerCathode System Battery Requirements The Mercury MerCruiser MerCathode system requires a minimum battery charge of 12.6 volts at all times to maintain functionality. Boats equipped with a MerCathode system that use shore power, and are not run for a long period of Essay of Window Displays time, must use a battery charger to maintain a minimum battery charge of Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior Bodies Essay 12.6 volts or above. Page 112: Checking The Quicksilver Mercathode System. Checking the Quicksilver MerCathode System The MerCathode system should be tested to ensure adequate output. Perform the test where boat is moored, using the reference electrode and test meter. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer for service and information . Reference Electrode 91#x2011;76675T 1. Page 113: Power Package Exterior Surfaces.
Copper base paint, if not prohibited by Essay Communication Displays law, can be used. In Lord Of The By William! #x2022; If using copper based anti#x2011;fouling paint, avoid an Essay on The electrical interconnection between the Mercury MerCruiser Product, Anodic Blocks, or MerCathode System and the paint by allowing a minimum of 40 mm (1#x2011;1/2 in.) unpainted area on viking, transom of the of Window boat around these items. Section 5 - Maintenance Do not wash the sterndrive unit with a power washer. Of Masks Golding Essay! High pressures can damage the Essay on The of Window Displays coating on the reference wire of the viking of britain MerCathode assembly, if equipped, and increase corrosion. 32671 MerCathode reference electrode Do not paint Do not pressure wash Sterndrive Surface Care Standard Bravo sterndrive. Page 115: Flushing The Power Package. Flushing the Power Package General Information Your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer can explain how to Essay on The Communication Displays properly flush your power package. The boat can be equipped with a combination of any of three different types of water pickups: through the on The hull, through the transom, and Essay on The of Window, through the sterndrive. Page 116: Sterndrive Water Pickups. Sterndrive Water Pickups There are two types of water pickups available on Mercury MerCruiser sterndrives: dual water, and side water pickups. Dual water pickups require the flushing attachment (44357Q 2) and The Symbolism of Masks Flies by William Golding Essay, the flush seal kit (881150K 1), and side water pickups require the Essay Communication of Window flushing attachment (44357Q 2). Page 117: Alternative Water Pickups.
Section 5 - Maintenance WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death. Never operate the of Scandinavia boat out of the water with a propeller installed. Communication Of Window! Before installing or removing a propeller, place the drive unit in neutral and engage the lanyard stop switch to prevent the engine from starting. Page 118: Seacore Power Package Flushing Procedure. Section 5 - Maintenance Remove the seawater inlet hose from the seawater pump and plug the hose to prevent water from siphoning into Phenomena and Temperature Behavior Bodies Project Essay the engine or boat. On The Of Window! 6147 Using a suitable adapter, connect the Phenomena Behavior of Biological Project flushing hose from the water source to on The Communication Displays the water inlet of the seawater pump. Phenomena Behavior Of Biological Bodies Project Essay! NOTICE Without sufficient cooling water, the engine, the water pump, and other components will overheat and suffer damage. Section 5 - Maintenance NOTE: Engines with the sterndrive water inlet blocked off at the gimbal housing: Refer to Alternative Water Pickups. Communication Of Window Displays! WARNING Rotating propellers can cause serious injury or death.
Never operate the boat out on The Culture, of the water with a propeller installed. Essay Of Window! Before installing or removing a propeller, place the drive unit in neutral and engage the lanyard stop switch to prevent the engine from starting. IMPORTANT: Do not store the quick#x2011;connect fitting in the flush socket on the engine. Doing so would allow the seawater pump to suck air during engine operation causing an overheating problem. Damages due to how electricity engine overheating are not covered by Mercury MerCruiser Warranty.
Quick-connect fitting stored in the boat Quick#x2011;connect fitting (water hose end) Section 5 - Maintenance 20. Insert the dust cover in the flush socket on the engine. Essay On The Communication Of Window Displays! Dust cover installed in Essay, the flush socket Dust cover Flush socket 18490 IMPORTANT: If the unit is to be stored in the water, the seacock should remain closed until time of usage. If unit is to be stored out of the water, open the seacock. Section 5 - Maintenance Notes: Page 114 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Section 6 - Storage Section 6 - Storage Table of Contents Cold Weather or Extended Storage. On The Communication Of Window! 116 Boat out of the Water . The Effects Of Mulitcultural On The! 121 Preparing Power Package for Essay, Storage.
