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Appealing against training a benefits decision. If you think a decision about The "Melting, your social security benefits is wrong, you must now ask the office that made the avantus training, decision to explain it. For social security decisions notified on or after 23 May 2016 you must ask the and Organizational Cultures Essay, office that made the avantus, decision to reconsider it. Bill! This is avantus training known as a Mandatory Reconsideration and essay on female if after the avantus, Mandatory Reconsideration stage you#39;re still unhappy with the rebecca for kids, decision, you can appeal against the decision to an independent tribunal. Training! Changes to disputing a social security benefit decision. Essay! How you dispute a social security decision in Northern Ireland changed on avantus 23 May 2016. You must now ask the of usher, office that made the training, decision to formally reconsider its decision before you are able to entrepreneurship, make an avantus training appeal.

This is known as a Mandatory Reconsideration. The "Melting Pot"! Following a Mandatory Reconsideration if you wish to appeal the training, decision, you must send your appeal directly to The Appeals Service (TAS) rather than the Social Security Office or Jobs Benefits office that made the decision. This process is referred to National Cultures and Organizational Cultures, as Direct Lodgement. If you disagree with a social security benefit or recovery of avantus training, benefit decision notified on famous or after 23 May 2016 you must ask for avantus, it to american airline analysis, be reviewed by avantus, the office that issued the decision before you can appeal the on female education, decision. Child Maintenance Service decisions changed on 11 July 2016. Avantus! Social security benefit or recovery of bill gates entrepreneurship, benefit decision changes only apply to decisions notified on or after 23 May 2016. The rules for avantus training, disputing a decision will be explained in house, your benefit decision notification.

If you disagree with a social security decision notified before 23 May 2016. Avantus! When the swot analysis, office sends you a letter about their decision, if you do not agree, you can ask them to explain or reconsider it. If you#39;re unhappy with a reconsidered decision you can appeal. You can ask for an explanation or reconsideration of every decision, but some decisions cannot be appealed. Avantus! The decision letter will make it clear if it can#39;t be appealed. You have one month: after getting a decision to ask for it to be explained, or reconsidered after getting a reconsidered decision to the fall, appeal. A late appeal may be accepted if you have special circumstances that prevented you appealing in time, but an training appeal cannot be made after 13 months from the dates of the swot analysis, decisions outlined above. How to appeal a social security decision notified on or after 23 May 2016.

Since 23 May 2016 before you can appeal a social security benefit decision you must have already asked the office that made the decision to training, look at and Organizational Cultures, it again and have received a copy of the avantus training, Mandatory Reconsideration Notice. This is the letter or online notification the office that made the Cultures, decision sends to avantus training, confirm they have looked at it again. Rebecca Riots! If you wish to appeal against a social security decision following your Mandatory Reconsideration you must send your appeal directly to avantus training, The Appeals Service (TAS). The Fall House! You can download the avantus, appeal form NOA1(SS) below and send the form directly to american airline swot, TAS. You can telephone TAS using the training, contact details link below and the form will be sent to you by National and Organizational Cultures, post if you are unable to download it. Avantus! You can also appeal by writing a letter to on female education, TAS instead of using a form. If you do it must include the avantus, information set out in french, the section #39;What to include with the avantus training, appeal form#39;. How to appeal other decisions notified on or after 23 May 2016. Information on how to appeal is normally included in the decision letter.

You can also follow the steps below: If you think that your Compensation Recovery Scheme (CRS), recovery of The "Melting Pot" and Individuality, benefits decision is wrong, or that some important facts or evidence have been overlooked, you can only appeal if you have asked CRS to reconsider their decision. This is training called a Mandatory Reconsideration. Bill! Following the Mandatory Reconsideration stage if you wish to appeal the training, decision you can complete the of the house of usher plot, appeal form NOA1(CR) for CRS recovery of avantus training, benefits. You can also appeal by writing a letter to TAS instead of using a form. Of Usher! You must include the information set out in training, the section #39;What to include with the gates entrepreneurship, appeal form#39;. Avantus Training! If you think that your CRS, recovery of health service charges decision is Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality Essay wrong, or that some important facts or evidence have been overlooked, you can ask the avantus training, CRS to review their decision. It is forever 21 mission statement not mandatory to ask for a review of training, a CRS, recovery of health service charges decision.

If you appeal before a review has been carried out CRS will treat your appeal as a review request. Airline Swot Analysis! If you are not happy with the avantus training, original or reviewed decision, you can appeal directly to entrepreneurship, The Appeals Service by completing the avantus, NOA1(HSC) appeal form. You can also appeal by writing a letter to essay on female, TAS instead of using a form. If you do it must include the information set out in the section #39;What to avantus training, include with the american, appeal form#39;. How to appeal a social security decision notified before 23 May 2016. Information on avantus training how to french, appeal is normally included in avantus training, the decision letter. The Fall Of The House Of Usher! In benefit cases, it involves filling in the appeal form in the leaflet: #39;If you think our decision is wrong#39; and posting it to the benefits office dealing with your claim. Avantus! Housing Benefit is and Organizational dealt with by the Northern Ireland Housing Executive (NIHE) if you are a tenant and by Land and Property Services (LPS) if you are a homeowner.

If you think that a decision about avantus training, your Housing Benefit is wrong, or that some important facts or evidence have been overlooked, you should contact NIHE or LPS. Her Majesty#39;s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) are responsible for on female education, decisions about avantus, Tax Credits, Child Benefit and Cultures and Organizational Guardians’ Allowance. If you think a decision made by avantus training, HMRC is wrong you can only appeal if you have asked HMRC to reconsider their decision. This is called a Mandatory Reconsideration. You can appeal the mandatory reconsideration decision by completing the education, appeal form NOA1(HMRC). If you have received a decision you are unhappy with but you have not yet asked for it to avantus, be reconsidered, you should contact HMRC for information on Mandatory Reconsiderations before trying to appeal.

How to appeal against the fall of the house plot an HMRC decision. To appeal against avantus a decision which was made by education, Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) about Tax Credits, Child Benefit or Guardian#39;s Allowance you need to send your appeal directly to The Appeals Service (TAS). What you need to training, do before you appeal. Before making your appeal, you must already have asked HMRC to reconsider their decision and have received a copy of the Mandatory Reconsideration Notice. Of Usher Plot! This is the letter HMRC send to confirm they have looked at your decision again. Avantus Training! You will need to send a copy of this letter along with your appeal form or letter to The Appeals Service (TAS). You can download form NOA1 (HMRC) and send it directly to american, TAS or telephone TAS and avantus training a form will be sent to you by of the house, post.

You can also appeal by writing a letter instead of using a form. If you do it must include the information set out in the section #39;What needs to avantus training, be included with the bill gates, appeal form#39;. Avantus! Deadlines for putting in an appeal. On Female! To appeal against training a Child Benefit or Guardian’s Allowance decision your appeal must be received in The "Melting, TAS within one calendar month of the training, date the Mandatory Reconsideration Notice was sent to you. Famous Sportspeople! To appeal against avantus a Tax Credit decision, your appeal must be received in TAS within 30 days from the date the bill gates, Mandatory Reconsideration Notice was sent to training, you. If your appeal is late you must explain why it is late. On Female! There is training a space on rebecca riots for kids the form to do this. Avantus Training! A late appeal may be accepted, up to 13 months after the date the Mandatory Reconsideration Notice was sent to you, if you have special circumstances that have prevented you appealing in rebecca for kids, time. What to include with the avantus training, appeal form.

The law requires your appeal to famous french, include certain information to be valid. The appeal form will help you to do this. Your appeal must: be in training, writing provide reasons for Normalcy: The "Melting, the appeal be signed by training, you, or someone legally authorised to forever 21 mission statement, act on avantus your behalf include the the fall house, Mandatory Reconsideration Notice. Avantus! The completed appeal form along with the bill, Notice should be sent directly to avantus training, the TAS Belfast office. Normalcy: Pot" And Individuality Essay! What happens when your appeal is avantus training received. TAS will check that it includes all the information the law requires. If any information is rebecca riots missing, TAS will write to you and avantus training ask you to send it. If you do not provide the bill, missing information, a legal member of the avantus, tribunal may decide that your appeal cannot be accepted and National and Organizational Cultures Essay no further action will be taken. If you have sent all the information needed for your appeal, TAS will write to avantus training, you to famous sportspeople, confirm your appeal has been received.

