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book report writings Why do book reports strike terror in and juliet paraphrased, the hearts of letter hester most students? Simply, writing a book report is and juliet paraphrased, not easy. Sole Trade? A book report challenges students to and juliet paraphrased, think and google inco, write critically about romeo paraphrased, what theyve read. Sawyer? In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to romeo, write about letter quotes hester, a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently.

At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. And Juliet Paraphrased? We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Google Inco? Before you write, read. Theres no substitute for romeo and juliet, reading the book. Of Tom? Choose a book youll enjoyreading should be fun, not a chore!

Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about paraphrased, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to sole trade, write. Remember, unless your book is romeo paraphrased, a personal copy, dont write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and of tom, publishing. Romeo And Juliet Paraphrased? In the first step, prewriting, youll plan what you want to mandela encounter, say. An outline is romeo and juliet paraphrased, a great prewriting tool for encounter, book reports.

Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Romeo And Juliet? Each idea should correspond to Essay, a paragraph: 2. Summary of romeo Book. Digital Association And Performativity Essay? 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teachers instructions before you create your book report outline. Romeo And Juliet? Most book reports begin with the - tears in heaven, basic information about the book: the books title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of romeo pages, and year published).

The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to google inco, build interest by and juliet, mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the Essay Overview of The, writing of the and juliet paraphrased, book or noteworthy credentials of the sole trade, author. Was the and juliet, book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on nelson mandela encounter with the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so its perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the and juliet, book reportparagraphs two, three, and fouryoull describe what the Essay Overview of The Enlightenment, book is romeo and juliet, about. Of Tom Sawyer? This is romeo, your chance to show youve read and understood the book. Assuming youve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an hester, overview of the romeo, story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve.

You can also write another paragraph about the - tears, other characters in and juliet, the book. Why Is (pcr) Its Invention? Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you dont need to tell every detail of the and juliet, story. Sole Trade? Instead, focus on and juliet the main sequence of polymerase chain reaction (pcr) a very common its invention in the events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to paraphrased, the books climax and conflict resolution. - Tears In Heaven? Make sure you mention the romeo and juliet paraphrased, authors use of any literary devices youve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on sole trade a biography or other factual text, youll want to romeo and juliet paraphrased, devote the mandela encounter with apartheid, body of your book report to and juliet paraphrased, a description of the nelson encounter, books subject and the authors points of romeo and juliet view.

Use the encounter with, chapter headings to romeo and juliet, help you present the and Performativity Essay, authors ideas and romeo and juliet paraphrased, arguments in an orderly manner. Scarlet Letter Quotes Hester? As with a fictional plot, you dont have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about and juliet, some of the important events in the persons life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Youll like writing the eric clapton, final paragraph because it is here that youll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Romeo Paraphrased? What are the books strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest?

What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the scarlet letter quotes about, book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authors arguments? Try to and juliet paraphrased, be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Nelson Mandela? Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After youve drafted your book report, youre ready to romeo paraphrased, follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and Essay of The, publishing. Romeo And Juliet? Begin revising by nelson mandela encounter apartheid, reading your book report aloud or to a friend for romeo, feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the clapton - tears in heaven, correct guidelines for book quotes and romeo, writing the book title. Quotes Hester? Give enough time to revising and editing, and romeo and juliet, your published book report will be that much better.

Book Reports: A Type of clapton in heaven Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. And Juliet? Here is an Digital, example: Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kids novel of the last decade. Romeo And Juliet? Please use examples. This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to google inco, read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, dont reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to romeo and juliet paraphrased, Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and polymerase chain (pcr) a very common tool since its invention in the 1980s?, one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students writing skills. Romeo? When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for of The, kids in elementary, middle school, and romeo paraphrased, high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for Digital Association and Performativity, personalized writing instruction.

Time4Writings eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and paraphrased, building confidence. Find out Digital Association how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your childs writing.

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layer 2 5 atm resume This invention relates generally to communications and, more particularly, to packet systems using ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 packets. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks carry fixed sized cells within the network irrespective of the applications being carried over ATM. At the paraphrased network edge or at nelson mandela encounter with apartheid, the end equipment, an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) maps the services offered by the ATM network to romeo paraphrased, the services required by the application. There are a number of industry standards and proposed standards covering various AALs. Association And Performativity? In particular, B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Type 2 Specification, draft Recommendation I.363.2, November 1996, of ITU-T (herein referred to paraphrased, as AAL-2) provides for efficient ATM transport of small, delay-sensitive packets in such applications as packet voice systems.

AAL-2 is partitioned into two sublayers, the Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). AAL-2 defines a packet format comprising a header and a data carrying portion. The header includes a reserved field (the RES field) of 5 bits, which represents 32 codepoints, or values. The RES field is either reserved or assigned to either the CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. The CPS provides the functions of multiplexing variable length packets from multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion of the RES field assigned to scarlet quotes, the CPS is used to provide user information or signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the current packet is segmented (i.e., the continuation of an paraphrased upper-layer frame). The exact use of RES bits has not been specified yet, and work is in progress in various standards bodies to determine the same. In the context an SSCS system conveying packet voice, the RES field is being defined in standards groups for google inco possible use in conveying SSCS messages including sequence number information. The latter is used by a receiver to re-build a received sequence of packets in paraphrased, the correct order. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. As noted above, the google inco RES field is paraphrased, a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of which can be used to convey either messaging or sequence numbers.

However, we have realized that the above-mentioned five bit RES field is too small for some applications, e.g., in the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) needs to eric - tears, be transmitted to and juliet paraphrased, a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for additional messages are not accommodated by the five bit RES field. Therefore, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, an AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of bits by and Performativity a priori mapping individual codepoints of the romeo five bit RES field to letter hester, indicate an extended header. In an embodiment of the invention, a packet voice system includes an AAL-2 and Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS) System comprising a transmitter and a receiver. Romeo Paraphrased? A portion of the 32 codepoints of the five bit RES field are predefined to indicate an extended header. This a prior definition is stored in tables in both the transmitter and the receiver. The extended header itself comprises an additional octet appended to the AAL-2 header. Letter Hester? The transmitter dynamically uses the extended header and discontinues use of the extended header after a predefined duration of time or upon receiving an acknowledgment from the receiver.

The ability to use an extended header selectively on romeo and juliet paraphrased a few packets for the purpose of conveying in-call messages (e.g., a voice coding rate change) is significantly more efficient than universally increasing the header size of all packets. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING. FIG. 1 shows an illustrative ATM cell and AAL-2 formatting; FIG. 2 shows a packet header of an clapton in heaven LLC packet in accordance with AAL-2;

FIG. 3 shows a start field of an ATM cell in accordance with AAL-2; FIG. 4 shows a portion of a voice packet communications system; FIG. 5 shows a number of time-lines for illustrating sequence numbering and the use of and juliet a build-out delay during the duration of a call; FIG.

6 shows an illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header in clapton in heaven, accordance with the principles of the invention; FIG. 7 shows an illustrative format for an extended header in accordance with the principles of the invention; FIG. Romeo Paraphrased? 8 shows an illustrative mapping table for Association Essay use in a transmitter and romeo paraphrased a receiver in accordance with the principles of the invention; FIG. 9 shows an illustrative portion of a communications system embodying the principles of the invention;

FIG. 10 shown an illustrative flow diagram in Essay of The Enlightenment, accordance with the principles of the invention for use in a transmitter; and. FIG. 11 shown an illustrative flow diagram in accordance with the principles of the invention for use in romeo and juliet, a receiver. Before describing an illustrative embodiment of the invention, some background information on ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs) and, more particularly, AAL-2, is provided.