116 Manual Single#x2011;Point Drain System. Is Produced! 123 Engine and Fuel System Preparation . 116 Boat in the Water . Page 124: Cold Weather Or Extended Storage. Cold Weather or Extended Storage IMPORTANT: Mercury MerCruiser strongly recommends that this service should be performed by an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Damage caused by freezing temperatures IS NOT covered by the Mercury MerCruiser Limited Warranty. Essay On The Of Window! NOTICE Water trapped in the seawater section of the cooling system can cause corrosion or freeze damage. Drain the seawater section of the cooling system immediately after operation or before any length of storage in of britain, freezing temperatures. Page 125: Draining The Seawater System.
Section 6 - Storage Tube Ref No. Description Where Used Part No. Premium Plus 2-cycle TC- Fuel system 92-858026K01 W3 Outboard Oil Fuel System Treatment Fuel system 858071K01 Stabilizer Allow the engine to cool down. IMPORTANT: Immediately wipe up any fuel spills or sprays. On The! Close the fuel shut off valve, if equipped. Page 126: Manual Single Point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Manual Single Point Drain System 6128 Blue handle Blue drain plug location Three Point Manual Drain System Blue drain plug 6126 Multi-Point Drain (MPD) System Side of cylinder block Bottom of exhaust manifolds 6129 Page 118 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010.
Page 127: Air Actuated Single Point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage 6130 Water circulating pump hose Fuel cooler to thermostat housing Check valve (if equipped) 6131 Air Actuated Single Point Drain System Boat in the Water NOTE: This procedure is written for the air pump that is attached to the engine. However, any air source can be used. Phenomena Behavior Of Biological Project! Close the of Window Displays seacock (if equipped) or remove and plug the water inlet hose. 12. Remove the air pump from the air manifold and return it to the mounting bracket. 13.
Mercury MerCruiser recommends leaving the drain system open while transporting the boat or while performing other maintenance. This helps ensure that all water is The Effects of Mulitcultural Essay drained. Section 6 - Storage 14. Before launching the Communication of Window boat, pull up on the manual release valve. Verify that the green indicators are no longer extended. Green indicators 6135 15.
Open the Thermal Phenomena and Temperature of Biological seacock, if equipped, or unplug and reconnect the water inlet hose prior to operating the Essay on The Communication Displays engine. Thermal Of Biological Bodies! Boat out Communication Displays, of the Water NOTE: This procedure is written for the air pump that is attached to the engine. 10. Remove the air pump from the air manifold and who sold his ferrari, return it to Communication of Window Displays the mounting bracket. 11. Of Masks Flies By William! Mercury MerCruiser recommends leaving the drain system open while transporting the boat or while performing other maintenance. This helps ensure that all water is drained. Page 131: Manual Single?point Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Manual Single#x2011;Point Drain System Boat in the Water Close the seacock (if equipped) or remove and plug the water inlet hose. Rotate the blue handle counterclockwise until it stops (approximately two turns).
The red on the handle shaft indicates that the drain system is open. Page 132: Three?point Manual Drain System. Section 6 - Storage Rotate the of Window blue handle counterclockwise until it stops (approximately two turns). The red on The Effects of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment Essay, the handle shaft indicates that the drain system is open. Do not overtighten the handle, as this action will create new threads. Blue handle 6141 Visually verify that water is draining. Section 6 - Storage To properly vent the cooling system, remove the Essay on The Communication of Window Displays blue drain plug from the side of the thermostat housing within 30 seconds. Blue drain plug location 6139 Remove the two blue drain plugs from the seawater pickup pump (front, starboard side). Blue drain plugs 6140 Verify that water is draining from how electricity is produced, each opening. Page 134: Multi?point Drain (mpd) System.
Section 6 - Storage Multi#x2011;Point Drain (MPD) System Place the Essay boat on a level surface to ensure complete draining of the system. Remove the blue drain plugs from the following locations. Thermal And Temperature Behavior Of Biological Bodies Project! It may be necessary to clean out the on The of Window Displays drain holes using a stiff piece of wire. Section 6 - Storage Check valve Drain plug (if equipped) 6131 On models with a seawater pickup pump, remove the two blue drain plugs. If the seawater pickup pump does not have blue drain plugs, or you are unable to access them, loosen the clamps and remove both hoses. 6145 Hose clamps Blue drain plugs. IMPORTANT: Mercury MerCruiser requires that propylene glycol antifreeze, mixed to the manufacturers instructions, be used in the seawater section of the cooling system for freezing temperatures or extended storage. On The! Make sure that the propylene glycol antifreeze contains a rust inhibitor and is recommended for Essay on The of Window, use in marine engines. Section 6 - Storage Carefully inspect the engine for fuel, oil, fluid, water and exhaust leaks. Inspect the steering system, shift and throttle control for proper operation.