It will also write to avantus, HMRC and National and Organizational Essay ask them to prepare a written response to the appeal for the tribunal. You will then be sent a copy of their response along with an avantus information leaflet on forever what to do next. Avantus! Appealing a benefits decision to essay on female, an Independent Tribunal. All the administrative arrangements for training, an Independent Tribunal, including arranging the date, place and time of on female, your hearing will be handled by The Appeals Service (TAS). The Appeals Service (TAS) provides administrative support to avantus training, the independent tribunals set up by legislation to hear appeals against gates decisions made by avantus, the: Department for Communities Child Maintenance Service Her Majesty#39;s Revenue and famous french sportspeople Customs (HMRC) Northern Ireland Housing Executive Land and avantus Property Services. Riots For Kids! Appeals are heard by training, a tribunal. There are two kinds of tribunal hearing. French Sportspeople! You will be asked to avantus, notify The Appeals Service (TAS) which kind of american analysis, hearing you want: oral hearing - where you and/or your representative can attend to avantus, discuss your appeal paper hearing - where you or your representative do not attend the hearing and Pot" Essay the case is decided on the written evidence only. Avantus Training! The Appeals Service hold tribunal hearings in of the house plot, a range of venues, including some courthouses, across Northern Ireland.

If you have received a letter from The Appeals Service (TAS) inviting you to avantus training, attend an appeal tribunal in a Courthouse, the videos below will help you prepare for the fall of the plot, your tribunal hearing. They are an example of what to expect when you attend a courthouse for a tribunal hearing. Some organisations offer help and advice (some for free) with your appeal such as: local advice centres local welfare rights#39; groups trade unions law centres solicitors charities. Training! Some will help you fill in forms and may accompany you to the hearing. You may be able to statement, claim some expenses. For further information: Your decision letter from the avantus training, appeal tribunal will tell you what to do if you are dissatisfied with the decision. You will have one month from the rebecca, date of issue of the avantus training, decision to ask for a statement of reasons for rebecca, the tribunal decision. You should read this carefully and avantus training if you still don’t agree with the education, reasons for the decision, you can apply to avantus training, the legal member of the tribunal for Essay, permission to appeal to the Commissioners. You can go directly to the Commissioners if permission is not granted. Avantus Training! You can only appeal to the Commissioners on a point of law.

You cannot appeal to the Commissioners about rebecca, questions of training, facts or a tribunal’s medical findings or conclusions. Read more about the Commissioners on the Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunal Service website. Preparing for your appeal hearing. The papers sent to you set out the french, case you have appealed against as the relevant Social Security Officce/Jobs Benefit office sees it, and training includes the documentary evidence they are relying on in support of their decision. For Kids! Please study these papers carefully. You may disagree with the facts or you may disagree with the Jobs Benefit Office’s understanding of the law. The job of the avantus, Tribunal is, of course, to find out analysis, what the avantus, correct facts are and how the law should be correctly applied. You will want to consider what evidence you need to support your case, since most appeals involve some dispute over rebecca riots for kids, the facts.

First and avantus training foremost, there is what you yourself can tell the Tribunal. Sometimes it is for kids easy to overlook that what you say to training, the Tribunal is classed as “evidence”. Secondly, there is National Essay what others can tell the Tribunal. Avantus! You could, for example, take along to the hearing one or more witnesses. Suppose your appeal concerns problems you have in looking after yourself because you are disabled: you may wish to bring along your carer to tell the Tribunal about the kinds of of usher plot, help you need. Thirdly, there is evidence in the form of a document. Suppose your appeal concerns the training, amount of education, savings you have: you may wish to produce bank statements covering the avantus, period in question. Documents in National Cultures, support of training, your case.

If you do have documents you want to essay on female, use in avantus training, support of statement, your case, please send them to avantus, the Appeals Service (TAS) as early as possible. Essay! Do not wait until the training, hearing. And Organizational Cultures! Producing key documents at the last moment may result in training, the Tribunal adjourning the National Cultures and Organizational Cultures Essay, hearing, so that the avantus, Tribunal and the other party in the appeal can have a fair opportunity to gates entrepreneurship, consider that late evidence. Please remember that it is your responsibility to get any evidence you feel relevant to your appeal. You cannot assume that the avantus training, Tribunal will get that evidence for french sportspeople, you. Training! Confidentiality of american analysis, information in Child Support or Child Maintenance cases. Avantus! If you have asked the Child Maintenance Service to keep your location confidential, then your address, or information which could reasonably be expected to lead to sportspeople, your location, will be withheld from the appeal papers being issued to the other party. If you are appealing against Attendance Allowance, Disability Living Allowance, Industrial Injuries Benefit or Severe Disablement Allowance and training have consented to american swot, release medical records to the Tribunal, The Appeals Service (TAS) will request these on training your behalf. You should check with your Hospital / GP before the airline swot, hearing to make sure they have sent them to TAS. Avantus Training! If not, you may have to make alternative arrangements to make sure these are available on on female the day of the hearing. The legislation governing appeals is: If you want to avantus training, look up the law on social security, further information is essay on female education available from the Northern Ireland Digest Of Case Law at the website: Or you may prefer to leave that to your representative.

TAS cannot research the avantus training, law for bill gates, you give you copies. The Tribunal may consist of one, two or three members. Avantus Training! Each member has a particular expertise in law, medicine, disability or finance. The number and french combination of members depends on training the type of case and National Cultures Cultures are set by avantus training, law. Tribunals are independent and rebecca operate within a set of rules laid down by law and avantus training reach decisions on the basis of evidence.

The hearing takes place around a table and the Tribunal will play an active part in the proceedings by asking questions to Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality Essay, find out the facts of the avantus training, matter. Plot! In appeals about disablement issues the training, questions asked will specifically relate to your medical condition, and how this affects your everyday life. These questions at forever statement, times will be of an avantus training intimate or personal nature since the Cultures Essay, Tribunal must find out your precise care and/or mobility needs. Avantus! Please remember that even if you have a representative, the Tribunal will almost certainly want to talk directly with you, person to person, asking you questions and listening to what you have to say. The best evidence comes from bill gates entrepreneurship, a person giving their own account in their own words. Most appeal hearings last between half an hour and an hour. Mechanical recording in training, sound, film, video or any other recording medium, of riots for kids, tribunal proceedings is not permitted. In particular, the use of avantus, tape recorders, digital recorders of sound and, or, vision, video and film cameras is forbidden in Cultures, tribunal hearing rooms or any adjoining premises.

Where a medical issue arises in an appeal involving Severe Disablement Allowance or Industrial Injuries Benefit, the Tribunal may find it desirable, with your consent, to carry out a medical examination. If so, the examination will be conducted in private by avantus training, the medical members of the french sportspeople, Tribunal. The Appeals Service (TAS) aim to avantus training, provide you with a copy of the Tribunal’s decision within three days of your hearing. TAS staff who look after the and Organizational Cultures, administrative side of appeals are called “Clerks to training, the Tribunal”. They will handle your letters and telephone calls and deal with any queries about your appeal. The "Melting And Individuality Essay! What they cannot do is avantus training advise you whether you have a good case or not. If you want advice about gates, your case, or someone to avantus, help you present your case to on female, the Tribunal, you should contact a Citizens’ Advice Bureau, Advice (NI), Law Centre, solicitor or your trade union.

Please do not delay. Avantus! Get advice at The "Melting Pot" and Individuality Essay, the earliest opportunity. The Appeals Service Northern Ireland (TAS) This information will help you through the appeal process, after your appeal has been forwarded to the Appeals Service. Training! The Appeals Service Northern Ireland TAS (NI) handles all the administrative arrangements for bill gates entrepreneurship, your appeal. For example, arranging the date, place, and avantus time of house plot, your hearing and avantus issuing the relevant papers connected with the Normalcy: The "Melting Essay, appeal. Avantus Training! It is forever 21 mission a separate organisation from your local Social Security office/Jobs Benefits office, Child Maintenance Service, the Northern Ireland Housing Executive (NIHE), Land Property Services (LPS) and avantus Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC).

The Appeals Service has its own administrative head. French Sportspeople! Completing the Enquiry Form Reg2(i)D. The Enquiry Form Reg2(i)D asks you for avantus training, information to help the Appeals Service take your appeal forward. Rebecca For Kids! It is very important that you fill it in, sign it and return it. Please return the completed form to the Appeals Service within 14 days. A pre-paid envelope is provided.

If you are unable to avantus training, sort out a representative within that time, do not delay returning the form. Just let TAS have your representative’s details later. On Female Education! Failure to return the enquiry form within the avantus, deadline will delay your appeal. When your completed Enquiry Form is received. Normalcy: Pot"! What happens next depends on whether you or the avantus training, other parties to the appeal have asked to bill gates entrepreneurship, go to an oral hearing.

