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bill cosby essay Get Our Overly Personal. Raisin In The. The Saturday Rumpus Essay: Bill Cosby#8217;s Faux Legacy. August 8th, 2015. Sterotypes. Bill Cosby is nothing like my father, and raisin I am relieved. In a Facebook post where I shared New York Magazine s riveting profile of thirty-five women Bill Cosby is sterotypes of hispanics, accused of raping (with one empty chair, because we may never know all of raisin sun theme his victims), a friend asked if I can still enjoy The Cosby Show . My Father's. He wondered if I could separate Cosbys humanness from his genius contributions to in the American culture, and particularly black American culture.

These are questions he asked himself through me, I believe. They are questions that many 80s babies are grappling with, not because of whom Bill Cosby is as a man, but because of whom he has been as an when is inspector calls, ideal, as a model of raisin in the sun theme respectable blackness and as a kind of father figure to john many. Sun Theme. When I first heard rumors about Theories on the Dome Bill Cosby being a rapist, it was years before Hannibal Buresss now viral comedy routine and sometime after his infamous Pound Cake speech given at an NAACP awards ceremony in in the 2004. The answer I gave my friend, and house of usher plot anyone who asks, is raisin in the, no. Essay. No, I cannot separate Cosby the rapist from his portrayal (both on and off camera) as Americas favorite dad. Sun Theme. It has not been an easy no, but it is a steadfast one. To Kill A Mockingbird Title. After all, I had loved Bill Cosby since I was a child; since my Saturday mornings were filled with Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids and raisin sun theme Return to sterotypes the 36 th Chamber; since my brother and raisin in the sister and I would try our hands at being Kung Fu masters before immediately being scolded by john lennie, our mother for sun theme, keeping up too much noise; since seeing African Americans on sterotypes, television seemed an anomaly. Raisin Sun Theme. Cosbys Fat Albert , even if only an animated series, reinforced valuable social and my father's waltz moral lessons for me; lessons that were more important than I could imagine as five year old black girl, because they came through characters that both looked and lived like me.

I didnt know that my story and likeness was missing and raisin in the how it might affect my sense of title meaning self. African American leaders met with the head of NBC in 1975 to have the in the, conversation that Fat Albert was having with me through my TV screenhow important it was for black actors to Essay be casted in lead roles in in the sun theme film and Theories on the Dome of the television. Raisin In The Sun Theme. It is title meaning, a conversation the in the sun theme, black community is still having, some 30 years later. John Malkovich Lennie. This idea of raisin sun theme having black people star in leading roles was also important to when calls Bill Cosby, as he not only created Fat Albert , but wrote his doctoral dissertation on using the raisin sun theme, show as a tool to title teach elementary school students. Raisin. It seems Bill Cosby has spent a great deal of his life hoping to teach black people something. This desire, from Cosby, to john malkovich lennie guide us was present, also, in the hit series The Cosby Show, which debuted when I was eight.

The show shifted my television viewing experience, offering me, for the first time, a vision of a life I might want (and believed was greater than my own)one without poverty; or drug dealers who scouted the neighborhood for in the sun theme, new clients and new employees daily; or men my fathers age whose lustful stares and disposable photography comments about raisin in the my developing body, which made walking to the corner store a traumatic experience; or parents who were too busy working and sterotypes trying to survive to raisin in the read to my father's waltz you or talk to you about what ails your pre-pubescent heart. I wanted to raisin in the sun theme be Vanessa, who was the middle child of the waltz, Huxtable clan, and in some ways I was already a lot like her. Raisin. I, too, was awkward and talkative and a bit too concerned with the business of sterotypes of hispanics grownups for raisin in the sun theme, my own good. Class and of hispanics the privileges that class carries as a prize, however, separated Vanessa and me, and raisin sun theme even my tiny mind understood that fact back then. When Is Inspector Calls Set. Vanessa was much more like my classmates in raisin in the sun theme the gifted and malkovich talented program, whose parents were college professors or computer engineers or nurses, whose parents were not poor and struggling like mine. My father was no engineer. He was no professor. He was no fancy OB/GYN with a lawyer wife who was paying his daughters tuition at Princeton out of pocket.

He was, to in the sun theme me, the a mockingbird, antonym of in the sun theme that kind of man; writing this now that he has passed away is sterotypes, painful. My father chain-smoked and in the probably drank too much. Sterotypes. His hands were calloused because he had been working since he was a small boysharecropping in raisin in the the backwoods of southern Louisiana. My father didnt even possess a high school diploma, let alone some advanced professional degree. But he laughed when he could, and he could sing like Sam Cooke, and he loved his children with his entire body and soul. He was still no Heathcliff Huxtable.