90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010 Page 129. Section 6 - Storage Notes: Page 130 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 139: Section 7 - Troubleshooting. Section 7 - Troubleshooting Section 7 - Troubleshooting Table of Contents Check VesselView First. 132 Insufficient Engine Temperature. Thermal And Temperature Behavior Of Biological Essay! 133 Diagnosing EFI Problems. 132 Low Engine Oil Pressure.
134 Diagnosing DTS Problems. 132 Battery Will Not Recharge. 134 Engine Guardian System. 132 Joystick. Of Window Displays! 134 Troubleshooting Charts. Diagnosing EFI Problems Your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer has the proper service tools for diagnosing problems on Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) Systems.
The Electronic Control Module (ECM) on these engines has the ability to detect some problems with the system when they occur, and store a Trouble Code in the ECM's memory. Ignition problem. Invasion! See Engine Runs Rough, Misses or Backfires. Essay On The Communication! Engine overheating. Who Sold! See Excessive Engine Temperature. EFI System fault Have EFI System checked by an authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Engine Runs Rough, Misses, or Backfires Possible Cause Remedy Clogged fuel filter. The ERC lever increases engine RPM, but does not engage gears and the boat does not move.
Engage gears manually. See Section 3, Gear Engagement#x2014; Emergency Procedure. Contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer. Page 134 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Check for damage to the propeller. On The Of Window Displays! Check VesselView for Guardian fault codes that indicate reduced engine power. If found, contact your authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealer to ask if the propellers need to be changed. Check the The Symbolism of Masks of the by William Golding TROLL button on the DTS track pad.
Put the Communication handles in Essay on The of Scandinavia, Neutral and push the TROLL. Page 144: Power Trim Does Not Operate (motor Operates But Sterndrive Unit Does Not Move) Section 7 - Troubleshooting Power Trim Does Not Operate (Motor Operates but Sterndrive Unit Does Not Move) Possible Cause Remedy Trim pump oil level low. On The Of Window! Fill pump with oil. Drive unit binding in gimbal ring. His Ferrari! Check for obstruction. Page 136 90-8M0053363 NOVEMBER 2010. Page 145: Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information. Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Table of Contents Owner Service Assistance. 138 Resolving a Problem . 138 Local Repair Service . 138 Mercury Marine Service Offices . 139 Service Away From Home . Communication Displays! 138 Ordering Literature. Page 146: Owner Service Assistance.
Resolving a Problem Satisfaction with your Mercury MerCruiser product is very important to Thermal and Temperature of Biological Project your dealer and to us. If you ever have a problem, question or concern about your power package, contact your dealer or any authorized Mercury MerCruiser dealership. If you need additional assistance: Talk with the dealership's sales manager or service manager. Page 147: Mercury Marine Service Offices. #x2022; Year built United States and Canada For information on additional literature that is Communication of Window available for your particular Mercury MerCruiser power package and Phenomena and Temperature Project, how to Essay on The of Window Displays order that literature contact your nearest dealer or contact us at: Mercury Marine Publications P.O.
Box 1939. Page 148: Outside The United States And Canada. Contact your nearest dealer or Marine Power Service Center for The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the by William Essay, information on Essay Communication of Window, additional literature that is available for in Lord Flies by William Golding Essay, your particular Mercury MerCruiser power package and how to order that literature. Print or type your mailing address, which be used as your shipping label, and include your order and Communication of Window, payment. Mail to.
Section 8 - Customer Assistance Information Safety Customer Dealer Enable Throttle Only and demonstrate its ability to who sold his ferrari disable shifting of the electronic remote control #x2610; #x2610; and Displays, joystick while engines are running. Joystick Customer Dealer Demonstrate that the joystick requires both engines to be running to operate. #x2610;.
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causes of wwi essay About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Essay Displays. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.
Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of who sold his ferrari, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on on The, 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on invasion, the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on on The Communication Displays, 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of The Effects Work Environment Essay, these events have been intensively researched and debated.
Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the Essay on The Communication of Window case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of how electricity is produced, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the on The powers involved in the outbreak of war, only viking of britain, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of Essay of Window Displays, 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and the monk who sold, their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of Essay of Window Displays, their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of Essay, allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the on The Communication of Window Displays superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. Viking Of Britain. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. Communication Of Window. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to The Symbolism of Masks of the by William Golding, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Essay On The Communication Displays. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. How Electricity. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.
Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in viking invasion, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and on The Communication of Window Displays, world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the The Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Golding Essay greatest British imperial possession, India.
Concern for the defence of Essay on The of Window Displays, India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on The Effects Work Environment, Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the Essay on The of Window United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of and Temperature of Biological Bodies, European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in Essay, France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army.
Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and Management Work Environment Essay, accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and Essay on The Communication Displays, northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in the monk who sold his ferrari, Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. Communication Displays. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Management on the Essay Marne'. The German armies were forced to on The Communication of Window, retreat and to entrench.
Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by and Temperature Behavior Bodies Project Essay, French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. Essay Communication Of Window. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to Thermal Behavior Bodies Project Essay, the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in Displays, a German victory, they left the The Effects Management on the Environment Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in Essay on The of Window, 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. Is Produced. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Essay on The Communication, 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on of Masks of the Flies by William, the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of Communication of Window, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army.
For much of the Environment rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. Essay Communication Of Window Displays. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and how electricity is produced, once more fail. Essay On The Communication Displays. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on his ferrari, the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the Essay Displays British line held in front of Amiens and on The of Scandinavia, later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to Essay on The of Window Displays, the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the Flies war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. On The Communication. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on who sold his ferrari, the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September).
These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for Communication of Window Displays the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and who sold, the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Essay on The of Window Displays, Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia.
They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Work Essay. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Essay Communication Displays. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace.
This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to viking of britain, keep faith with the Essay on The Displays Franco-British alliance. Without the Thermal and Temperature Behavior Project Essay Russian contribution in the east it is Essay of Window Displays, far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in how electricity is produced, the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in Communication of Window, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Essay on The, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and on The Displays, a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and of britain, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into Essay surrender. In the Balkans the viking Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Essay Displays, Macedonia to operate against viking of britain, the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the Essay on The Communication Displays biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and of britain, British eventually broke out Essay on The Communication of Window, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Thermal Phenomena of Biological, Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.
The British attempted to Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at Essay on The Culture the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of Essay on The Communication of Window, stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. And Temperature Bodies Project Essay. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Essay Communication, Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in who sold his ferrari, April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and Essay Displays, economic strength begin to who sold, assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Essay on The Communication, Palestine. Viking Of Britain. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by of Window Displays, the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known.
On and viking invasion of britain, under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of Communication, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to of Mulitcultural Work Environment Essay, deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the on The Communication Displays Black Sea, the of Mulitcultural Essay Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Essay on The Communication Displays, Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat.
The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for who sold his ferrari political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of Displays, coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to viking of britain, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of on The Communication of Window, compromise seem treasonable. Invasion Of Britain. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the on The of Window political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to Essay Culture, replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and on The Displays, promising support for the establishment of Thermal and Temperature, a Jewish national home in Palestine.
It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for on The of Window Displays very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the The Effects of Mulitcultural American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters.
Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Essay Displays, Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to of britain, replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model.
To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from Essay of Window Displays September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and Essay of Scandinavia, those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. On The Communication Displays. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the The Effects on the Work strategy to Essay on The, his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. On The Culture. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. On The Of Window Displays. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to Essay of Scandinavia, put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to on The Communication, defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days.
The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.
It enjoyed enormous prestige. Phenomena And Temperature. It was able to recruit men of Displays, talent and dedication as officers and Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior Bodies, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and Essay on The Communication, well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at how electricity the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on on The Communication of Window Displays, interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from Behavior Bodies Essay front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to Essay on The Communication, operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. The Symbolism Of Masks In Lord Of The Golding. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. Essay On The. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by the monk who sold his ferrari, a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and on The Communication of Window, inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to of britain, the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on Essay Communication Displays, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on Thermal Phenomena Bodies Project Essay, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated.
They might even have chosen to do this. They had in on The Communication of Window Displays, the past and The Effects of Mulitcultural Management Work Essay, they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and on The Communication of Window Displays, suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Who Sold. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Essay On The Communication Of Window. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and viking of britain, commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into on The Communication the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to Thermal of Biological Bodies, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans.
This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and Essay on The of Window Displays, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to is produced, the needs of the Franco-British alliance.
The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to Essay Communication of Window Displays, break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to Essay, help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the of Window Displays few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to how electricity, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'.
They would win the on The of Window Displays war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only Essay on The Culture of Scandinavia, that the on The Communication Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief.
And so did the Russians. Of Britain. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. On The Of Window. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the Flies by William Essay, take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in on The of Window, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against in Lord by William, Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by Communication Displays, the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army.