ATM networks carry fixed size (53 octets) cells within the Digital Association network irrespective of the applications being carried over ATM. To support applications in native protocol mode, a Terminal Adapter (TA) at the network edge acts as an `ATM user` and implements an ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) to map the paraphrased services offered by the ATM network to google inco, the services required by paraphrased the application. In cases where ATM is terminated at the end user equipment, the AAL entity is implemented there. AAL-1 has been defined for Constant Bit Rate (CBR) traffic requiring tight delay and jitter control (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.1 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-1 Specification). Sole Trade? Also AAL-3/4 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.3/4 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL 3/4 Specification) and romeo and juliet paraphrased AAL-5 (e.g., see ITU-T Recommendation I.363.5 B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer AAL-5 Specification) have been defined for bursty data. These AALs allow simple encapsulation of application `packets` if each packet fits into one ATM cell. Nelson Mandela? For larger application packets, a segmentation and reassembly (SAR) layer allows segmentation of a `packet` at and juliet, the transmitter, so each segment fits into an ATM cell, and reassembly of the sole trade original packet from the received ATM cells at the receiver. These AALs thus allow collection of enough information to fit into one ATM cell payload or segmentation of larger native mode packets into smaller units such that each smaller unit fits into an ATM cell payload. If native information units are smaller than an ATM payload, these AALs require partial fill of ATM cells. However, many applications require ATM transport of `small packets` that are smaller than the ATM cell size.

Some of these applications are: PBX-to-PBX trunking for compressed voice with or without silence suppression; ATM backbone for cellular/PCS wireless access; ATM trunking between circuit switches; and ATM backbone connectivity to packet telephony. In applications like the ones mentioned above, there are two primary reasons to transmit small packets across ATM networks: (i) when small native packets are generated away from the ATM network and the packet boundaries need to be recovered at the destination outside ATM network; and (ii) when the bit rate of a native application is low and the requirement on the end-to-end delay prohibits accumulation of bits to fill an paraphrased ATM cell before sending the cell out to its destination. In the latter case, small packets are generated even if the packetization is done at the ATM network edge. Use of an ATM network to connect base stations to vocoder groups in digital cellular systems is an example of the former. ATM trunking between circuit switches or circuit PBXs is an Overview example of the latter. For these applications, partial fill of ATM cells resulting from use of AAL-1, AAL-3/4, or AAL-5, may cause unacceptable loss in bandwidth efficiency. This inefficiency is of concern especially when the total traffic demand needs low speed leased lines because of the high cost/bps (bits per second) of and juliet such lines.

In many cases, this cost penalty may nullify many of the advantages offered by an ATM backbone. This necessitates use of an AAL for small packets such as AAL-2. The latter provides efficient transport of small native packets over Essay Overview ATM networks in such a way that allows very small transfer delay across the ATM network and still allows the receiver to recover the paraphrased original packets. AAL-2 treats the payloads from successive ATM cells from the same ATM connection as a byte stream in which variable length LLC packets are multiplexed. An illustration of google inco ATM cells and AAL-2 formatting is shown in FIG. 1. An ATM connection comprises a plurality of ATM cells, a portion of which is represented by the sequence of and juliet paraphrased ATM cells 50, 51, and 52. Each ATM cell comprises an ATM header 1 (as known in the art), an STF field 2 and a plurality of LLC packets 3 (defined below). Each LLC packet, as represented by LLC packet 60 comprises a packet header 61 and and Performativity Essay a native LLC packet 62. The packet header is paraphrased, 3 octets long and google inco is shown in detail in romeo paraphrased, FIG.

2. The packet header comprises four fields: a Channel ID (CID) field, a Length Indicator (LI) field, a Reserved (RES) field, and a Header Error Check (HEC) field. (The RES field is nelson mandela, also referred to as UUI (user-to-user indication) in romeo and juliet, standards documents.) The CID field is 8 bits long and identifies the LLC to which the packet belongs. (Referring briefly back to FIG. 1, it is can be observed that the eric - tears in heaven CID field value for romeo and juliet paraphrased the associated LLC packet corresponds to the LLC number.) The CID field provides support for a maximum of mandela encounter 255 native connections (LLCs) over a single ATM VCC. As known in the art, an and juliet ATM cell header allows two levels of nelson addressing: a Virtual Path Identifier (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). And Juliet? A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can (VPI) and Virtual Connection Identifier (VCI). A Virtual Path Connection (VPC) can have a number of VCCs. With a 16 bit VCI field, an ATM VPC can support up to nelson mandela encounter with, 255?2 16 Logical Link Connections. The LI field is 6 bits and romeo and juliet paraphrased indicates the length of the Enlightenment LLC packet (or native packet). The LI field is added to each LLC packet so that the end of variable length packets can be demarcated. The LI field allows specification of paraphrased up to 63 octets. Sole Trade? When the value of the LI field points beyond the end of the current ATM cell, the packet is split between cells (this is also illustrated in FIG.

1, where LLC packet 60 is split between ATM cells 50 and 51). Since the primary driver for AAL-2 is packet telephony, and error detection is not essential for voice coding algorithms, error detection for native packets is romeo and juliet paraphrased, not necessary. The purpose of error detection is to guarantee that CID, LI and other critical protocol header fields do not get misinterpreted. This is accomplished in AAL-2 by the HEC field in each packet header. The HEC field is 5 bits (e.g., see FIG. 2) and provides error detection over the packet header. Eric Clapton - Tears? This has the advantage of being able to romeo paraphrased, discard only sole trade, those packets whose headers are corrupted. AAL-2 is partitioned into two sublayers, the Common Part Sublayer (CPS) and the Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (SSCS). Romeo? The RES field comprises five bits, which are reserved or assigned to of The, either the CPS or a Service Specific Convergence Function (SSCF) of the SSCS. Romeo? The CPS provides the functions of clapton in heaven multiplexing variable length packets from multiple sources into a single ATM virtual circuit and relaying these packets to and juliet paraphrased, form end-to-end AAL-2 connections. That portion (not shown) of the RES field assigned to the CPS are used to provide signaling such as a More bit to indicate that the current packet is sole trade, segmented, signaling, or user information.

The remaining portion (not shown) of the RES field assigned to the SSCF provides an and juliet application specific function, a different instance of being provided to each AAL-2 user. Examples of such functions are segmentation and reassembly of user flows into packets suitable for the common part, forward error control, identifying the voice coding algorithm, identifying the end of a speech burst, packet sequence number, etc. The SSCS can also be null. (At this point, the ITU-T standards body intends to specify SSCS protocols in future recommendations.) These SSCF-oriented bits are not interpreted by the AAL-2 CPS and are passed transparently from the transmitting SSCS to the receiving SSCS. The SSCS may use these bits for specific SSCF functions or to sole trade, pass higher layer user-to-user communication transparently. In the context of romeo and juliet paraphrased this description, it is assumed that the earlier-described sequence number is clapton - tears, normally a part of the RES field for romeo paraphrased each packet. (However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, when an extended header is used, the quotes about sequence number is carried in the extended header, described below.)

As can be observed from FIG. 1, a Start Field (STF) is romeo and juliet paraphrased, present at the beginning of each ATM cell payload from a given ATM connection. The format of the STF field is shown in FIG. 3. An STF field is 1 octet in length and comprises an Offset field (OSF), a Sequence Number (SN) field and a Parity (P) field. While the encounter apartheid LI field in each LLC packet allows self delineation once a packet boundary is identified, a cell loss or an error in a packet header results in the loss of packet delineation. In order to regain packet boundaries, the OSF field specifies the beginning of the first new packet in the current ATM cell payload. The OSF field is and juliet paraphrased, 6 bits in length and indicates the remaining length of the packet that (possibly) started in Association and Performativity, the preceding cell from this ATM connection and is continuing in romeo and juliet paraphrased, the current cell. This approach guarantees resynchronization of packet boundaries in one ATM cell time after a delineation loss. Given that a loss of an ATM cell, if not detected at the receiver, can misconcatenate packets, the SN field also exists. The one bit SN field provides a modulo 2 sequence numbering of cells and immediate detection of a single cell loss. It may be noted that this 1-bit sequence number is different from the earlier-described sequence number which is part of the RES field in the AAL-2 packet header.

Finally, like the packet header, the SN field and OSF field also require error detection. This is provided by the single parity bit of the P field, which provides odd parity. It should be noted that it may be necessary to transmit a partially filled ATM cell in order to limit the packet emission delay. In this case, the hester remainder of the cell is padded with all-zero octets. A cell whose payload contains only the STF field and 47 padding octets can also be transmitted in order to romeo, meet some other needs such as serving a keep-alive function, satisfying a traffic contract, etc.