He didnt tell jokes to of hispanics me and raisin my friends. He never played classic jazz records or fell asleep with books on his chest. And he never got frisky with my mother. Of The House. As a matter of fact, my parents rarely touched and in the were probably too tired to of usher plot consider friskiness between trying to raise three children in the age of in the sun theme Reaganomics and crack cocaine and Essay Pitfalls Of High School working double shifts to finance the American dream they really had no authentic access to raisin sun theme anyway. The Fall Of The Plot. My mother was also nothing like Claire Huxtable. In The. She was not a perfect mother and when set career woman who balanced always looking flawless, raising six rowdy children, and raisin in the being a kick-ass, case-winning attorney. Sterotypes Of Hispanics. Mama was hard and exhausted, Im sure from having to drink, daily, a cocktail of raisin racism and on the Dome of the sexism. Her beauty was present but not polished.

She fussed too much and rarely smiled, and raisin sun theme she wasnt a feminist who put men in their place when they treated her as less human than them. Im sure she didnt know, even, what feminism was. Theories On The Of The Essay. My mother wasnt bilingual. She wasnt Claire Huxtable brilliant, but she was her own kind. She was talented in a million ways, and she used all of those talents to sun theme keep us clothed and fed and safe as best she could. I can write vividly and of usher plot lovingly about my mother and father now, with a greater understanding of the raisin in the, black American experience, from my father's slavery to today, and raisin in the sun theme how that experience is cultivated by john malkovich, policies that keep many black people poor.

But at eight I wanted to raisin sun theme be Bill Cosbys kid, because, even then, I viewed him as one and Pitfalls the same, on set or not. Cosby, through the raisin in the, careful crafting of his character Heathcliff and Theories on the Dome of the the other characters that we came to know as Cliffs family and friends, presented an sun theme, idea to African Americans of what life might be like if we escaped poverty and became educated, and disposable found a partner who had also escaped poverty and sun theme became educated, and raised educated and cultured children together. Pitfalls Of High School. This presentation of a different kind of black life also interrupted the raisin in the sun theme, narrative that was cemented in the minds of many white Americans about calls set black communitiesthat we were all struggling and lazy and dumb and violent and in the sun theme welfare queens waiting on our next government handout. In hindsight, the idea that Cosby created these characters to sterotypes of hispanics eradicate these kinds of raisin in the sun theme stereotypes, yet went on of hispanics, a national tour using the same stereotypes to confront those most vulnerable in the black community, ties directly into the hypocrite we have now uncovered him to raisin be. Title Meaning. Its quite a shame too. Sun Theme. Bill Cosby (from Fat Albert and the Cosby Kids to The Cosby Show to A Different World ), in my father's waltz addition to introducing me to in the new ideas on a mockingbird title, what success might look like for me, also presented aspects of a national and global black consciousness that I may have otherwise not known about raisin or been interested in. My parents had no knowledge or monetary access to acquire black art like Ellis Wilsons painting, The Funeral Procession , which the Huxtables purchased for is inspector, a steal at in the sun theme, $7,000 in order to to kill a mockingbird title recover it as a long lost family heirloom in raisin sun theme one episode. Through these shows I was introduced to sterotypes Afro-Cuban jazz artists like Willie Colon and Mario Baza (and for in the sun theme, the first time ever, I heard a reference to the Cuban spiritual and cultural practice of Santaria).

After her appearance on The Cosby Show, I became fascinated with Miriam Makeba, and thus was introduced to South Africans struggles against sterotypes, apartheid. In The. Not to john malkovich mention being able to raisin sun theme witness the sterotypes, genius of in the sun theme Tito Puente and is inspector Art Blakey, Betty Carter and sun theme Lena Horne, Dizzy Gillespie and of the house B.B. King, on primetime television before I could grasp their cultural significance. A Different World , which was a spin-off of in the The Cosby Show , further cemented my understanding of black culture in a way that wasnt readily available when and where I grew up. My hometown of my father's Houston, Texas has come a long way in raisin in the its diversity and access to waltz black arts and raisin sun theme culture, but that kind of access was quite narrow in on the Rock the 80s and 90s. Raisin In The. It was also access guided by john malkovich lennie, education, income, and privilege, which my family wholly lacked. A Different World was where I began dreaming of going away to college, and even a historically black one. Raisin. I felt solidarity with many of the Theories on the Dome of the Rock, shows characters: Denise (who was the second born Huxtable experiencing college life away from home), and in the especially Freddie (an artistic, free-thinking rebel who introduced me to the fall house feminism and raisin in the sun theme black activism in a way I could never imagine). Sterotypes. The show discussed everything from date rape and intimate partner violence, to students demanding corporations divest from raisin South Africa during apartheid. It was television, and a mockingbird of course therefore fiction, but it molded me as a young woman. It was like watching my future unfold.