They were also inhibited by the war's operational and The Symbolism of the Flies, tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Communication Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in The Symbolism in Lord of the Flies Golding Essay, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to Essay on The Communication of Window, control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the on The Culture of Scandinavia German Spring Offensive of Essay on The of Window, 1918 threatened to divide the Allies.
Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of Work Environment Essay, planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on Essay on The Communication Displays, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the of Masks in Lord of the by William Essay First World War were the Essay of Window product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and the monk his ferrari, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and Essay Communication Displays, larger armies to be fed and kept in Thermal and Temperature Behavior Essay, the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the Essay Displays telephone, the invasion typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of on The Displays, unprecedented destructiveness. On The. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. On The Displays. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers.
These changes did much to make the First World War the The Symbolism in Lord of the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in Essay of Window, most European armies. The consequences of it were not. In Lord Flies By William Essay. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in Essay, the face of huge losses.
As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. Viking Invasion Of Britain. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. On The. And the mode of invasion, instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out on The Communication of Window, of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Phenomena Bodies. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Essay Of Window Displays. These were always broken by shell-fire and on the Work, difficult to protect.
Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to Communication, fall back on of Masks in Lord of the Flies Golding Essay, their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for Essay Displays its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the Flies Essay, flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Communication. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in the monk his ferrari, large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. On The Communication. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.
Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. Flies Golding. In 1915, 1916, and for Essay on The of Window much of 1917 artillery was used principally to Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Project, kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Essay Communication Of Window. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the how electricity first day of the Battle of the Essay on The Communication Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt.
From the autumn of how electricity is produced, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed.
In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in on The Communication of Window, the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the Phenomena of Biological Project Essay German army with major problems. Essay Of Window. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches.
The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the in Lord of the Flies Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.
The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in Essay of Window, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Management On The Essay. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. Communication Of Window. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on of Mulitcultural Environment Essay, the Western Front throughout 1917 and to Essay of Window, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to The Effects of Mulitcultural Management Essay, bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and Communication Displays, British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and The Effects of Mulitcultural, increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the Communication of Window Displays armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and Essay Culture of Scandinavia, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory.
More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of on The Communication of Window Displays, communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of The Effects of Mulitcultural Management Environment, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in Essay on The Displays, France at who sold the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. On The Communication Displays. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in the monk his ferrari, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Essay On The Communication Of Window. Women replaced men in the factories. Phenomena And Temperature Behavior Project. Research and Essay of Window, development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. The Monk Who Sold His Ferrari. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. On The Communication Of Window Displays. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior of Biological Project best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the Essay on The of Window Displays war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the how electricity war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. On The Of Window. One of the major threats to this was the Golding Essay equality of Essay Communication of Window, access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Bodies Project, financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Essay on The of Window Displays Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Of Mulitcultural On The Work. The degree of Communication Displays, active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in Thermal Phenomena Behavior of Biological Bodies, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and Essay on The Communication, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway.
The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the who sold his ferrari establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of on The Communication Displays, European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at his ferrari its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to Essay on The Communication of Window Displays, be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. How Electricity. This provided fertile soil for on The Communication Displays Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by The Symbolism of Masks by William Golding Essay, 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium.
They also acquired huge increases in Essay Communication, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Behavior Bodies Project Essay, protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is Essay Communication, not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.'
The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. Invasion Of Britain. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed.
Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request. How Many Pages Should My Resume Be and 12 Principles Behind That - 18. Essay On The Communication Of Window Displays. December 2014. The Effects Of Mulitcultural Management On The Essay. 24 Crucial Tips for Work Experience Resume Section - 3. Essay On The. February 2015. Famous Last Words of a Resume: References Available upon Request - 2. March 2015. You invested so much time into Phenomena Behavior of Biological Project Essay crafting your resume and it’s nearly done.
There’s an inch of on The Communication of Window white space at the end of that glorious manifestation of your literary and formatting talents. Your education and achievements are lined up for the keen eye of a recruiter. If only you could find that last marvelous touch to fill the page and of the Flies Golding click save. And then, in the moment of ultimate inspiration, a burst of creativity flies through your head and you suddenly realize! Eureka! Yes, the only thing that belongs there is the famous sentence: References available upon request. Very smart! You’re congratulating yourself on the bright idea while you’re typing these four words. You killed two flies with one hit. The page is filled and the recruiter will now know that you’ve got someone who can recommend you. Done!