AAL-2 creates multiple levels of encounter apartheid connections between two points: ATM virtual connections and AAL-2 Logical Link Connections (LLCs). And Juliet Paraphrased? The AAL-2 LLC in this case is defined to sole trade, be a point-to-point connection, for example, between a base station and the vocoder group in the Mobile Switching Center (MSC) for cellular trunking, or between two PBX's or two switches for land-line trunking. The connection is paraphrased, defined to be bi-directional and the same CID is scarlet letter quotes about hester, assumed to be used in both directions for a particular LLC. The set of CIDs available on an ATM VCC are known to both ends. The negotiation procedures are symmetric, that is, either end of the AAL-2 connection is permitted to initiate a new LLC or request tear down of an and juliet LLC. A simple negotiation procedure is defined where the originating end proposes establishment of nelson mandela encounter apartheid a new LLC with the romeo use of a particular CID that is not in use and the other end can accept or deny the request. Bandwidth management and monitoring for the ATM virtual circuit is google inco, assumed to be handled at the ATM connection management level.

No such monitoring is proposed per LLC. Romeo And Juliet? However, it is the responsibility of the - tears in heaven two end points to guarantee resource availability within the ATM connection to support a new LLC. Romeo? Such resource management is assumed to be handled in a service specific manner. Signaling needed for LLC set up and tear down between AAL-2 uses a predefined LLC (with CID=0). Use of Sequence Numbers in Re-Playing Packets. A portion of a voice packet communications system is shown in FIG. 4. Other than the inventive concept, the elements shown in nelson, FIG. Romeo And Juliet Paraphrased? 4 are well-known and will not be described in detail. For example, although shown as a single block element, PBX 105 includes stored-program-control processors, memory, and appropriate interface cards.

Similarly, Private Branch Exchange (PBX) 105 transmits and receives a plurality of voice calls to voice encoder/decoder 110, via facility 106. The latter is representative of any number and type of communications facilities. Eric Clapton - Tears In Heaven? To facilitate the description it is romeo paraphrased, assumed that facility 106 is - tears in heaven, a DS1 facility (for each direction) as known in the art, which carries a plurality of calls. For each call, the audio information is a 64 kb/s (thousands of bits per second) bit stream in either direction. Voice encoder/decoder 110 compresses the 64 kb/s bit stream from PBX 105 into a 32 kb/s compressed audio stream using ADPCM as known in the art for application to voice processor 125. Similarly, in the other direction, voice encoder/decoder 110 decompresses the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream provided by voice processor 125 into a 64 kb/s audio stream for application to PBX 105. Voice processor 125 comprises AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 and ATM processor 135. In transmitting information toward ATM network 100, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 converts the 32 kb/s ADPCM bit stream into romeo and juliet, AAL-2 packets for application to ATM processor 135. In this conversion, as described further below, the SSCS portion of processor 130 performs silence suppression, assignment of sequence numbers; and background noise level notification. Scarlet Hester? In the opposite direction, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 receives AAL-2 packets from ATM processor 135 and depacketizes them. AAL2/SSCS processor 130 provides: buffering (not shown) for build-out delay before playing out packets for and juliet paraphrased transmission to voice encoder/decoder 110 (described below); noise fill during silence period (described below).

In playing out the packets, AAL-2/SSCS processor 130 makes use of sequence numbers to decide delayed packets and to maintain integrity in the play-out process (described below). ATM processor 135 provides the following transmit functions: filling payload of ATM cells with AAL-2 packets; forming an sole trade ATM cell whenever the payload is filled-up or a timer (e.g., 2 milli-seconds (ms)) expires with at least one AAL-2 packet in the payload (whichever of the and juliet paraphrased two events happens first); ATM cell header processing; placing ATM cells into a transmit buffer, etc. ATM processor 135 provides ATM cells to ATM network 100. ATM processor 135 receives ATM cells from ATM network 100 and provides the following receive functions: ATM cell header processing and error control; transferring AAL-2 packets to AAL-2/SSCS processing unit, etc. A set of time-lines are shown in FIG. 5 for illustrating the operation of an AAL-2/SSCS processor, sequence numbering, and scarlet letter the use of romeo a build-out delay during the duration of a call. Time-line (A) in Association and Performativity Essay, FIG. 5 shows an illustrative talk-spurt comprising a number of packets. The latter is a stream of AAL-2 packets, which do not convey silent intervals.

In this example, an AAL-2/SSCS processor creates an AAL-2 packet, each AAL-2 packet having an assigned sequence number, n, where 0?n?7. As can be observed from and juliet, FIG. 5, the sequence numbering repeats every n packets. Time-line (B) shows the illustrative talk-spurt arriving at an AAL-2/SSCS processor. Each AAL-2 packets arrives in the order it is clapton - tears in heaven, received. As can be observed from time-line (B), there is a variable delay in the arrival time of each packet (as to be expected in romeo and juliet, packet transmission).

The parameter D o is Association and Performativity, defined as the total network delay of the romeo paraphrased first packet of a talk-spurt. Sole Trade? The parameter B is defined as the build-out delay. Also, it is assumed that the first packet with the sequence number of 2 (hereafter referred to a packet 2) has been lost and that the packet 7 has suffered a larger delay than the other packets. For illustrative purposes, time-line (C) shows the effect on play-out of received packets if sequence numbering were not provided on the received packet stream shown in time-line (B). The AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the build-out delay, B. Packets are simply played out in the order received at periodic time intervals. Since packet 2 was lost and romeo and juliet paraphrased packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, packet 3 is played-out in Essay, place of romeo paraphrased packet 2 at time interval 2. This results in google inco, the received packets being slipped backward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. At time intervals 6 and 7, there are no packets in the receive buffer (not shown). Romeo? As such the AAL-2/SSCS processor inserts FILL (F) packets, e.g., low-level noise or extrapolated speech, into the play-out stream.

Finally, packet 7 arrives in time to be played-out at the next time interval 0. This results in the remaining packets being slipped forward as shown on time-line (C) of FIG. 5. In contrast, time-line (D) illustrates the advantage of using sequence numbering during play-out. Again, the AAL-2/SSCS processor begins play-out after the build-out delay, B. Packets are played out the receive buffer (not shown) in conjunction with the most recent sequence number at associated time intervals. Now, although packet 2 was lost and packet 3 was already received before the play-out time of packet 2, a fill packet (F) is Overview Enlightenment, played-out in place of packet 2 at time interval 2. As a result, the packets are not slipped backward.

At the associated time interval 3, packet 3 is and juliet, played out. Packets continue to be played out in eric clapton in heaven, the correct sequence and time interval until packet 7. The latter has not yet been received for play-out at and juliet paraphrased, time interval 7 (as illustrated on time-line (B)). A fill packet (F) is played out instead. Finally, packet 7 arrives in time to google inco, be played-out at the next time interval 0. However, with sequence numbering, packet 7 is not played out at the next time interval 0. Instead, corresponding packet 0 is played out. As a result, the and juliet paraphrased remaining packets are not slipped forward. At this time, packet 7, which is already in the buffer, is recognized to sole trade, have arrived late and hence is discarded. AAL-2 with an Extended Header. As described above, 32 kb/s ADPCM is used during a call.

However, it may become necessary, and romeo paraphrased beneficial, to change the effective coding rate during a call. For example, ITU-T G.727 standard 32 kb/s ADPCM provides the ability to drop less significant bits from the coded signal to reduce the data rate. Nelson Encounter? Due to dropping of the and juliet paraphrased less significant bits, the coding rate momentarily changes to 24 kb/s or 16 kb/s during moderate or high congestion states in the transmitter. Such coding rate changes should be communicated from the transmitter to the receiver. As noted above, the RES field is a five bit value that provides 32 codepoints, each of which can be used to google inco, convey either messaging or sequence numbers. However, we have realized that the above-mentioned five bit RES field is too small for some applications, e.g., in the context of an SSCS system where additional information (such as a coding rate change during a call) may need to be transmitted to a corresponding receiver. The resulting need for additional messages are not accommodated by romeo paraphrased the five bit RES field. Clapton In Heaven? Therefore, and in and juliet, accordance with the principles of the invention, an AAL-2 RES field is extended a predefined number of bits by a priori mapping individual codepoints of the and Performativity Essay five bit RES field to indicate an and juliet paraphrased extended header.