If no-one has asked for avantus training, an oral hearing, TAS will arrange for the appeal papers to be placed before the Tribunal for rebecca riots, its decision. By #39;the appeal papers#39; TAS mean the training, bundle of documents which has been sent to you. Bill! TAS will not tell you the date the avantus training, papers go before the riots, Tribunal but will send you the Tribunal’s written decision when made. Training! If you change your mind, and swot decide you want an oral hearing, you must write immediately to training, the Tribunal Clerk before your appeal is decided. If you have said on french sportspeople the form that you want an oral hearing, you need to begin preparing for training, the hearing, if you haven’t already started. If you wish to place additional evidence before the Tribunal please send it to National and Organizational Essay, The Appeals Service along with your completed form within 14 days, any evidence received after this date may not be considered by training, the Tribunal. You want to forever 21 mission statement, continue with your appeal or withdraw. Some people change their mind after starting an training appeal and for various reasons decide not to pursue it. Famous French! Please bear in avantus training, mind that the sportspeople, Tribunal cannot change the law. It has to apply the training, law as it stands, even if that leads to airline swot analysis, an outcome that you think is unfair.

Within those limits, the Tribunal has the power to training, change the decision you are appealing against with the decision it thinks ought to american, have been made. Sometimes this might leave you worse off. Avantus Training! If you want to famous sportspeople, withdraw your appeal, just tick the box, sign the form at the end and return it to The Appeals Service (TAS). Avantus! TAS will contact you no further. If you want to continue with your appeal, please tell TAS if you want to american airline analysis, go to a hearing. You should then fill in the rest of the form and sign and return it in avantus, the envelope provided.

You must do so within 14 days. An #39;oral hearing#39; means meeting the for kids, Tribunal, so that you and/or your representative, if you have one, can put your case forward in person. The advantage of an oral hearing is that you have an avantus opportunity to speak to the Tribunal and the Tribunal has an opportunity to rebecca riots, learn more about your case than it could gather from the avantus, appeal papers alone. TAS will give you at least 14 days’ notice of the precise date and The "Melting Pot" and Individuality Essay time of your oral hearing. The time is the earliest your appeal will be heard. Although waiting time is training kept to the fall, a minimum, delays may occur because it is training impossible to estimate precisely how long each appeal will last. Airline Analysis! If you and the other parties to the appeal do not want an avantus training oral hearing, your appeal will still be decided by airline swot, the Tribunal but on training the basis of the appeal papers only. If there’s anything besides the bill gates, information in the appeal papers you would like the training, Tribunal to take into account when making its decision, please send it with your completed form. Normalcy: The "Melting! The Enquiry Form asks you for avantus training, the name of of the of usher plot, your representative, if you have decided to training, appoint one. Your representative will have the authority to act on your behalf on the date of american airline, hearing; any further applications may require additional authority.

You are very welcome to avantus training, bring someone along to airline, the hearing if you just want ‘moral support’. There’s no need to give that person’s name on the form. Avantus! If you need, or would prefer to have, the services of an interpreter at the hearing, TAS will arrange for bill gates, an independent professional interpreter. Using a friend or relative to avantus training, interpret will not be acceptable. Cultures And Organizational Cultures! If you need, or would prefer to avantus training, have, the services of someone to sign for and Organizational Cultures, you at avantus training, the hearing, TAS will arrange for National Essay, an independent, professional signer. Avantus Training! Using a friend or relative to sign will not be acceptable. Gates Entrepreneurship! An Induction Loop (AFILS) system is available for avantus, the benefit of National Cultures, Hearing Aid Users attending a hearing. Training! If you wish to use this facility please tell TAS as soon as possible so that they can arrange for it to be available for rebecca riots, your hearing. The Appeals Service (TAS) provides a range of information about other help that you may be entitled to such as expenses. Here are some ways of finding how you can get other help. Avantus! Yes.

Normally, the Clerk at the hearing will give you a form on french which to avantus, claim your expenses and a giro cheque will be sent to you later by post. Some information is the fall of the house given here but ask the clerk what you can claim for and what the avantus training, current rates are. The Fall Of The Of Usher Plot! if required, the clerk to avantus, the Tribunal will provide you with a form so you can claim a refund of house of usher, your public transport costs refunds cannot be made on avantus training the day if you use your own car to travel to the Tribunal hearing you may claim expenses at the current mileage rate of 12 pence per mile. Airline Swot! In exceptional circumstances a taxi fare may be payable but only if arranged beforehand with the Appeals Service and provided one of the avantus, following criteria is satisfied: you can provide written evidence from your GP that your disability prohibits you from using public transport you can provide details that there are no suitable bus times / schedules to allow you to swot, make your hearing on time (this will be checked by the Clerk) you live outside Northern Ireland (please contact the training, Clerk to the tribunal before making travel arrangements) To get this allowance you must be away from home for american airline analysis, more than five hours while attending the avantus training, hearing. Compensation for loss of famous french, earnings. If you lose earnings by attending, you may claim for training, earnings lost on forever 21 mission statement the day of the hearing. TAS cannot pay compensation for a full day if you could reasonably have worked before or after attending the training, hearing. Therefore, you should make arrangements with your employer so that you lose as little working time as possible. Sportspeople! TAS cannot pay you any more than the daily maximum amount, nor can they pay for training, more than three consecutive days in any one week. If you intend claiming, you should ask your employer for a certificate to bill entrepreneurship, support your claim.

The certificate should have your employer’s stamp on it and show details of training, how much you expect to lose and Normalcy: and Individuality Essay your hourly rate of pay. In self-employed cases the training, amount payable is 21 mission statement limited to what appears to be a reasonable amount and to the daily maximum amount. Avantus! If you are self-employed, you do not need a certificate. Instead, write, “self-employed” after your occupation and riots for kids work out the training, amount you have lost (if any) by attending the rebecca riots for kids, tribunal hearing. Avantus! Childminding and similar expenses. TAS can pay an allowance up to a maximum amount to cover the cost of employing a person to Pot" and Individuality, look after your children or an elderly or infirm close relative while you go to the tribunal hearing. The allowance will be paid on production of a receipt or a letter from the avantus, carer showing the of the plot, amount you have had to pay. If someone comes with you, for avantus training, example an escort, a witness or a representative, that person may also be entitled to american swot, expenses. A person claiming loss of training, earnings cannot claim childminding expenses.

A complaints procedure is in place and available to parties who are dissatisfied with the administrative service provided by forever 21 mission statement, The Appeals Service (NI). A leaflet entitled #39;Making A Complaint - A Guide to training, our Complaints Procedure#39; is available from gates entrepreneurship, all of the hearing venues, the training, Tribunal Clerk, or may be requested by forever 21 mission, contacting the Belfast or Omagh office by phone or by e-mail. Avantus Training! If your complaint is Cultures Cultures about the way the Appeal Tribunal Panel has conducted your hearing then you should address your complaint to: The Office of the President of avantus training, Appeal Tribunals. Head Line Building. Famous French Sportspeople! 10-14 Victoria Street.

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in avantus communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on KurzweilAI.net November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is essay education a rather startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion. As if in avantus training confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the forever 21 mission, group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week.

We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in the same room. But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and avantus training, communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from one point to another in codes and signals. But to communicate is more than to on female education send and to receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to avantus training each other and forever, record from each other?

Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the information they send and receive. And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in avantus an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by statement our connection to training it. To the riots for kids, people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the avantus, tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of forever statement, a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and avantus, assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customers call. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before. When minds interact, new ideas emerge. Rebecca For Kids? We want to talk about the creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by all. Such a medium is at handthe programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources.

Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and training, with the aid of famous sportspeople, a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to avantus training communication. Any communication between people about the for kids, same thing is a common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of avantus training, abstractions formulated initially in the mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in mens minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in french sportspeople other respects, it has shortcomings.

It will not stand still for careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run. No one knows just how it works. It serves its owners hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to the information stored in one mans head. It can be observed and avantus training, manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and Pot", brought into some degree of training, accord. The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as cooperative modelingcooperation in the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models?

When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an french outlinebecause it can be seen by all the communicatorsserves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to avantus provide facilities for externalizing models. Is it really seeing the expression in bill gates entrepreneurship the others eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and training, modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Normalcy:? Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of training, a project. Each member of the on female education, project brings to training such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in and of themselves.

And they are more than files of facts and recurring reports. They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individuals data are reflected in essay education his mental model. Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into their models is the essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at training this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.

If, at the outset, their two models were similar in rebecca structure but different simply in the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the training, achievement of communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the models or in famous french both of them. We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to begin to understand the training, other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of essay, many interacting minds is avantus training a more complicated process.

Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. Famous French? The interplay may produce, not just a solution to training a problem, but a new set of rules for forever 21 mission solving problems. That, of course, is the essence of creative interaction. The process of maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is avantus representative of a broad class of human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is gates what computers today are used for in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of avantus training, bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of rebecca for kids, debit and training, credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of not well understood situations.

We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. Normalcy: The "Melting Essay? The subject under discussion was rich in detail and broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the avantus, alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in famous the building but remotely controlled from avantus training a keyboard and a set of electronic pointer controllers called mice. Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talkedproviding a broad view of his own model. Rebecca? Many of the outline statements contained the training, names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to sportspeople appear in detail on the screens, for, from the beginning of the avantus training, project, its participants had put their work into the computer systems files.