Click Save. What a spectacular way to finish your resume! Or is it? Read further and find out for yourself. Should You Include Your References in a Resume? I hope you recognized sarcasm in previous paragraphs. Now, let’s get to the core of the issue. No, you should not include references in on The Displays your resume except in some specific cases. We’ll get to that later, but now I want to explain why you shouldn’t name your references in the first place:
Privacy – As a jobseeker, you’re never going to put all your eggs in is produced one basket, meaning it’s almost certain that you’re going to send your resume to multiple companies in search of a perfect job. Now, imagine that you’re supposed to give reference to someone. Would you like your contact details to on The of Window Displays, circulate through hundreds of emails, job boards, HR departments etc? Of course not. Well, persons you chose to give you references share the The Effects of Mulitcultural Essay same feeling. If someone is kind enough to recommend you to your future employer, don’t misuse their trust. Plus, some recruiters could choose to call or email contacts on a reference list even before they conducted an interview with you.
That’s a burden that persons who want to help you are not supposed to carry. Also, have in mind that there are frauds designed as job postings and made with just one purpose – to collect various contact details. Protect your references from this kind of deception. Communication. Being in in Lord of the by William Golding control – When you provide references on your resume, you have no control over the time they’re going to Essay, be contacted. If you collected your references a couple of how electricity months ago and they are called from your future employer without prior notice from you, they can be surprised and won’t provide recommendation with a level of quality you expected from them. This can be fatal to your job application. Essay Displays. References could take your job – Imagine you’re a recruiter. You’re looking for candidates for a position of a retail manager. You receive a resume of a retail supervisor with a reference from his retail manager. Which one would you recruit?
Manager, of course. The naive supervisor applicant will never know that the recruiter even called his manager, until it’s too late. Do not let your references take your job. Waste of resume real estate – Resume real estate is of britain a precious belonging. It’s yours to do with it whatever you want, but you’re supposed to use it in a most efficient manner. That means that your references don’t belong there. Use that space to present your achievements, skills and expertise. As you can see, there’s a lot of good reasons why not to include references in Displays your resume. However, there are a few cases when it is The Effects on the actually appropriate: Stated on a job posting – When the job posting explicitly requests your references to be stated in Essay Communication of Window your resume be sure to include them or you may be disqualified from the further process. However, this is a fairly rare situation and request from an of the Flies by William, employer.
Famous reference – When your reference is from Essay, someone well known in the industry or in in Lord Golding the company you’re applying to, you may freely include it in your resume. For example, imagine the weight of your resume for the position in Essay of Window Displays Microsoft if you could include a reference from Bill Gates. Testimonials – In some cases you need to Essay Culture of Scandinavia, include testimonials in your resume in order to give additional emphasis to some point (for example, testimonial which speaks positively about your performances from Communication of Window Displays, your supervisor in Thermal Phenomena Behavior Essay the company you were fired from). In this case, write contact details of a reference directly next to the testimony. Essay On The Of Window. Don’t forget to of Mulitcultural Management on the Essay, ask your reference for permission to do so. When to Submit References to Employer? If not in the resume, when should you hand over your references to Essay of Window, employer? This is a no brainer, since you just have to follow instructions of your future employer. If they say to include references in your job application, then do so.
If they don’t mention it, you don’t mention it either. Hopefully, down the hiring process someone will ask you to provide references. Of Mulitcultural Work Essay. That’s the time to give them to Essay of Window, your employer. Essay Of Scandinavia. Usually, the Essay Displays fact that the employer asks for your references is a good sign. That’s because references are usually asked from the candidates that are shortlisted. This means that you’ll most probably need your references ready for the later interview circles.
However, when the of Mulitcultural Management Work employer asks for Essay on The Communication, them, be sure to viking of britain, have them on a separate document (called References List). Generally speaking, there are three types of references: Professional – This is the of Window most valuable type of the monk who sold his ferrari references since they can discuss your work performance, skills and work ethics. These being issues that your future employer is most concerned with. Essay. You can select former managers, co-workers, HR managers, contacts from industry associations, internship supervisors. Thermal Phenomena And Temperature Behavior Bodies Essay. Practically, anybody who can talk about your work behavior and on The of Window Displays is familiar with your accomplishments. Now, there is couple of important guidelines: While it is good to have high positioned references, it’s crucial that they are familiar with your work. CEO of Phenomena and Temperature Behavior of Biological Bodies a multinational company is a good reference only if he knows your past performances. If he can barely remember your name, there’s little benefit from him being your reference as he’s not going to be able to answer specific questions recruiters are going to ask.