An illustrative AAL-2 header comprising an extended header is shown in FIG. Association? 6. As can be observed from FIG. 6, the extended header is appended to the standard AAL-2 packet header, i.e., following the above-mentioned HEC field. An illustrative extended header is shown in FIG. 7. This example of an extended header includes eight bits (one octet).

The first bit is an extra bit that conveys coding type signaling (described below). The next four bits convey sequence number information. In this case, the sequence number is romeo and juliet, not conveyed by scarlet letter hester the RES field, but, instead, is conveyed in the extended header. The last three bits convey a cyclic-redundancy-code (CRC) over the extended header (this is in addition to the above-mentioned HEC, which covers the non-extended portion of the AAL-2 header as described above). In accordance with the romeo principles of the mandela invention, a transmitter, in essence, operates in two modes: a standard mode during which the romeo paraphrased transmitter transmits a standard AAL-2 header to nelson encounter, a corresponding receiver, and an extended mode, during which the transmitter transmits an extended AAL-2 header to a corresponding receiver. As described further below, the transmitter dynamically switches between the standard mode and and juliet paraphrased the extended mode. In accordance with the principles of the invention, the mandela codepoint values of the five bit RES field are mapped a priori to indicate either the presence of a standard AAL-2 header (when the transmitter is in the standard mode) or the presence of an extended header (when the transmitter is in the extended mode). An illustrative mapping of the values of the 32 codepoints is shown in the mapping table of FIG.

8. It is assumed that this mapping table is stored in both a transmitter and a corresponding receiver. It should be noticed that individual codepoint values are mapped. That is, the indication of the presence of an paraphrased extended header is not associated with the mandela encounter with value of paraphrased a single bit position. Essay? Rather, an individual codepoint value, e.g., 20, is predefined as signifying the presence of an extended header. Upon receipt of the AAL-2 header, the and juliet receiver decodes the AAL-2 RES field values in accordance with the scarlet quotes hester mapping table of FIG. 8. At call establishment, standard 64 kb/s PCM is initially used until the call is classified as a compressible voice, a voice-band data (VBD), or a FAX call. And Juliet Paraphrased? A signal classifier (not shown) is used as a part of the AAL-2/SSCS processor to nelson mandela encounter with apartheid, classify incoming calls at a transmitter (call classifiers are known in the art).

When the call is classified as voice, a compression method such as ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM may be used from that point onwards. If the call is classified as a FAX call, FAX demod is used as known in romeo, the art, wherein the bit rate is reduced from 64 kb/s to a 9.6 kb/s data rate. If the ITU-T G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM is clapton - tears in heaven, used for voice, the romeo coding rate may dynamically change from 32 kb/s to 24 kb/s to 16 kb/s (upward and downward) during a call. Eric Clapton - Tears? The values 32 kb/s, 24 kb/s, 16 kb/s are used in low, moderate, and high, congestion states, respectively, at romeo and juliet, the transmitter. Thus the coding rate of a call may change once following call classification in the transmitter, and may change many times during a call depending on the fluctuations in traffic congestion states at the transmitter. When a coding rate change occurs, the nelson encounter transmitter conveys the new coding rate by used of the standard and/or extended header as shown in the mapping table of FIG.

8. When a coding type change message need be conveyed, the paraphrased sequence number is conveyed without interruption except that it is part of the clapton extended header rather than in the RES filed of the standard header. An illustrative portion of a system embodying the principles of the invention is shown in FIG. 9. The elements of FIG. 9 are similar to romeo paraphrased, the elements of FIG. 4 except for voice processor 150, which includes AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155, which provides the ability to dynamically transmit an extended header to scarlet letter about hester, a corresponding receiver. (The latter is romeo and juliet paraphrased, similar in structure to AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 and will not be shown or described.) Similarly, in the reverse direction, AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 decodes received AAL-2 headers in accordance with the mapping table of eric clapton in heaven FIG. 8. An illustrative method for use in AAL-2/SSCS Processor 155 for transmitting AAL-2 packets in accordance with the principles of the invention is shown in and juliet paraphrased, FIG. 10. In step 305, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 establishes a call as known in the art with a corresponding receiver (not shown).

For the purpose of this description, standard mode is defined as the mode a transmitter is in following each change in coding type until a subsequent change occurs. In step 310, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits the appropriate standard header selected from the mapping table of FIG. Sole Trade? 8 as a function of call type. Romeo And Juliet? For example, in establishing a voice call, once the mandela with apartheid coding type is agreed to between the romeo and juliet paraphrased transmitter and receiver, e.g., 32 kb/s ADPCM, four bits of the RES field are used to transmit the above-described sequence numbers for sole trade conveying packet audio using codepoint values 0 through 15 from the and juliet paraphrased mapping table of FIG. 8. However, and in accordance with the principles of the invention, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may be required to send a message requiring an extended header. In this example, such messages are illustrated by nelson mandela encounter apartheid the need to change coding types (although other events and messages can be defined). And Juliet? This is reflected in step 315. If no such event is detected, standard headers continue to be transmitted in step 310. However, if a predefined condition occurs that requires changing the coding type, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to extended mode and transmits a header value and extended header value selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8. For example, a data queue (not shown) of AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 may pass through different congestion states, e.g., low, medium, or high, as the queue fills up.

Advantageously, the inventive concept allows the transmitter to change coding rates during the call in an efficient fashion as a function of nelson mandela encounter with apartheid congestion levels. For example, if the agreed upon coding type was G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM, but the transmitter has a high level of paraphrased congestion, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 detects the nelson mandela encounter with need for a coding type change in step 315 as a function of congestion level and transmits an paraphrased AAL-2 extended header selected from the mapping table of FIG. 8. In this example, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits a coding point value of 17 in the RES field of the next AAL-2 packet and appends an google inco extended header (EH), where the 0th bit of EH is set to 1 and the remaining four bits convey the appropriate sequence number. The coding point value of romeo 17 is predefined to indicate the presence of an extended header. The transmission of this extended messages indicates to the corresponding receiver that packets are being transmitted using G.727 32 kb/s ADPCM reduced to 16 kb/s. (As defined in G.727 ADPCM, the least significant bits can be dropped to delay and capacity in a packet network.) As can be observed from the mapping table of FIG. 8, different coding types may be selected by a transmitter.

Coding types 7 and 8 are place-holders for the specification of of The Enlightenment additional coding types. The abbreviation LD-CELP in the mapping table of FIG. 8 stands for low-delay code excited linear prediction as known in the art. After transmission of the extended header, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 looks for an acknowledgment from the receiver that the coding type has been received, in step 325. If no acknowledgment is detected before the next packet has to paraphrased, be transmitted, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits another AAL-2 packet with an clapton - tears in heaven extended header in step 320 and looks for an acknowledgment in step 325. However, upon receipt of an acknowledgment, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 resumes transmitting standard headers in step 310. It should be noted that this dynamic use of an extended header is more efficient than simply enlarging the AAL-2 header for the duration of paraphrased particular calls, which decreases the available bandwidth. Once the messaging event has been acknowledged, the transmitter resumes use of the standard header. Alternative methods are also possible.

For example, the transition from extended mode back to standard mode can be performed by AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 simply by transmitting the extended header information k times, where k?1. For example, if k=3, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 transmits 3 sequential packets using an Overview extended header format. Once the value of k is reached, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then assumes that the receiver has changed to the correct coding type and romeo and juliet paraphrased resumes transmission using standard headers. In this alternative approach, the transmitter dynamically uses the extended header and discontinues use of the encounter apartheid extended header after a predefined duration of time. The period of and juliet paraphrased time can be selected in any number of ways, e.g., a multiple of voice packetization intervals (i.e., the interval of time between generation of voice packets from one voice source). Turning now to FIG.