So the famous, meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an overall list of agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the depth and training, breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the The "Melting, speakers files as the speaker talksand thus check out incidental questions without interrupting the training, presentation for riots for kids substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and training, the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to communicateto understandrequires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet.

But someday governments may not be able not to french afford it. For, while we have been talking about the training, communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from reports of essay education, recent international crises, out of the hundreds of alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the game, on the average only a few, and avantus training, never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the for kids, game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up tobut modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in avantus training a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth. The importance of bill, improving decision-making processesnot only in government, but throughout business and avantus, the professionsis so great as to bill gates entrepreneurship warrant every effort.

As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the avantus training, kind of National Cultures and Organizational Cultures, communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. Avantus? But we should not oversimplify the main point of this article. Bill Gates Entrepreneurship? We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the avantus training, dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of Normalcy: The "Melting, modeling and avantus training, that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the sportspeople, programs and avantus, the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: Buy a computer and your communication problems will be solved. What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of working on-line and National Cultures and Organizational Cultures Essay, interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and power than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of their software.

Many of us are therefore confident (some of avantus training, us to the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to National and Organizational Essay communication. However, the function they want computers to training implement is the switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in required configurations, or switch (the technical term is store and forward) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. Forever Statement? We are stressing the modeling function, not the switching function. Avantus Training? Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to National Cultures and Organizational Cultures Essay facilitate the modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Avantus? Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out education, separately and have become separately institutionalized.

There are strong intellectual and social benefits to avantus training be realized by the melding of these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and administrative obstacles in the way of rebecca for kids, any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computercommunication among people at avantus consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at famous french sportspeople distantly separated laboratories of the same research and development organization. This kind of communicationthrough a single multiaccess computer with the aid of telephone linesis beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by training messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere datathey include procedures and processes for structuring and manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and share with the aid of the tools and Cultures Cultures Essay, techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of dataand documentsand most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the dynamics of critical mass, as it applies to avantus training cooperation in 21 mission statement creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution.

Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into avantus, contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in entrepreneurship one place to training form a team, and bill, you have trouble, for avantus the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of Cultures Cultures, problem solver. The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the training, time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a weeks communicating.

There has to forever 21 mission statement be some way of avantus training, facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is National Essay no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to avantus avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Riots? Part of the economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. When a computer is used interactively from training a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. They do not require continuous access to Normalcy: Pot" Essay a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of such a channel. The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to havea service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and avantus, not be charged when one is not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for essay education ones individual use for avantus training a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for famous sportspeople most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster burstsmore difficult to avantus handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and the services supplied by the common carriers, for most of the Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality Essay, common-carrier services were developed in support of voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the avantus training, incompatibilities are frustrating.

It appears that the best and quickest way to overcome them-and to move forward the bill, development of avantus training, interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to set up an experimental network of multiaccess computers. And Organizational? Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and hardware, and they are in the same location. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the type described by avantus David [1] and Licklider [2]. Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the french, concept of man-computer interaction and the technology of interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of avantus training, their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of 21 mission statement, interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them.

And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other. Avantus? They are producing large and growing resources of programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is rebecca riots for kids much more programming and data collect ionand much more learning how to cooperateto be done before the full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity.

These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. Avantus Training? They differ by National Cultures Cultures Essay having a greater degree of open-endedness, by avantus training rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resourcesthe general purposenessof the interactive multiaccess systems of the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer themthrough new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displaysthe fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to 21 mission the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is training centered.

But now the essay, move is on to interconnect the separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the programs and training, data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical persons interaction with this network, of interconnected computers. The hardware of entrepreneurship, a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memorycore, disks, drums, and tapesand many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the users commands, the handling of avantus training, his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machines language to riots for kids use the system effectively), and programs and data created by avantus the users themselves. The collection of people, hardware, and softwarethe multiaccess computer together with its local community of userswill become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed.

For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a message processor. The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to and Individuality Essay the message processor there. Avantus Training? Through the rebecca riots for kids, network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicatewith other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. Avantus? The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and Pot" Essay, software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of as a short sequence of bits flowing through the network from avantus one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of two types of 21 mission, information: control and data.

Control information guides the transmission of data from source to training destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the use of error detection and french sportspeople, correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their bits were mutilated at one point or another along the way. Training? In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and correctors. Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturers computer are generally not of much value to Cultures Cultures users of a different manufacturers computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of avantus, a distant programs existence, one has to get it, understand it, and recode it for Normalcy: Pot" his own computer. The cost is comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do.

On a national scale, the training, annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on the other hand, a person at one node will have access to Normalcy: The "Melting Essay programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in avantus training different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. National Cultures Cultures Essay? A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of a unique list-processing program at SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to avantus translate for rebecca for kids use on avantus training the TX-2. Famous? A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of avantus training, sharing one anothers resources, is now being planned by the Defense Departments Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The systems way of managing data is crucial to Pot" the user who works in interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.

Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the keys to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of access to training it; or to National and Organizational Cultures permit anyone to read but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. Training? The system should provide for group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and 21 mission, privacy of information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the number of avantus, consoles permitted to use the famous, computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users jobs, and may be varied automatically as the training, load changes. Normalcy: Essay? Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level assembly languages while others use higher-level compiler or interpreter languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.

He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and logs in by presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleagues program that he has permission to use. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the program) needs service from a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required. If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. The request is translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by the remote computers monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the training, information transfer is complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the remote computer, again with the aid of the message processors. In a commercial system, the Cultures and Organizational Essay, remote processor would at this point record cost information for use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter.

Computers and long-distance calls have expensive images. One of the standard reactions to the idea of on-line communities is: It sounds great, but who can afford it? In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in training part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for famous sportspeople one mans share of the services of training, a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from for kids a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of avantus training, just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the assumption that ones console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the other items are assumed to be shared with others, and 21 mission, experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to somewhat greater utilization than the avantus, 160 hours per month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and decision making. Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. 21 Mission Statement? If we cut the training, duty factor of the bill, console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per avantus month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.

Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and Washington, D.C. Essay On Female Education? Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. Compare it with the cost of travel: If one flies from Boston to avantus Washington in the morning and back in the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in for kids Washington is $128-again $16 per training hour. Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now.

Thus we have some basis for on female education arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to let our discussion depend upon avantus, it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. The time scale provides a basis for National Essay genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity.

Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. Avantus? So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the cost of a unit of french, processing and the cost of avantus training, a unit of storage have been dropping for statement two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. Training? In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. French Sportspeople? Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour. Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in avantus training cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to famous french take advantage of it. Avantus? The only bill areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission.

In the console field, there is plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the problem of the chicken and the eggin the avantus training, factory and in the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the entrepreneurship, cost of training, a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market. Cultures And Organizational Essay? If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication.

In the field of transmission, the avantus, difficulty may be lack of competition. At any rate, the cost of french sportspeople, transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Nor is avantus it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the riots for kids, advent of satellites has affected the cost picture by less than a factor of two. Avantus? That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and is the and Individuality, strongest damper to our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities.

But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . In each field, the overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the total number of userssummed over all the fields of interestwill be large enough to training support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities.

All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. The whole will constitute a labile network of networksever-changing in both content and configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. On Female Education? Each secretarys typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network.

You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to training which they should be linkedand perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the National Cultures and Organizational, network to link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbarts meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and much less en route to meetings. A very important part of each mans interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER.

The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. Avantus? An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an Cultures and Organizational Essay on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder, a complex of computer programs and avantus, data that resides within the rebecca, network and acts on behalf of its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. You are describing a secretary, you will say. Avantus Training? But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from taking notes) on Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. Training? It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. Pot" And Individuality? It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to which of your personal files. It will know your organizations rules pertaining to proprietary information and the governments rules relating to security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other peoples OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by avantus you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through learning based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and services to which you subscribe on a regular basis and others that you call for french when you need them. In the training, former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of forever statement, specialization, announcement of training, cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.

In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in essay on female the history of networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in one basic language up to avantus training the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work at the console and through the network, telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that fact, and of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very greatboth on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by bill commonality of interests and goals than by accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to ones own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at avantus training the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding. And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will to be on line be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the french, advantage of intelligence amplification, the avantus, network may exaggerate the discontinuity in forever statement the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the avantus, other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure.

Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for consider the magnitude of the rebecca riots, task of training, adapting the networks software to all the new generations of riots, computer, coming closer and avantus, closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in an infinite crescendo of rebecca, on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in avantus Washington. Roland B. Wilson drew the cartoons to accompany the original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., Sharing a Computer, International Science and Technology , June, 1966. [2] J. C. R. Licklider, Man-Computer Partnership, International Science and Technology , May, 1965.

Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is thus the right place for his work to National Cultures Cultures be on training view.

was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for forever statement more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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15 Things You Should Know About The Death of Marat. A strangely hypnotic portrait, Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Marat has emerged as one of the most famous images of the avantus blood-soaked French Revolution. Rebecca Riots For Kids? The history behind this morbid masterpiece is even richer than its color palette. 1. The Death of avantus, Marat depicts a gruesome political murder . Outspoken journalist and notable member of the Montagnards, Jean-Paul Marat would never see the French Revolution's conclusion in 1799. On July 13 th of 1793, the 50-year-old writer was murdered by 24-year-old Charlotte Corday, who was either, depending on the propaganda you believe, a supporter of the monarchy or a supporter of the less radical Girondins, and blamed Marat for the escalating violence of the Normalcy: The "Melting Pot" revolution. After making no attempt to escape after stabbing him, Corday was apprehended and executed by guillotine just four days later. 2. The Death of Marat was propaganda. Not only the leading artist of his time, but also a zealous Jacobin and official artist of the radical revolutionary cause, David was asked by the revolutionary government to glorify three of avantus, its lost members for political gain. Rebecca Riots For Kids? Essentially, David was charged with making Marat a publicly recognized martyr to the cause and an epic hero. 3. It's both an idealized and accurate portrait of Marat . The propaganda angle informed David's creative choices, urging him to blend fact and fiction. Training? Almost like a crime scene photo, David carefully captured the green rug, bathtub, papers and pen left behind by the late revolutionary.

However, he opted to exclude Marat's physical imperfections. The reason Marat was working in the bathtub to begin with was because he suffered from a skin condition, likely severe eczema. To soothe his skin, he habitually bathed in forever statement oatmeal. Avantus Training? In depicting Marats final bath, David decided to portray his friend as a beautiful beacon, free of forever statement, such superficial flaws. 4. David pulled from religious inspiration to make Marat appear like a martyr.

The positioning of Marat's right arm, long and limp, cascading down the canvas, has drawn comparisons to the death pose of Jesus in Caravaggio's The Entombment of Christ . David was a noted fan of the 16th century Italian painter and also mimicked his use of light. 5. David also drew from Greek and Roman sculpture. Art historian E.H. Gombrich explained of the creation of The Death of Marat: He had learned from the study of Greek and Roman sculpture how to avantus training, model the Normalcy: The "Melting muscles and sinews of the body, and gave it the appearance of noble beauty; he had also learned from classical art to leave out all the details which were not essential to training, the main effect, and to aim at simplicity. 6. The Death of Marat was revolutionary for french sportspeople several reasons. The first is that it depicts a martyr of the French Revolution. Training? The second is that it was painted in the midst of the French Revolution, mere months after Marat's demise. The last revolutionary element relates to how it marked a change from David's typical subject matter. He'd previously pulled his subjects from classical antiquity, but here his muse was a contemporary figure. 7. Education? The Death of avantus, Marat is the only one of Davids propaganda paintings to survive.

The Death of Lepeletier was destroyed on July 27 th , 1794 during the Cultures and Organizational Essay coup d'etat known as the Thermidorian Reaction. The Death of Bara was never completed. 8. David decided to exclude Marat's killer almost completely. While historian Alphonse de Lamartine would go on to describe Corday as the Angel of Assassination, David was understandably less fond of Marat's murderer. He chose instead to focus on the man he admired, and avantus, only includes a mention of Corday in bill gates entrepreneurship the writings surrounding Marat's corpse.

Similarly, he chose to remove the avantus training offending knife from his colleague's chest where Corday had left it. Instead, it sits, stained with blood, on the floor. 9. Corday's treachery is revealed in Marat's hand. Corday gained access to Marat's private moment by entreating the writer to read a petition. National? As depicted by David, he was about to sign it as he was stabbed. The artist makes it clear that in avantus his dying moments Marat's last thoughts were only forever statement of the revolution. 10. The Death of Marat was initially popular. Avantus Training? Presented by David to his peers in November 15, 1793, the painting was instantly so beloved by the Montagnards and their sympathizers that it was hung in the hall of sportspeople, their National Convention of Deputies. Reproductions were also made for further propaganda use.

But as the tide turned against the Montagnards, so too did opinion of the painting. To protect it, David hid the work when he himself was exiled for his part in the Reign of Terror. 11. The Death of Marat got a second life after David's death. Twenty-one years after David passed away in 1825, renewed interest came from French art critic and poet Charles Baudelaire's praises of the long-forgotten portrait. The drama is here, vivid in its pitiful horror. This painting is Davids masterpiece and one of the avantus great curiosities of modern art because, by for kids a strange feat, it has nothing trivial or vile This work contains something both poignant and tender; a soul is flying in the cold air of this room, on these cold walls, around this cold funerary tub. 12.

The iconic French painting now calls Brussels home. After having been banished for a second time after the fall of Napoleon, David fled with the avantus painting and lived out the Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality Essay rest of his days in the Belgian capital. Avantus? Sixty-one years later, Davids family decided to bequeath the painting to the city that accepted David. On Female? And the Royal Museum of Fine Arts has been proud to display The Death of Marat since 1886. However, reproductions can be found in museums in Dijon, Reims, and avantus training, Versailles. 13. Bill Entrepreneurship? It has inspired a couple of major tributes.

In 1907, Edvard Munch, best known for avantus The Scream , made an interpretation that put a nude Corday front and center. Picasso also applied his unique vision to the subject in 1931. 14. It's repeatedly referenced in pop culture. On Female? In the movies, Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon and training, Derek Jarman's Caravaggio mimic the paintings composition in gates their mise-en-scene. Training? Andrzej Wajda's Danton includes a scene of David's creation of The Death of Marat . The scene was brought to life in Abel Gance's 1927 film Napoleon . It was rendered in garbage in the landfill documentary Waste Land . In 2013, it was gender-swapped with Lady Gaga in Marat's spot for ARTPOP. And it has even been memed in response to contemporary conflicts. 15. For Kids? The Death of Marat has become more famous than Marat.

Because of David's movingif manipulativedepiction of his fallen friend, The Death of Marat has struck a chord and spent the last two centuries becoming a highly recognized painting. Though some viewers might not know it by training name, they recognize its influential iconography. But Marat the man is known primarily because of this very portrait. Fans of Trevor Paglens artwork wont be able to find his newest upcoming piece in a museum. But if theyre in the right part of the world, theyll be able to forever 21 mission statement, see it by stepping outside in 2018 and looking up at the night sky. Thats because Orbital Reflector , a 100-foot-tall collaboration with the avantus Nevada Museum of Art, will spend its two-month exhibition period in space, Motherboard reports. Entrepreneurship? Unlike other satellites circling our planet, Orbital Reflector will serve no commercial, military, or scientific purpose, according to training, the project's Kickstarter. Cultures Essay? Instead, the massive, self-inflating sculpture will be solely intended to catch the eye of those viewing it from Earth. Training? Made from a brilliant, metallic material, the statement balloon-like satellite will be shaped like an training, elongated diamond. At night, it will reflect the sun, making it visible to the naked eye for viewers on essay on female education, Earth. The ambitious artwork is scheduled to hitch a ride on the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket in April 2018.

After being deployed about 350 miles above Earth's surface, it will spend around two months in space before gradually falling back toward the ground and burning up in the atmosphere. Paglen claims this will be the avantus first satellite to gates, enter Earth's orbit for strictly aesthetic purposes. In the past, manmade art has been sent into space with the hope that it would be seen by future generations or by avantus extraterrestrials. But this time, the Earth's current inhabitants are the intended audience. Paglen's Kickstarter campaignwhich will help fund the sculptures construction and its delivery to spaceis almost over. Take a peek at french sportspeople what the work will look like in avantus training the video below. New York has the rebecca riots for kids MoMA. London has the Tate Modern. And now, Quartz reports, Cape Town, South Africa, is home to the continent's largest contemporary art museum, the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa (MOCAA), which opened its doors to the public on avantus, September 22. The MOCAA is bill housed inside an avantus training, old grain silo complex thats been converted into a sleek, nine-floor attraction.

Located in the city's Victoria Alfred Waterfront, the refurbished building provides visitors with views of the Atlantic Ocean when they arent busy perusing more than 100 galleries filled with works created by 21st century African and diaspora artists. Many of the artworks on display are on loan from the private collections of the museums namesake, former PUMA CEO Jochen Zeitz. The complex also contains six research centers, performance spaces, a curatorial training program, and a rooftop garden, in addition to a boutique hotel on the top floor. While architecturally stunning, not everyone has embraced the MOCAA with open arms, as some argue that it doesnt adequately represent Africans. Normalcy: Pot" Essay? For one, the museum is named for a German sportswear mogul instead of an African figurehead. Its location in Cape Town has also proven to be contentious, with some saying that lingering bigotry against black residents makes the avantus training city a bad testing ground for a pan-African initiative. And, as Smithsonian points out, the museums top brass are white men, while nearly 80 percent of The "Melting Pot" and Individuality, South Africas residents identify as black.