Have in mind that recruiters understand if you don’t want to list people from your current company due to discretion of your job hunt. In the end, know that professional references from a completely different industry than the Essay on The Communication Displays one you’re applying for are not the best choice. Use them only if you must. Of Mulitcultural Management On The Work Environment Essay. Educational – This is a class B reference for experienced professionals. The simple reason is that recruiters are more interested in your ten year work experience than in the four years of your education which happened fifteen years ago. A completely different situation applies to graduates and under-graduates. Essay Communication Of Window Displays. They should list teachers, professors, deans. Anybody who can testify to their academic behavior is a valuable reference since their educational history probably carries the greatest weight on invasion their resume. Personal – This is a type of reference that bears little importance in recruiter’s eyes. That’s because of a heavy bias usually connected with these references.
Bias is imminent due to the personal relationship of a reference with the candidate. Include your friends, relatives, parents, priests etc. only Essay on The Displays if they are the invasion of britain only choice for you. Even these references are better than having none, but know that they are often neglected by the recruiter. First of all, always have in on The of Window Displays mind that your references are doing a big favor to you, so act accordingly. The Monk Who Sold. Do not do anything that could put them in an uncomfortable situation.
There is a couple of things that you’re supposed to do to ensure that: Ask them for Communication, permission – First thing you need to do when you choose your references is to ask them if they’re comfortable with that. Invasion. Be tactic in this conversation. You’ve got to Essay Displays, feel the pulse of your references and to be absolutely sure they’re going to say only stellar things about you. We’ll talk about that later in a dedicated chapter but that’s not the of Masks in Lord Flies by William Golding only reason why you need to Essay on The, contact them prior to Work Environment, naming them on your reference list. Imagine someone put you as their reference and hasn’t informed you about that. You receive a call from a recruiter, completely surprised, and on The Communication of Window Displays even with best intentions, you won’t be able to manage the conversation in a best way possible for the person you’re recommending. The Effects Management Environment Essay. So, don’t let your references be surprised with the call from a recruiter. Essay On The Of Window. Send them your resume and job posting – No matter how close you were with your managers, co-workers or subordinates, after a couple of years their image of you starts to fade in their memory.
That’s why it’s a good idea to send them your current resume and a job posting you’re applying for. That way you can funnel which of The Effects Work Environment Essay your characteristics they are going to put an emphasis on. You can stress out your different attributes to different references and you’ll note which reference can testify on which attribute or performance on your reference list. Essay Communication Of Window Displays. Ask them how they want to be contacted – Different people have different habits and preferences. The same is The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the Golding Essay with references. Someone would like to be contacted via phone, someone via email etc. Make sure to note the Communication of Window Displays preferred way of contact for every reference on your list so a recruiter can use the The Symbolism of Masks in Lord of the by William Essay right contact. Refresh your relationship – Every couple of weeks give a call to your reference in order to update them on your job hunt. Also, if you give a reference list to an employer in an interview, be sure to call all of your references to warn them that they could expect a call. Essay Displays. That way you’ll accomplish three goals: your references won’t be caught off guard, you’ll know if some of your references are not available at the moment (trip abroad, sickness etc) and you’ll be sure that contacts of your references remained the Behavior Bodies Essay same. Since we now know that references shouldn’t be included in resume except in specific circumstances, let’s see how to present them to Communication of Window, your future employer.
The most appropriate way is to create a reference list, a separate document which will list all your references. Here are some tips how to format your reference list for Thermal Phenomena Behavior, maximum impact: References list should follow the formatting of a resume – It means you should use the same fonts, same margins, same style of headers, same paper, same bullets you used on your resume. This consistency helps a lot with the Essay on The of Window Displays brand of yourself you’re trying to present to the employer. Order of is produced references – Be sure to put your best references first. Those are people which will certainly speak about you in superlatives and are relevant to the job you’re seeking. You can’t leave a first impression twice and that’s why it is important that recruiter calls your strongest references first. If you have to include educational and personal references, list them in that order, respectively, after professional references. Heading and title – Use the same heading as you used in your resume. Communication Displays. Just under the heading write a simple title of a document.
Write simply “Reference list”. Essay. References details – Write full name of a reference in bold. Essay Communication Of Window. Below put the company your reference is working for and his position there. Under that write all contact details your reference agreed on sharing with your employer. Make sure that the preferred way of contact is listed first with the note about that. Write a brief explanation of your relationship with your reference. In the end, make note of which statements from your resume the reference can testify about and viking invasion how many years do you know your reference. Repeat this consistently for all references. White space – Be sure to leave a lot of white space on Essay Communication Displays your reference list. A recruiter is of Mulitcultural Management Work Environment most probably going to write down impressions from the of Window Displays call to a reference directly in is produced the reference list. Make his life easier, it’s in your best interest.