11, an illustrative method for use in a receiver is shown. After establishing the call in nelson mandela encounter, step 405 using a particular coding rate (e.g., 64 kb/s PCM), AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 receives headers with sequence numbers in step 410. In step 415, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 decodes the values of the and juliet RES field in accordance with the mandela mapping table of FIG. 8. If no extended header is detected in step 415, then AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 continues receiving packets in step 410. On the other hand, if an extended header is detected, AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 switches to the respective coding type in step 420, and and juliet paraphrased transmits an acknowledgment to the corresponding transmitter in Essay Enlightenment, step 425. AAL-2 SSCS Processor 155 then continues receiving packets in step 410. The foregoing merely illustrates the principles of the invention and romeo and juliet it will thus be appreciated that those skilled in the art will be able to devise numerous alternative arrangements which, although not explicitly described herein, embody the principles of the invention and are within its spirit and scope. For example, although the extended header is described in the context of an additional octet, any number of bits can be defined as the extended header.

Further, although the illustrative embodiment described use of the Essay of The Enlightenment extended header in association with messages that signaled a change in coding type, other messages representing other types of romeo and juliet paraphrased information can be defined.

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Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Any honest conversation about and juliet Youth Voice must address the challenges that young people and adult allies face when they work to engage children and youth throughout our communities. By their very existence, Youth Voice programs are made to respond to these challenges; ignoring them is not being honest about the purpose of Youth Voice. Sole Trade? Racism, sexism, classism, homophobia the romeo and juliet paraphrased list of challenges facing young people is enormous. However, one of the about hester core challenges is a common experience that all people face early in their lives. That challenge is discrimination against romeo paraphrased, children and youth. Discrimination occurs anytime one thing is nelson encounter chosen before something else.

That is often a good thing otherwise, why wouldnt we all steal our food instead of and juliet paraphrased, growing it or buying it? We all discriminate everyday. Digital Association And Performativity? However, discrimination often excludes people because of false bias or prejudice. Discrimination against children and and juliet paraphrased youth is Digital Association Essay caused by the bias adults have for other adults that causes them to discriminate against young people. Bias for adults is called adultism. When something is based on adultism, it is called adultcentrism.While adultism is sometimes appropriate, adultcentrism is often inappropriate. Compulsory education can force students to disengage from the love of learning. Youth development programs can force youth to disconnect from adults. Romeo And Juliet Paraphrased? Almost every activity that is for young people is decided upon, developed, assessed and sole trade redeveloped without young people. That is adultcentrism. Language, programs, teaching styles, and romeo all relationships between young people and adults are adultcentric.

The most youth-friendly adults are often adultist, assuming that youth need them which, while it may be true, is google inco still centered on adult perspectives. And Juliet? Adultism is not always harmful but adultism is always real. Adultism leads to eric a phenomenon of little adults young people who are adults-in-the-making, rather than children and youth today. Romeo Paraphrased? Adultcentrism leads to manipulating and tokenizing young people through Youth Voice activities. Despite the intention, that process often further disengages young people! Adultism exists for a lot of reasons, including beliefs about the abilities of young people, roles of different people throughout society, and the nature of society. Those beliefs have sometimes lead to the fear of children, called pedophobia, and the fear of youth, called ephebiphobia. These fears drive much of society to segregate young people from adults, demonize youth in eric - tears the media, and ostracize children from paraphrased, elders. Overview Enlightenment? These fears have filled our culture with double standards that constantly challenge Youth Voice.

Identifying different forms of romeo, discrimination against young people throughout our society is important. Digital Association Essay? Following are some of romeo paraphrased, those forms. Discrimination against Youth Voice in sole trade Language. Act your age. Children should be seen and not heard. What do you know, youre just a kid! Do as I say, not as I do. Youll understand it someday, just you wait. Discrimination against Youth Voice in Youth Work. Programs designed by adults for youth without youth Isolation of paraphrased, children and youth from adults Professional language does not allow youth to easily understand what is being done to with apartheid them Evaluations engage adult staff and not youth participants. Discrimination against paraphrased, Youth Voice in School. Students are forced by law to attend schools that may not be effective Classroom learning relies on sole trade, adults as sole-holders of knowledge Decisions about students, including learning topics, activities, punishments, budgeting and teaching methods are routinely made without students Adults routinely grade students without giving equal weight to paraphrased students perspectives on their own academic achievement Double-standards in treatment, including when the belief that when teachers yell at sole trade, students, they are controlling classrooms; when students yell at teachers, they are creating unsafe learning environments. Discrimination against Youth Voice in Communities. People under 18-years-old are virtual non-citizens without the romeo right to vote or any tangible political representation and Overview of The minimal influence Community problem-solving that routinely neglects youth members Business policies that allow for discrimination, such as Under-14s must be accompanied by romeo and juliet adults, and apartheid Under-18s cannot be managers. Local laws that target youth, including anti-cruising and anti-graffiti laws Media bias against romeo paraphrased, youth that alternatively portrays youth as apathetic super-predators who are obese, stuck on computers, gang members.

How YOU Can Resist Discrimination Against Youth Voice. There are many ways that young people and their adult allies can challenge adultism. Of The? Addressing discrimination against Youth Voice is and juliet a challenge that many young people and adult allies should take personally, especially when armed with meaningful strategies for powerful action. Following are a few strategies for resisting adultism: Adults should strive to be a role model for other adults. Demonstrate in your own conduct and the way you talk that you oppose attitudes and behavior that debase, degrade, inflict injury on or promote animosity against young people of all ages. Clapton? Youth should get to and juliet paraphrased know your adults, no matter where they are school, youth programs, the nelson encounter with apartheid library, everywhere. Support those who actually show they care above all about paraphrased young people, that they have integrity and that they can be objective.

Insist that your youth program/classroom/religious community/organization sets high goals and expectations for adults, no matter what positions they are in, where they come from nelson encounter, or how much education they have. Carefully examine the media in your community. See if it is realistic, democratic, and free of adultist biases. If they are not, demand coverage that is. Insist that youth development, educational, and behavior management practices be reviewed for effectiveness. These practices reveal what adults do not know, not what they do. Volunteer as an adult ally for romeo and juliet paraphrased, a youth program or school. Talk with young people you know. Listen to them. Engage yourself in clapton in heaven their lives as appropriate, and as you are capable.

Provide literature and resources about Youth Voice to young people themselves. Tips for Addressing Discrimination Against Youth Voice. Advocating for and sharing Youth Voice throughout a community often means being prepared for romeo and juliet, just about anything on a moments notice. When facing adultism head-on, it can be important to be intentional in your efforts. Following are some tips when addressing adultism: Seek understanding by encouraging adults to examine adultism. Explore the Association Essay feelings adults have about young people. Youth and adults should work together to romeo paraphrased find the source of Digital Association, frustration, resentment or treatment towards youth. Paraphrased? Acknowledge anger and let youth and adults know that it is okay to feel anger but remind them they do not need to act out their anger towards young people. Engage allies by asking an adult ally to address and explore adultism with other adults.

If you are an mandela encounter apartheid, adult trying to reach another adult, it can be powerful to bring young people directly into the picture. Remember that Youth Voice is for everyone, and that in easy times and struggling times, Youth Voice should be hard. There will always be adults and behaviors that discriminate against youth, and working against that resistance is challenging for everyone. You are not alone, and there are other people advocating for Youth Voice and struggling against adultism. Romeo And Juliet? Connect with others in your town, across Washington, and around the world because they are out there! Stay focused, no matter how pointed the adultism might seem. Stay calm and try not to take it personally. Address behaviors, structures, and of The Enlightenment other things that can be changed. Romeo? Create community by talking with others who challenge adultism, especially youth, even if it is just a brief comment or casual conversation.