Many of these locals likely also cant afford the museums standard $13.50 admission fee, although the MOCAA does offer free entry on Wednesdays to South Africans and other African citizens. These contentions aside, gallerists, curators, and artists involved with the avantus training museum are hopeful that the new institution will shed much-needed light on Africas many talented contemporary artists, and serve to unitenot divideAfricans. We are all very excited about it, of course, reflected renowned Nigerian curator Bisi Silva, according to Artsy, but what we do definitely want to see is that it reaches out across the continent, and thats something thats sometimes not as easy from forever 21 mission, South Africa. I think that is avantus training going to be very important. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. Why You Should Never Flush Dental Floss Down the Toilet. Why You Should Sing 'Happy BirthdayTwiceWhile Washing Your Hands.

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Federal Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance and Use in Canada: Building on the Federal Framework for Action. Federal departments contributing to training this Action Plan include: Public Health Agency of Canada Health Canada Canadian Food Inspection Agency Canadian Institutes of Health Research Agriculture and and Organizational Agri-Food Canada National Research Council Canada Industry Canada. Introduction A Commitment to Leadership. In October 2014, the Government of Canada released Antimicrobial Resistance and avantus training Use in Canada: A Federal Framework for forever 21 mission statement Action . The Framework maps out a coordinated, collaborative federal approach to avantus training responding to the threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR ). The Government of Canada is committed to taking action to prevent, limit, and control the emergence and spread of AMR , and and Organizational Cultures this Action Plan builds on the strategic areas of avantus training, focus and priority action items outlined in the Framework by and Organizational Cultures identifying concrete steps that will be undertaken by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC ), Health Canada (HC ), the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA ), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR ), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC ), the National Research Council (NRC ), and Industry Canada (IC ). In addition to its work in the areas of surveillance, stewardship, and innovation, the Government of Canada is committed to taking a leadership role both nationally and internationally.

Specific leadership activities include the following: PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , CIHR , and AAFC : Engage with international partners to develop and implement a Global Action Plan on AMR . The first phase will be working towards endorsement of a Global Action Plan by the World Health Assembly. Avantus Training. Target completion date: May 2015 PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , CIHR , and AAFC : Work with federal, provincial, and famous territorial (F/P/T ) partners and human health, animal health, agri-food and industry stakeholders to develop a pan-Canadian framework to address AMR . Avantus Training. The first phase will be working towards identifying the incremental elements of a pan-Canadian approach for endorsement by P/T s and forever 21 mission statement stakeholders. Target completion date: Fall 2015 PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , CIHR , and AAFC : As part of the work under the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA), support the development of an integrated and global package of activities to combat AMR that spans human, animal, agricultural, food, and environmental sectors. This includes: that each country have a national AMR plan in place to take a comprehensive, One Health approach to AMR ; strengthened surveillance and laboratory capacity at national and training international levels; and improved conservation of existing treatments and support development of new treatments, diagnostics, preventative measures and systems. Target completion date: 2019. However, our work does not end here.

This Action Plan is National and Organizational only the first of a series. It is intended to outline initial efforts to address AMR , which focus on ensuring that all partners and stakeholders are informed and engaged so that we can move forward together with a united objective. This Action Plan will be updated regularly both to demonstrate the progress being made, and to continue to identify new initiatives being undertaken as we move forward. Provinces, territories, and other stakeholders also play a key role by virtue of their responsibility for the delivery of health care, approval of antimicrobials for medical coverage, and avantus training the regulation of antimicrobial use (AMU ) in agriculture and The "Melting Essay veterinary medicine. The Government of Canada is committed to training working with all jurisdictions and stakeholders to deliver on this Action Plan. Detecting and National Cultures and Organizational Cultures monitoring trends and threats in order to inform strategies to reduce the avantus, risks and impacts of antimicrobial resistance. Establish and strengthen surveillance systems to identify new threats or changing patterns in antimicrobial resistance and use, in human and bill gates entrepreneurship animal settings. As indicated in avantus training, the Federal Framework, the World Health Organization, the World Economic Forum, and numerous countries around the world consider AMR to be an increasingly serious threat to global public health. 21 Mission. However, both within Canada and internationally, there is a lack of comprehensive information on avantus training, the scope of the problem of AMR , particularly outside of hospital settings (e.g., how are antimicrobials being used, how many bacteria are resistant, to which drugs, how are they being spread).

This information is needed to determine the full magnitude of the problem and National and Organizational is essential to monitor the effectiveness of avantus training, stewardship interventions, and for kids this information can only be gathered from avantus training, effective surveillance. In Canada, there are already robust surveillance systems in place, including the Canadian Integrated Program for essay education Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS ) and the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP ). While these surveillance systems and others contribute important information, there is no comprehensive and integrated national picture of AMR in human health and within the avantus training, agri-food system in Canada. The Government of Canada will continue its existing surveillance activities, as well as the supporting laboratory services, in support of efforts to combat AMR . This will include regular review of these surveillance systems to make required adjustments (e.g., incorporating additional data sources and new technologies). The Public Health Agency of 21 mission statement, Canada is establishing the Canadian Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (CARSS ) to strengthen coordination and avantus training integration of famous sportspeople, Agency AMR /AMU activities and information. CARSS will also provide leadership on AMR /AMU surveillance, inform and direct the training, expansion of surveillance activities to areas of greatest need, and provide useful and riots for kids relevant information to stakeholders and the public in support of antimicrobial stewardship interventions to training further protect the health of Canadians. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada will work on essay on female, the development of key components of an agri-food AMU monitoring, tracking, and reporting system. This will include identifying data collection and reporting needs across stakeholders and decision makers including needs for international, national, and avantus P/T reporting.

Other specific activities that will be undertaken moving forward include the following: PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , CIHR , and AAFC : Building on existing surveillance systems such as CIPARS and CNISP , the Public Health Agency of Canada will complete work to establish a blueprint for riots CARSS . The integrated information from training, CARSS will help create a better understanding of the linkages between practices for the use of antimicrobials, observed patterns of resistance, as well as the spread of AMR , and will be used to inform public health interventions and policy decisions relating to AMR and AMU . These efforts will be incremental and include: The issuance of the first annual CARSS report. Target completion date: Spring 2015 Expanding to a national approach through discussions with F/P/T and other external partners. Target completion date: Fall 2016 PHAC : As part of the creation of Normalcy: The "Melting, CARSS , the Agency will: Pilot the collection of avantus, antimicrobial susceptibility data from clinical laboratories to Cultures and Organizational Cultures Essay better understand community-associated AMR issues and trends. Target completion date: Spring 2015 Review existing priority AMR organisms being monitored by Agency surveillance systems and confirm the priority microbes to be included. Target completion date: Winter 2015 Identify any requirements for avantus surveillance transformation at famous french sportspeople the Agency to align with CARSS . Target completion date: Spring 2016 PHAC and HC : Analyse data on antimicrobial prescriptions collected by Health Canada's First Nations and Inuit Health Branch to provide a more comprehensive picture of AMU in Canada, and include findings in the annual Government of Canada Human Antimicrobial Use Report. Target completion date: Fall-Winter 2015 CFIA and AAFC : Identify AMU surveillance data requirements for the animal agriculture sector in support of the creation of a robust monitoring, tracking, and reporting system for AMU . Target completion date: Spring 2016 CFIA and AAFC : Work collaboratively with veterinary associations and P/T partners to begin to quantify antimicrobial usage in livestock in other dosage forms (e.g., water and injection) and under prescription.

Target completion date: Spring 2016 CFIA and AAFC : Work with stakeholders to develop options for the collection and storage of AMU data for animal feeds and livestock production linking species, production classes, purpose of administration, and avantus dosage quantities. Target completion date: December 2016 CFIA : Conduct baseline work on Salmonella , E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 and indicator organisms in cattle carcasses and isolates from each positive sample preserved for bill molecular characterization including AMR . Target completion date: March 2017 CIHR lead with support from PHAC : Support research on mode of transmission of resistance between organisms and the transmission of resistant bacteria among the training, different reservoirs (animal-environment-human). Support research and dissemination of results regarding the studies on on female education, intervention and surveillance of AMR . Target completion date: December 2019. Conserving the avantus, effectiveness of existing treatments through infection prevention and control guidelines, education and awareness, regulations, and oversight. Strengthen the promotion of the appropriate use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine. As outlined in the Federal Framework, AMR occurs whenever antimicrobials are used and will therefore be a constant factor in both human and veterinary medicine. Riots For Kids. Strong stewardship practices by everyone are therefore essential to continue to combat AMR . An important consideration in preserving the training, effectiveness of existing antimicrobial drugs is promoting disease prevention efforts with the aim of minimizing or eliminating the bill gates, need for avantus training antimicrobials. Infectious diseases caused by resistant organisms can be prevented if appropriate measures are implemented.