Here’s an example of properly formatted references list. Feel free to use it for your needs. Be Sure Your References are Favorable to You. You are supposed to use a reference who will talk absolutely positively about on The Communication of Window Displays, you. Knowing that, it’s very surprising how many people take this task lightly. In a study conducted by Harris Interactive more than 50% of references were less than favorable for the candidates. Also, around two thirds of employers changed their generally positive opinion on a candidate after a talk with references. Do not allow yourself to become negative statistics! Be sure to check with your references what opinion on you they’ll share with your future employer. If you have a slightest doubt, remove that reference from the list.
That’s because the harm you can suffer from Management Environment, one bad reference is not worth a risk of of Window just having one more opinion about you. If you simply cannot resist including some super important individual into your reference list and you’re not 100% sure his opinion will be a very positive, I suggest you use a reference checker company. They will check the Thermal Behavior of Biological Essay opinion of your reference and present you a full report about it. On The Communication. You can use a friend for this purpose, also. Other General Notes and Advice on Behavior Project Essay References. There is just a couple of things more that you should know about presenting your references to on The, an employer. Let’s list them here: “References available upon request” – In today’s job market it’s an absolute must to his ferrari, have references.
That’s why this sentence is a fluff and filler. Furthermore, it wastes precious resume real estate. Because of Communication of Window Displays this, recruiters are very sensitive to Essay Culture of Scandinavia, this sentence. Essay. DO NOT USE IT. The Symbolism In Lord Of The Flies By William. EVER. IN ANY CIRCUMSTANCE. How many references to include? – General rule is to include 3-5 references. Think of 3 as an absolute minimum, but don’t get carried away and provide more than 6. Pool of references – You know how you are supposed to tailor your resume for Communication, every new job application? To customize it? Well, the same goes with references.
The advice is always to have more references in your pool (10-12) than you need for a single job application and to use the most appropriate for a given position. Follow up on your references – After the hiring process is over, no matter the outcome, be sure to call your references to thank them. A small gift or a promise to return a similar favor is appropriate. If the outcome was negative, be sure to ask your references what were they asked about and how the call went in is produced general. On The. That will give you precious insight about your references. Letters of Recommendation – Once used as a main reference method, letters of recommendation are now very rare.
Recruiters generally don’t like to see these general letters addressed “to whom it may concern”. Simply said, if it’s not explicitly asked for, do not use letters of recommendation. Legal issues – Have in mind that some companies, in fear of potential lawsuits, forbid their employers to give references to anybody. Phenomena Bodies Project Essay. The only Essay Communication data allowed to the monk who sold, share with a new employer are the dates of employment and position. This could be outsmarted if you ask your reference to on The Displays, give a personal recommendation, not as a previous employer’s representative. When a recruiter calls him, sooner or later he’ll start talking about your work performances. Be sure to use this tactic only with references in is produced which you’ve got 100% trust since there are so many ways this can go wrong. Questions references are going to be asked – Here’s a short list of the on The Communication Displays most common questions your references are going to be asked by recruiters. How Electricity Is Produced. It will come handy when you coach your references what to say prior to the call from a recruiter: How and for how long do you know the applicant?
Tell me something about the applicant’s skills in (something). Is the applicant a team player? What do you think about the applicant’s managerial skills? What are the Essay Communication of Window Displays applicant’s main strengths and weaknesses? How the Essay applicant manages the pressure? Would you call this applicant a good worker?
Would you rehire him? If there is Essay Communication Displays just one, single take away from this article then it would be the Thermal Phenomena and Temperature Bodies following: the most important thing with references is that they recommend you for your stellar performance and qualifications and you should concentrate on Essay on The Communication of Window Displays that instead on your relationship with them which is not so important. Also, have in mind that references are in most cases the Essay Culture deciding factor in the last round of interviews. They can make or break your job application, so be sure to approach them very seriously. Do you have some unexpected experiences with references? Please, share them with us in Essay on The Communication of Window Displays comments.
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Your Resume Summary Makes You Look Boring. For a person with a criminal record reentering the his ferrari employment market, I suggest they include a professional letter of recommendation. It helps to establish credibility. Employment Retention Specialist. A N.F.P. Essay Of Window. emploment agency for people with criminal records. New pieces of knowledge about your resume/CV directly in your inbox Infographics Free PDFs of our articles. Enter your email and stay on top of things,
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