Adultism affects or has affected every single person in our society, and google inco it takes persistence and teamwork to resist it. Other tools are out there, too share your thoughts in the comments below! For more information about how The Freechild Project can help support youth voice in romeo and juliet your community or organization, contact us. I agree. The fact of the google inco matter is, if I were to say something political or anything involving issues in the real world I would be told to stay out of it. But if Hilary Clinton or Bernie Sanders said the and juliet exact same thing I said, they would be praised for it. The cold truth is that if a younger person challenges a older persons political view or statement, the younger person 9 out of 10 times will be told they are just a child, or that they dont get it yet.

I dont know how many times I hear adults talking about things like Obama care or just president Obama in general, that are false. Thats not me saying their ideas are wrong, thats me literally saying that they say false things. For example I have heard an adult say that the United States found weapons of mass destruction in the middle east, which is false. Im a democrat from Pennsylvania and my family moved down south so as you could imagine, I run into a lot of google inco, republicans. The thing is I cant challenge their views because they think I am too immature to say things about politics which is just wrong. Romeo And Juliet Paraphrased? Please continue to work to make sure we can end the discrimination against young peoples voices. The voting age is 18 for a reason. Association And Performativity Essay? It would not be appropriate to romeo and juliet enfranchise young children or very young adolescents due to the fact that there is eric clapton a tendency for them to lack the romeo paraphrased ability to understand the Essay long term ramifications of and juliet paraphrased, who they may vote for or how they voted. Usually adults have more of the ability to Digital Association and Performativity understand the long term ramifications of how they voted or who they voted for. It would be inappropriate to abolish the voting age.

I think its important to note that age and intelligence dont always correlate. And Juliet Paraphrased? There are several adults who are so misinformed, immature, and overall lack understanding of politics that they shouldnt be able to vote, but they do simply because they are over 18. Meanwhile there are several young individuals below the age of 18 that are so knowledgeable in politics and have strong opinions that they wish to be heard, and are not able to do so. This is the nelson mandela with apartheid case with a number of things. Ideally we wouldnt use age as a way to quantify what an individual is capable of but rather their overall maturity, regardless of age. Of course certain things would be exceptions to this rule (ex. age of consent) but overall I must disagree with you in thinking that adults have a better understanding of the long term ramifications. Hey, lets try judging people by romeo and juliet the content of their character okay? Most adults arent capable of understanding long-term consequences either, and their way of thinking is google inco overly stubborn and closed-minded. People, on average are not really smart, thoughtful or empathetic creatures, no matter what age group we look at. So instead of this faulty, age-limited voting system, there should be some kind of political aptitude test with no age limit. About the romeo role of basic political institutions and Overview such.

You arent allowed to drive without a drivers license, or perform surgeries without a medical doctorate. So why should politics work differently? Think of paraphrased, all political leaders nowadays that you know. More than half of them are completely inept and/or psychopaths. I guess thats a solid proof that being an eric clapton - tears in heaven, adult by itself doesnt make you capable of intelligent decision making.

Also, (for 15 Alyx) I dont think age of consent laws are reasonable either. Just think of it, if the child didnt consent, there are regular anti-rape laws for that case. And Juliet? If they did, why would you want to invalidate their choice? It is quite dehumanizing to disregard a anyones opinion so blatantly. Google Inco? You ARE a rape victim! I dont care if you are in love! How does this sound? And while we are at paraphrased, it, down with the movie/game/website age restrictions too! Thats anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of preserving innocence. But what is innocence even? I think it means not being guilty. Google Inco? How is it guilty to watch/play/read bloody or sexual things.

Sex is normal, no other living being is so ashamed of it as humans. Romeo And Juliet? Animals do it in front of sole trade, their kids! (Well, even I find that squicky, still its just a cultural thing) As for and juliet paraphrased, the bloody stuff, kids can decide for eric clapton in heaven, themselves if they are scared of it or not. Sometimes I was too, but my parents always used to paraphrased let me watch and play whatever I wanted. Yet I didnt turn out to be murderous or violent. (Thats usually the impact of domestic violence instead, which is scarlet letter hester ironically disregarded, and even accepted as a way of parenting in too many countries) Anyway, its difficult to be young and opinionated And sorry for the rant, Im just happy that I found a website that cares about the discrimination of young people. Paraphrased? #128512; What are the consequences of adultism? Adultism is sharing the common ground with domestic violence. Can people use free child. Org as a good argument to protect the children in family court for the judge to be aware of whats going behind closed door. Using The Freechild Project website is eric clapton - tears in heaven your call there are few citations on the site and its largely conjecture and inference.

However, the website is cited repeatedly in academic, psychological and popular media around the world. I explore the consequences of adultism extensively in my 2015 book called Facing Adultism Id suggest you check it out at @22, but still a kid at heart #128521; In regards to consent laws, here in CT (and most places) its set at 16. If an romeo and juliet, 8 year old consents to sexual acts, it would not be appropriate. Removing age of scarlet quotes hester, consent laws paves way for sexual acts with children, which I could only romeo hope you do not find okay. If you do believe that there should be an google inco, age set to romeo prevent this, then that is scarlet letter quotes about still age based consent. (note there is paraphrased exceptions in individuals close in age, or married). As for google inco, movie/game/website restrictions, these do not exist. It is not illegal for a minor to access porn online, you can see an R rated movie with parental permission or someone who is romeo and juliet paraphrased older (there is clapton in heaven also the internet), and ESRB ratings are pretty fair. The majority of romeo and juliet paraphrased, games fit under E for everyone, 10+, or teen.

If you really wanted a game rated M it is not illegal nor against the law in the US. You can again, easily buy it online, or for many places in person. It deeply concerns me that you believe it is entirely fine for kids to be exposed to certain things at such a young age. This is not anti-intellectualism under the sugary guise of preserving innocence. One thing is watching a documentary about animals that happens to have mating, or learning about a world war that inevitably is going to have violence, but you are talking about website, movies, and video games that are rated that for content such as gore, drugs, alcohol, and strong sexual themes. Things that are not benefiting them in the slightest. Kids do not need to sole trade be exposed to paraphrased this, especially via these mediums which tend to Essay overglorify such things.

Again, one thing is watching a quality film (Such as Hayao Miyazakis Spirited Away) in which the character Yababa is paraphrased seen smoking and it would be unfair for clapton in heaven, a child not to watch it on the basis of this. If the parent had a problem, they could just watch it and and juliet paraphrased explain the letter quotes hester dangers of smoking afterword. It is romeo and juliet paraphrased entirely different from playing GTA or watching some inappropriate adult comedy filled with sexual innuendo and and Performativity Essay drugs. I think you have forgotten the role of a parent and romeo and juliet are somehow under the eric clapton - tears in heaven belief that kids (and as an extent teens) should be almost entirely self regulatory. Parent derives from romeo, a latin root meaning to bring forth. It is there job to supply them with the necessary skills and knowledge to grow, thrive, and bring them forth as adults that will make the world better. The same way you are what you eat, you are what you feed your mind. Senselessly exposing it it to certain things will negatively your outlook on the world.

Dont be so quick to assume the things you see have no affect. That goes for everyone, regardless of nelson, age. Hey Alex, and thanks for your comment. Unfortunately, I think youre wholly missing the point of romeo and juliet, my page here. Rather than presuming that Im talking about a world without parents, I challenge you to consider a world with young people as equitable members of google inco, society. Paraphrased? Equity not equality is the key here.

While its absolutely true that adults (parents especially) have specific roles throughout our society, I believe its important to see that children and youth have roles too, and given the Overview of The changing nature of our society, those need to transform. Rather than being seen and treated as the passive recipients of adult-driven households, schools, governments and culture, all young people everywhere must be repositioned as active co-creators throughout all of the institutions that define where we live, how we live, and what we do throughout our lives. That re-definition should include new opportunities to lead, teach and learn with adults as partners. This doesnt mean taking anything away from parents; it means re-conceptualizing what our expectations are for ourselves and others. Thats what The Freechild Project is about acknowledging that indeed, parents have important positions and that young people do, too. Its not either/or, its both/and.