For example, effective hand-washing techniques and regular cleaning of surfaces can eliminate bacteria that cause disease. These measures can be equally effective against resistant bacteria. The Government of Canada has been and will continue to be involved in developing and disseminating information and professional practice guidelines for infection prevention and control in a variety of rebecca riots, human and animal settings. By preventing the avantus training, spread of infectious diseases, we can reduce the need for treatment using antimicrobials, which in essay on female, turn contributes to conserving the effectiveness of available treatment options. An example of recent work related to infection prevention is the Public Health Agency of Canada's November 2014 presentation of National and International Infection Prevention and Control Key Activities and Initiatives: An Environmental Scan at the 2014 Canadian Patient Safety Institute Infection Prevention and Control Canada Summit. This document outlines key infection prevention and control initiatives, their strengths, and areas for avantus training improvement in current practices. By sharing these best practices and identifying potential gaps that need to be addressed, improved measures can be put in rebecca for kids, place to avantus training help decrease the spread of infectious diseases which will help contribute to decreased use of antimicrobials. In addition to infection prevention and control, the Government of Canada will continue efforts to facilitate and National Cultures and Organizational Cultures enhance education and awareness on avantus, when and essay education how to use antimicrobials, as well as the choice of the correct antimicrobials to use for treatment of certain conditions. For example, the Public Health Agency of Canada's work on resistant strains of gonorrhea has led to the development of specific guidance for avantus healthcare professionals. To underscore the critical role of education and awareness, in November 2014, the Public Health Agency of Canada launched a pilot AMR awareness campaign featuring messages related to responsible AMU , as well as infection prevention and control, for healthcare professionals and parents. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is funding and will continue to fund various projects that aim at evaluating or improving current practices in the prescribing of antimicrobials, or that are looking at and Organizational alternatives in training, order to reduce consumption of antimicrobials.

In 2013-2014, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research invested $1 million in stewardship projects, and famous that amount has been steadily increasing every year over the last five years, showing a greater interest in that type of research. In the agri-food sector, significant progress is being made by Health Canada to promote the prudent use of antimicrobials in food animal production. Avantus Training. Health Canada is working with federal partners, drug sponsors, food animal producers and sportspeople other stakeholders to remove growth promotion claims of medically-important veterinary antimicrobial drugs by December 2016. Health Canada will work closely in aligning this initiative with the United States (US ) Food and Drug Administration's approach. Working step in step with the US is critical, given the high degree of integration of the meat and livestock production markets in avantus, both countries. About 60 of these products have been identified and discussions are underway with affected drug sponsors regarding a concrete plan to implement this measure. In November 2014, Health Canada communicated with individual drug sponsors to riots provide guidance, procedures and timelines to support the voluntary removal of growth promotion claims of training, medically-important antimicrobial drugs.

Continuing engagement of affected drug sponsors and other animal health stakeholders is creating the collaborative atmosphere to focus discussion on embracing antimicrobial stewardship and Cultures Essay the need for increasing veterinary oversight of AMU in food animal production. To promote optimal use of antimicrobials by healthcare professionals and consumers, Health Canada will continue to avantus oversee the appropriate labelling of products. This will ensure that drug labels appropriately reflect the current knowledge related to prudent use and AMR in every submission filed by industry. If warranted, sponsors of french sportspeople, human antimicrobials will also be requested to update their labels with new information related to training bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobials. In addition to these efforts, Health Canada will assess on essay on female, an ongoing basis the feasibility of applying current and training new tools to incentivise filing of essay on female education, new human antimicrobial drug submissions on a case-by-case basis. Current tools include the Priority Review policy, the Notice of Compliance with Conditions policy, and training the potential for remission of drug submission fees for products that have low commercial profitability. New regulatory tools that will be available in the future include the riots, orphan drug framework, which may be applicable for certain antimicrobial products. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada will also continue to support the development of assurance systems through the Growing Forward 2 Agri-Marketing Program. An example of a system is the Canadian Quality Assurance (CQA ) program, the pork industry's on-farm food safety program, which includes best practices on the prudent use of medications (including antimicrobials), requires that a detailed accounting of all medications and specifies that procurements are through a valid client veterinarian relationship.

Moving forward, the Government of Canada will continue to promote the appropriate use of antimicrobials through: PHAC : Evaluate the avantus training, effectiveness of the Normalcy: and Individuality Essay, messaging used during the November 2014 AMR awareness campaign. The lessons learned from this significant investment will be used to training inform future public awareness and education activities for the general public, and health professionals working in community, hospital and long-term care settings including expanding the reach of the 2015 awareness campaign. Target completion date: Winter and Spring 2015 PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , CIHR , and AAFC : The Minister of Health will host a Roundtable on AMR , with a focus on stewardship. Target completion date: Spring 2015 HC , CFIA and AAFC : Convene multi-lateral discussions with F/P/T partners, stakeholders and other interested parties to discuss and refine federal proposals for increasing veterinary oversight for veterinary antimicrobials for and Individuality Essay food animal production. Target completion date: Spring and Summer 2015 PHAC : Undertake a scan of the avantus, current Canadian and international landscape of healthcare associated infections to gates help identify potential gaps in infection prevention and control practices. This information will also assist the Agency in identifying future AMR -related interventions. Training. Target completion date: Spring 2016 PHAC lead with support from HC , CFIA , and AAFC : In response to calls for cross-sectoral engagement of all stakeholders in human health and agri-food sectors (e.g., government, industry, health professionals, veterinarians, licensing bodies), a series of consultations will be undertaken to take stock of existing practices relating to french sportspeople AMU , identify best practices for responsible AMU , and explore how to training best leverage existing education opportunities. Target completion date: Spring 2016 PHAC : To promote appropriate AMU , the Agency will update the Sexually Transmitted Infections Guidelines with current treatment recommendations, and deliver two webinar sessions to riots for kids promote specific AMR -GC (gonorrhea) guidance. These webinars will be used to promote online learning activities.

Target completion date: Spring 2016 HC and CFIA : Work with drug sponsors to facilitate their submissions for label changes to remove growth promotion claims of medically important antimicrobial drugs and associated references in the Compendium of Medicating Ingredient Brochures. Target completion date: Fall 2016 PHAC : Update the 2014 National and International Infection Prevention and Control Key Activities and Initiatives: An Environmental Scan to reflect current status, including a full analysis and identification of existing gaps in promoting effective infection prevention and control practices. Target completion date: Fall 2016 CIHR lead with support from PHAC : Support research and avantus dissemination of results regarding research on stewardship measures. Famous Sportspeople. Target completion date: December 2019. Work with the animal agriculture sector partners to strengthen the regulatory framework on avantus, veterinary medicines and The "Melting Pot" and Individuality Essay medicated feeds, including facilitating access to alternatives and encourage the adoption of practices in avantus training, order to reduce the use of antimicrobials. In addition to efforts to improve infection prevention and control measures, as well as promote education and awareness, the Government of Canada has an gates entrepreneurship, important role in avantus training, the regulation of animal health products in Canada, including the importation, licensing, and sale of veterinary drugs, medicated feeds, and vaccines. In support of this area, both Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency will continue to prioritize the modernization of the regulatory frameworks for veterinary medicines and medicated feeds.

Consultations are well underway in both areas and rebecca riots one of the key areas of focus is the long-standing need to strengthen control on training, the importation of veterinary drugs for personal use (own use importation or OUI ) and as Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API s) in support of and Organizational Cultures, public health and food safety. Health Canada will implement measures to address OUI of veterinary drugs, and strengthen its control over training the importation of 21 mission statement, veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients. In addition, Health Canada, in collaboration with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, is working with provincial partners and animal health stakeholders to strengthen veterinary oversight of medically-important antimicrobials for food-producing animals. Both Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency believe that professional oversight on the use of existing antimicrobial drugs in food animal production is necessary and would be critical to attaining the goal of facilitating the prudent use of antimicrobials and conserving antimicrobial effectiveness. Efforts are focused on addressing several in-water and training in-feed veterinary antimicrobial drugs that were approved as over the counter (OTC ) products prior to the implementation of forever, more stringent microbiological safety standards in 2004. These efforts will be coordinated closely with the US to ensure Canadian and US practices remain aligned. Health Canada will continue to address the regulatory aspect of strengthening stewardship through appropriate regulation of human and veterinary antimicrobial drugs. By evaluating the safety, quality and effectiveness of these drugs, including post-market monitoring through collection and analysis of avantus, adverse reaction reports, Health Canada aims to rebecca riots for kids preserve the effectiveness of authorized antimicrobials.

The Canadian Institutes of Health Research is putting in place a new initiative on the Environments and Health. Environmental factors intersect and contribute both positively and avantus training negatively to our health, including AMR . This initiative focuses on three critical areas of investigation (nexus): agri-food, resource development, and urban form. Each of these areas has prevention as its core and Normalcy: Pot" and Individuality Essay is underpinned by three fundamental research components: etiology, data platform enhancements, and intersectoral prevention research. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency will also continue to verify through premarket assessment, inspection, and sampling, that medicated feeds that are imported, manufactured or sold in avantus training, Canada meet the standards set by Cultures and Organizational Essay Health Canada as per the Compendium of Medicating Ingredient Brochures or prescribed by a veterinarian. Utilizing forums such as the National Value Chain Roundtables, Agriculture and avantus training Agri-Food Canada will work with the famous, livestock and poultry sectors to encourage the increased adoption of animal health practices that ultimately reduce the use of antimicrobials in animal production. This includes the expansion of the national livestock traceability system and implementation of enhanced biosecurity measures. In addition, in response to avantus training industry requests, the Department's Science and Technology Branch will utilize its expertise to assist the sectors in validating the efficacy of commercially available alternatives.

Specific activities that will be undertaken moving forward include the essay, following: HC , CFIA and AAFC : Convene an additional round of multi-lateral discussions with F/P/T partners, stakeholders and other interested parties to further consider and refine federal proposals for strengthening the regulatory framework for veterinary drugs. Objectives of these discussions will be to determine how to establish effective oversight of avantus training, API s, as well as to engage stakeholders on measures to promote the prudent use of antimicrobials and to facilitate access to alternatives. Target completion date: Spring 2015 AAFC : Support industry-led research to validate the efficacy of statement, commercially available alternatives to in-feed antibiotics when appropriate. Training. Target completion date: Summer 2015 HC and CFIA : Implement the requirement to increase veterinary oversight of medically-important antimicrobial drugs used in bill gates entrepreneurship, livestock feed and in water. The approach and timing will be aligned with a similar initiative in the US . Target completion date: December 2016 HC : Implement measures to address own use importation of veterinary drugs, and strengthen the control over the importation of veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (API s). Target completion date: 2017 CIHR : Support research at the interface between human and animal health and the environment as part of the Environments and Health Signature initiative and through the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR ) transnational call. Target completion date: Spring 2020. Creating new solutions to counteract loss in antimicrobial effectiveness through research and development. Promote innovation through funding collaborative research and development efforts on antimicrobial resistance both domestically and internationally.

As outlined in the Federal Framework, the Government of Canada supports ongoing domestic health research and innovation while collaborating with international partners to contribute to global research efforts on AMR , AMU , novel therapies and alternatives. Federal government departments and agencies are already working together on science activities relating to AMR to better leverage the outcomes and results generated by these activities. The successful introduction of immunization programs to prevent and control vaccine-preventable diseases reduces dependence on training, antimicrobials, thereby helping reduce risks associated with AMR . Innovative vaccines under development are being prioritized to address some of the most significant threats posed by essay antimicrobial resistance through a Canadian Action Plan on Vaccine Research, Innovation and Development. Furthermore, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research are building upon avantus training, previous collaborative efforts in the establishment of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN ). The national network is composed of key vaccine researchers who develop and test methodologies related to the evaluation of vaccines as they pertain to safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness, and program implementation and evaluation. In addition, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada will continue to support and/or undertake research and innovation on improvements in animal production practices, disease prevention and treatment, and development of vaccines. These research results will contribute to reducing the requirements for antimicrobials in the animal production industry. From an innovation perspective, Canada currently has a small number of innovative companies engaged in The "Melting and Individuality, either drug development, diagnostics, or other related technologies related to AMR . These firms represent a very small part of the overall Canadian life science sector (less than one percent).

The existing Science, Technology and Innovation framework at the federal level is supportive of the commercialization of life science innovations, including those involving AMR . In the past, targeted support has been provided to support health policy objectives. For example, as part of the agreement between Canada and the Bill and avantus Melinda Gates Foundation on HIV, Industry Canada established the $13 million Canadian HIV Technology Demonstration program administered through the Industrial Research Assistance Program to support small Canadian firms engaged in the development of HIV vaccines and related technologies. The feasibility of a similar approach involving AMR could be examined. It is Cultures well recognized that despite the very apparent need for new more effective antibiotics, very few are making it to the marketplace. The Public Health Agency of Canada and the National Research Council are working to gain a better understanding of the barriers to innovation deployment both within Canada, and globally, with a view to modelling how such barriers can be overcome.

It will be beneficial to inventory existing RD outputs and AMR activities (industrial and academic), to avantus training identify those that could be further developed and Essay supported to help address Canada's challenges. It is imperative that all innovation solutions go hand in hand with stewardship to ensure the effectiveness of treatments can be conserved. The Government of Canada will also explore with international partners a global approach to support innovation in the area of AMR . For example, the Canadian Institutes of avantus training, Health Research is a founding member and major funder of the Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance, an association of 19 countries that aim at coordinating resources and actions of the famous, diverse countries to combat the global threat of avantus, AMR . Through the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canada is able to provide an international leadership role in coordinating research efforts to achieve long-term reductions in resistance levels and better public health outcomes. Moving forward, the Government of Canada will: PHAC , HC , CFIA , CIHR , AAFC , IC , and essay NRC : Through the Canadian Action Plan on avantus, Vaccine Research, Innovation and Development, determine vaccine research priorities. Key stakeholders in human and animal health sectors are being engaged as part of this process. Target completion date: 2015 CIHR : Continue to build knowledge to create innovative tools and alternative therapies to prevent and limit the spread of AMR through research and 21 mission statement development via both open competition and strategic funding through partnerships, and in particular collaborate with international groups to promote and leverage Canadian contributions within international research teams: Canada-United Kingdom partnership on antibiotic resistance (with the United Kingdom's Medical Research Council). Target completion date: March 2015 Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR ): InnovaResistance: Innovative approaches to training address antibiotic resistance (group of 12 countries). Target completion date: December 2017 JPIAMR transnational call (19 participating countries). Riots For Kids. Target completion date: December 2019 PHAC , HC , CFIA , AAFC , and NRC : Under the federal Genomics Research and Development Initiative, involving eight departments and agencies, a. $20M five year project will be launched to avantus training gain a greater understanding of the critical activities that contribute to 21 mission the development of training, antimicrobial resistance and critical exposure pathways by bill gates which antimicrobial bacteria reach humans, which could then be used to help validate economically sustainable technologies, practices, and avantus training policies to mitigate the development of antimicrobial resistance.

Target completion date: 2021. The Government of Canada remains committed to taking action on AMR and AMU . As such, we will continue to work with federal, provincial, territorial and international health and agriculture partners, as well as other stakeholders, to identify how we can strengthen existing and planned activities. We will also continue to National and Organizational work to identify new activities to help combat the spread of AMR . As noted previously, this Federal Action Plan is the first in a series to keep Canadians informed of our activities and training our ongoing progress in implementing the National and Organizational Essay, Federal Framework. The Government of Canada will regularly review and update this Action Plan so that it remains reflective of the avantus training, work that is Cultures and Organizational underway and our plans for avantus the future. The information you provide through this survey is collected under the authority of the Department of Employment and and Organizational Cultures Social Development Act (DESDA) for the purpose of measuring the performance of Canada.ca and avantus continually improving the Normalcy: Pot", website. Your participation is voluntary. Please do not include sensitive personal information in the message box, such as your name, address, Social Insurance Number, personal finances, medical or work history or any other information by which you or anyone else can be identified by your comments or views. Any personal information collected will be administered in accordance with the Department of Employment and Social Development Act , the Privacy Act and other applicable privacy laws governing the protection of personal information under the control of the avantus training, Department of Employment and forever 21 mission Social Development. Survey responses will not be attributed to individuals. If you wish to obtain information related to avantus this survey, you may submit a request to the Department of Employment and Social Development pursuant to the Access to Information Act . Instructions for making a request are provided in the publication InfoSource, copies of which are located in local Service Canada Centres.

You have the right to file a complaint with the Privacy Commissioner of Canada regarding the institutions handling of National, your personal information at: How to file a complaint. When making a request, please refer to the name of this survey: Report a Problem or Mistake on This Page. You will not receive a reply. Avantus. For enquiries, contact us. Government of Canada activities and initiatives.

PM Trudeau thanks the outgoing Governor General of Canada, His Excellency the Right Honourable David Johnston, for his service to Canada and forever 21 mission statement Canadians. Launch or advance your career with #PSRCareers. Post-Secondary Recruitment. Connecting you and your future! The deadline to be considered for the next selection round of the avantus, PMs Youth Council members is on female Sunday October 1st, 2017!