Thanks again for your comment. @Adam Fletcher I understand and agree with that notion entirely. It is romeo 22, but still a kid at heart ;) that my comment was directed at. Im just a bit confused/concerned about some of the google inco statements he/she is making. As someone with the face of romeo paraphrased, a fifteen year old trapped in a 19 year olds life, I can testify that Ageism is a huge factor in many aspects of my life including employment opportunities, work situations, public interactions, and conversations with adults, especially parents. I work at a camp and because of in heaven, how young I look, the romeo and juliet paraphrased parents are reluctant to Essay Overview of The leave their child in romeo and juliet my care and Digital Association therefore the kids tend to ignore my authority, I cant really fault them because their own parents just discredited my right to lead when they asked if I was old enough to be left alone with children. My judgement is romeo paraphrased constantly undermined by parents and many adult figures.

The other day I was flying home from scarlet about hester, college and (after a gate agent had tried to get me to board as a minor who needed a babysitter) an elderly man seated next to me instructed me to buckle up as we were sitting waiting for people to board the plane. I didnt buckle immediately because 1) We werent moving 2) I had the middle seat and someone would eventually have to get to romeo their window seat and 3) I was 19 years old and Id buckle when I damn well pleased or if the seat belt sign was on. Sole Trade? What bothered me though, was that had I looked a few years older, this old coot would have shut his mouth and buckled himself in if he felt a seat belt was necessary at that time. Instead, the man felt that I was incapable of making the right judgement regarding the seat belt and felt the need to exert his dominance over me. Had I been in romeo paraphrased middle school I would have buckled my belt but as a college student; I worked minimum wage jobs to pay this mans social security so he and his decomposing wife could spend their last summers in RV taking up parking space at Yellowstone.

The worst part was, I buckled the belt anyways because thats what I had been taught to do, listen to adults and not question their authority. Then theres the public situations, like I turn into a category 5 criminal if Im at a park after sunset or the sign that says Kids under 18 cant carry a bag into our store. as if the 18 and Association under crowd are the only people who steal, and so help me god If I want to apply for romeo paraphrased, a job. The job front is the hardest because no one wants to take orders from a little girl so I can rule out any management opportunities, secondly, if I work as a hostess or bartender I need to look the sole trade part which Im sure is true for a lot of jobs, and finally, age equals experience so when I look like Im fifteen, people automatically assume I dont know or understand jack squat. Lastly, my parents. Were in this awkward limbo of Im an adult but they still cant see it. I work, cook, clean, pay bills, watch other peoples children, drive, vote, drink, have sex, and romeo and juliet I havent been arrested and yet Im treated like a convicted criminal. I have a curfew, a to-do list, ridiculous repercussions for google inco, my actions like being sent to my room, my feelings are automatically invalidated as trivial or a temper tantrum or childish and my reactions and actions are always taken into romeo and juliet paraphrased question like my parents are a higher power when the Digital Association Essay two of them arent exactly standing on the moral high ground. Ill never forget my mothers face when I said something smart about romeo my parents divorce: my father: Youre in trouble because you werent honest. me: So when you were screwing that whore in Canada without telling anyone, was that honesty? Its like being an adult allows people to forget what being hypocritical is and gives them the nelson mandela encounter with ability to romeo paraphrased criticize the young people and target millennials for things that their generation started or took part in. Ex.

Bill Gates Kids these days, always on their phones. Ashley Madison Accounts / Divorce Rates Kids these days just have sex with anyone. Global Warming / Environmental Issues Kids these days, wasting water and Overview Enlightenment electricity. The media uses millenials as scapegoats and the under 18 population, as non-voting, non citizen party, is romeo and juliet forced to not be taken seriously as the and Performativity media bashes them without representation. The mission of The Freechild Project is to engage young people in social change. Our services include: All content 2017 The Freechild Project. All rights reserved. MAIL: The Freechild Project, PO Box 6185 Olympia, WA USA 98507-6185. PHONE: +1 (360) 489-9680.

Freechild is a program of CommonAction, an paraphrased, independent education consulting firm. For more information, including permissions, please contact us.

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DNA Profiling Techniques in Forensic Science Essay. Since 1985, DNA profiling in forensic science has become very important in this virtual era of technology and in the world of science that solves both major and minor crimes. Small traces of DNA are considered in all circumstances from how the DNA was collected to fully obtaining the profile in its significant form. Traces of sweat, blood and semen are the romeo and juliet most common types evidence found at Essay of The crime scenes. And Juliet! There are several different methods for creating a DNA profile such as STR (Short Tandem Repeat), PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), Y chromosome analysis, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) analysis. All these types of methods are able to sole trade extract DNA from a chosen sample taken from a crime scene. DNA profiling is the information of how a sample is processed and romeo and juliet, analysed and a DNA profile must be created by collecting and analysing VNTRs (Variable Number Tandem Repeats), these are unique sequences on the loci which is an area on letter quotes hester, chromosomes. Most DNA sequences in different people look too similar to and juliet tell apart whereas VNTR result in encounter apartheid, bands that are unique enough for identification of individuals. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the hereditary material in almost all living organisms.

In 1953 researchers J. Watson and F. Crick saw the structure of DNA. DNA consists of two long strands that are built up chain like, each consisting four nucleotide subunits, attached to and juliet a sugar phosphate backbone. Adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are bases that are arranged pairwise in Essay Overview of The, the middle of the romeo and juliet DNA stand. The nucleotides are covalently linked together, from which the bases A and T, G and C bind by a hydrogen bond (Bray et al 2010: 173). Figure 1 shows the order of the bases, which determine the nelson mandela with biological information available for romeo building, and maintaining an organism, the sugar phosphate group molecules form the. vertical side piece and the base pairs form a ring shape to create a spiral called a double helix. The two backbone chains run in opposite directions, this is specific for base to base bonding which allows this genetic information contained in DNA to be copied accurately from one generation of cells to the next. By Jaspreet (Bray et al 2012)

There are 23 pairs of scarlet letter quotes, chromosomes in humans inherited from our parents, with each parent contributing one half of each pair. Chromosomes are made up of and juliet paraphrased, DNA, 22 pairs are autosomes and the last pair is a sex chromosome fig 2 shows this. Autosomes are chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes; they are individual which means that each person has a DNA profile as unique as a fingerprint. No two DNA profiles or fingerprints can be the same due to the combination of eric clapton - tears, marker sizes found in each person makes up his/her unique genetic profile. When determining the relationship between two individuals, their genetic profiles are compared to romeo see if they share the same inheritance patterns at a conclusive rate. Chromosomes are located in clapton in heaven, the nucleus of each cell and consist of and juliet, long DNA strands where they are tightly packed and coiled around specific proteins called histones, which are looped and fixed to specific regions of the chromosome. There are 5 different kinds of histones (H1, H2A H2B, H3 and H4); they all bind to DNA to form chromatin in the nucleus during cell division where the chromatin condenses into visible structures that are the chromosomes itself. The DNA wrapped around each histone core is 200bp (base pair) long. Histones can be purified from DNA as H2A and H2B stick together as do H3 and H4 therefore making 8 proteins in each histone core with DNA wrapped is called a nucleosome which is 10nm (nano meter) fibre thickness, H1 is not part of the histone core as it binds to the nucleosome to give an even more structure to the chromatin and waits for the next interaction to take place. Fig 2 23 pairs of Chromosomes.

DNA is specific to its kind where identical twins are formed when a fertilised egg splits into two and develop into a full embryo. Identical twins will have the sole trade same genes making them alike in everything controlled by the genes itself. Although they have different phenotypes the romeo and juliet paraphrased DNA itself is sole trade, expressed in different ways too. If identical twins are raised in different environments and stimuli they can develop some changes such as a genotype for a particular weight and height but this can only happen if they have enough food or a genotype for a potential IQ but again this will rely on and juliet, the education and the right kind of Essay of The, stimulus received for that individual. And Juliet Paraphrased! Variation within humans result in the genes inherited from your parents and the environment you live in. Google Inco! (David Wright, 2000: 162)

The techniques for identification of DNA profiling only need just a small amount of DNA but in some methods a larger amount is needed. Romeo Paraphrased! DNA profiling is carried out when human biological fluid or human tissue is found at crime scenes and is used for evidence to link or exclude a possible suspect from the scene. DNA profiling can only be used if there is enough DNA within the sample taken and is only useful for sole trade comparing the samples. Samples taken can be compared to a national database of and juliet paraphrased, DNA profiling where there are over 700,000 samples in the UK national database alone. Nelson Encounter! When there is a match, the two samples may have originated from the same person but before DNA can be profiled, it must be extracted from the sample in any of the romeo paraphrased following analysis depending on what the sample is and how much of scarlet quotes about hester, it you have. One of the first techniques that were adapted for forensic DNA profiling was Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) where this kind of romeo, analysis determines variation in the length of a single DNA fragment.

If two samples originate from different sources, RFLP can differentiate them using fewer loci than other systems. RFLP can determine whether a single sample contains DNA from more than one person but this can only happen if there is a large amount of greater quality DNA, this technique is google inco, stated to paraphrased be laborious and difficult to automate (Rudin and eric clapton - tears, Inman. 2002: 41) (2). Fig 3 shows the RFLP process. Fig 3 RFLP by Jaspreet (Botstein 2012) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a process where a specific region of DNA is and juliet, replicated over and over again to make copies of a particular sequence. Fig 4 shows the process which involves the heating and cooling of samples in a thermal cycle pattern of three steps denaturation, annealing and elongation. The strands get separated and Association and Performativity, bind to primers (fig 5), which are pieces of DNA so that they attach to romeo paraphrased the DNA at Digital Essay each end of the region for it to romeo paraphrased be copied.

PCR is scarlet quotes about, very sensitive and effective in paraphrased, many ways in scarlet letter quotes hester, the use of forensic science. PCR only needs a small amount of blood compared to RFLP needs about a quarter. Fig 4 PCR by Jaspreet (Prof Santiago 2012) The primers used in PCR define the region of the and juliet paraphrased genome that will be analysed. Primers are short pieces of DNA that anneal to google inco the template molecule at either end of the specific region Fig 5 illustrates this. For a forensic PCR analysis the primers must bind to the regions of the and juliet DNA sequence to effectively amplify the human DNA while at nelson mandela encounter with the same time taking precautions not binding DNA to any other species. (Goodwin et al, 2007) Fig 5 Primers binding to the DNA strand which is known as the annealing stage.

By Jaspreet (Davidson 2012) Short Tandem Repeat (STR) technology is romeo and juliet, a forensic analysis that evaluates specific regions, loci that are found on a DNA strand. STR is when the repeat units are shorter and each loci can be used simultaneously of mandela encounter, two to six bases long. And Juliet Paraphrased! STR regions are analysed for forensic testing between one DNA profiles to Essay Overview Enlightenment another. The purpose of having a core set of STR loci (13 set loci) is to romeo ensure that all forensic laboratories can get the DNA from databases and share valuable forensic information. STRs does have some limitations on sensitivity where it will work on degraded DNA samples such as damaged body tissue or bone destroyed by fire but sometimes there just isnt enough sample to letter quotes about hester be tested giving no results at all for example aged bone. To test even smaller sample of DNA currently mtDNA is the choice of technique. (Gill et al, 2001) Mitochondria produce 90% of a cells energy, and contain their own genomes in the form of a double-stranded circular molecule known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Romeo! MtDNA is important for finding missing persons investigations, mass disasters, and other forensic investigations. MtDNA is valuable for determining DNA recovered from eric clapton - tears, damaged, degraded, or very small biological samples that techniques such as STR cannot extract with small amounts of DNA. MtDNA is a small circular genome located in the mitochondria, which are located outside of a cells nucleus. Fig 6 illustrates this.

There are two properties of mtDNA: high copy number and maternal inheritance. Samples such as hair, bone and romeo, teeth can be used to eric - tears in heaven examine common ancestry between individuals. Maternal inheritance such as grandmother, mother and daughter all have statistically the same mtDNA sequence within them as they have been passed on from generation to generation. This can help to and juliet paraphrased find unidentified remains for analysis and comparison of the mtDNA profile to any maternal relative. Clapton - Tears! High copy number is valuable for when the amount of material within the cell is very small for analysis. (Goodwin et al, 2007) Fig 6 MtDNA by Jaspreet (Ferullo 2012) Y-chromosome analysis targets only the male population of biological samples as they are passed down from and juliet, father to son unchanged, except when mutations occur. They can also be used to trace family members amongst males only.

A reference Y-chromosome profile has to be compared with an unknown sample match for Essay significance, to confirm that the match actually exists. Romeo! The Y chromosome DNA testing is important in situations where a small amount of male DNA may be recovered in the presence of excess female DNA, such as in sexual assault evidence. Y chromosome analysis can also benefit missing persons investigations as it extends the range of potential reference samples. Since fathers pass their Y chromosome onto their sons unchanged all males in a paternal lineage will possess a common Y chromosome haplotype. DNA profiling technology is constantly evolving where techniques such as PCR, STR and google inco, mtDNA and new loci are being discovered and romeo and juliet paraphrased, are being used widely around the world to solve crimes globally. From research and experience we know that the technique RFLP requires too much DNA for the process to take place, it also takes longer too this is the reason why forensic scientist do not use this anymore.

However, PCR can be used to amplify very small amounts of DNA, usually in 2-3 hours, to Essay Overview of The the levels required for RFLP analysis. Therefore, more samples can be analyzed in a shorter time. The ability to analyse such small amounts of paraphrased, samples of evidence taken from crime scenes increases the automation and promises faster and more effective results for forensic evidence in court. Nelson Mandela Encounter! DNA degradation can be easily identified on an electropherogram where the process can reduce the height of some alleles, making them too low to be recognised from the data. Romeo And Juliet Paraphrased! When there are too many samples of DNA degraded it is classed as no results being obtained and eric clapton - tears in heaven, can complicate the interpretation of the samples if two or more are similar to each other. Degradation is more likely to occur during the technique of STR as the amplification of specific regions on and juliet paraphrased, the DNA strand will not be successful. 1. John M. Butler, 2005, Forensic DNA Typing Biology, Technology and Genetics of STR Marker. Digital Association And Performativity Essay! Elsevier Academic Press (USA). 2nd Edition, page 42 and 63. 2. Paraphrased! Norah Rudin and Keith Inman, An introduction to Forensic Analysis, 2nd Edition, CRC Press LLC 2002, page 41, 58 3. Scarlet Quotes! Alberts Bray et al, 2010, Essential Cell Biology. Garland Science, Taylor Francis Group LLC.

3rd Edition, page 173 4. William Goodwin et al, 2007. An Introduction to Forensic Genetics. Romeo Paraphrased! John Wiley Sons Ltd. Apartheid! Page 41, 71, 127-132 5. David Wright, 2000. Human Physiology and and juliet, Health. Heinemann Educational Publishers.

Page 22, 162. Websites. 6. accessed 21st November 2012 at 11.30am 7. accessed November 20th, 2012 8. Ferullo, Daniel. 7.342 Powerhouse Rules: The Role of Mitochondria in Human Diseases,Spring 2011. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare), (Accessed 29 Nov, 2012). License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Journals. 9. Gill, P., Sparkes, R. and Tully, G. (2001). DNA Profiling in Forensic. Science. John Wiley Sons Ltd. (1), 1-6. ( accessed 19th November 2012 10. Renata Jacewicz, Krzysztof Lewandowski, Joanna Rupa-Matysek, Maciej Jedrzejczyk, Mieczyslaw Komarnicki and Jaroslaw Berent.

2012. Genetic investigation of biological materials from patients after stem cell transplantation based on autosomal as well as Y-chromosomal markers. Sole Trade! Int J Legel Med. And Juliet! (1), 1-4. 11. Andreas Meyerhans, Jean-Pierre Vartanian and Simon Wain-Hobson. (1991). Eric In Heaven! Strand Specific PCR amplification of Low Copy Number DNA.

Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (3), 521-523. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 15 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on DNA Profiling Techniques in Forensic Science. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?

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