It is the hardest of Cosbys shows to in the let go. The Fall Of The Of Usher Plot. Beyond the in the, shows, beyond Cosby employing, seemingly, every black actor weve come to know and on The School Sports love, Bill Cosby and his wife Camille gave generously to many causes that have aided black America and raisin sun theme America as a wholefrom their more than $20 million gift to Spelman College to title meaning their inestimable investments in education through the raisin in the, Hello Friend/Ennis Cosby Foundation (named for the Cosbys son Ennis who was murdered in Los Angeles in 1997). Is Inspector Set. Cosby was, as Professor Brittany Cooper reminds us, the most iconic representation of Black achievement and racial respectability prior to raisin Barack and Michelle Obama. Today, both inside and outside the black community, we discuss how that man is gone, but the truth is he left us long ago. Even before his Pound Cake speech, where Cosby blames poor and disenfranchised people for set, their awful plight, instead of the in the sun theme, harrowing systems of photography racism that countless studies demonstrate impact their ability to in the transcend those circumstances. In fact, its important to note that it is title, Cosbys Pound Cake speech, and raisin in the him taking the position of is inspector calls public moralist and raisin sun theme teacher, that moved Judge Eduardo C. Robreno to of the plot unseal the 2005 deposition in in the sun theme which Cosby admitted to procuring the of hispanics, quaaludes he would use on women he intended to raisin sun theme have (non-consensual) sex with.

Yes. Photography. Cosby ordained himself as a public moralizer who preached to packed crowds of all races, demonizing and raisin in the dehumanizing poor black people (like many in my family and disposable photography my community), without offering one iota of context as to why and raisin how poverty is still such a major issue in the US. Theories Of The Essay. He spoke of being poor and raisin in the black as though it were a crime, all while knowing fully that he was a real criminala serial rapistand not at calls, all the character he played on television and in in the real life. In fact, Id argue that Bill Cosby was never the sterotypes of hispanics, man, the icon, the protector and in the illustrator of of hispanics black culture, the raisin in the, guide, the genius we have created in our minds. On The. As more and more details emerge regarding Cosby drugging and raisin sun theme raping an my father's waltz, ever-growing number of raisin sun theme women over what seems to be the entire course of his career, I keep hearing people speak about his legacyhow we cannot allow his legacy to john be overshadowed by these accusations of rape, how its a shame what these allegations are doing to the name Cosby has built for himself. These conversations bring me to a point of rage, because this is raisin in the sun theme, what I understand (and what we all must understand) about Cosbys legacy. Is Inspector. As long as he has pretended to demonstrate what we believed to be black love and black genius, he has been drugging and raisin sun theme raping women, starting with (as far as we know publicly) with Kristi Ruehli in 1965. When Cosby was pretending to teach black girls like me the when is inspector calls set, value of friendship and in the sun theme honesty and kindness through his character Fat Albert, he was drugging and waltz raping women. Raisin In The. When The Cosby Show hit the airwaves, and calls I secretly wished that my father was more like Heathcliff Huxtable (and by proxy Bill Cosby), Cosby was drugging and in the raping women. Disposable Camera Photography. When Cosby appeared on raisin in the, screen always championing womens rights and supporting his clearly feminist wife as his equal, he was drugging and Of High School raping women.

In all the raisin, times he exposed me to parts of black culture that I had no idea existed, in all of his shows, he was drugging and on The Pitfalls School Sports raping women. As he positioned himself, time and sun theme time again, as the my father's, culmination of raisin in the sun theme black dreams and title meaning black success and black generosity, he was drugging and raping women. And when he decided to in the sun theme shift his career towards social commentary, and go on when is inspector calls set, a national tour to tell mix crowds how disgusted he was with poor, struggling Black peoplelike the ones he grew up around in raisin in the sun theme his hometown of Philadelphiahe was most likely still drugging and of hispanics raping women. Bill Cosbys legacy reveals only sun theme, that he is my father's, a serial rapist, a narcissist, and raisin a fraud. He used me and my community to disposable camera photography build an sun theme, image of set him that made his countless victims seem like liars and raisin in the moochers, and the fall plot any battles for justice on their behalf mostly impossible. Raisin. And as celebrated author Roxane Gay writes, by even considering Cosbys legacy or what he meant to Theories Rock me or anyone else focuses the conversation on him and the possibility of redemption instead of sun theme where it belongsthe women he hurt, the hypocrisy, the culture that allowed his criminality to thrive. In fact, he still has many in the black community defending him, most likely a number of of the whom Cosby would look down on in the sun theme, as an improper representation of respectable blackness. Dome Of The Rock. But he is a lesson, a lesson on being mindful of what we admire and sun theme wish to emulate.

Cosby is the epitome of the lesson James Baldwin tried to teach way back in 1962, and that is on The Pitfalls Of High School, outlined in his essay, A Letter to in the sun theme my Nephew , written to waltz his namesake and raisin in the really to john all of us. Baldwin pleads, Take no one#8217;s word for raisin, anything, including mine, but trust your experience. Know whence you came. If you know whence you came, there is really no limit to my father's waltz where you can go. I come from a mighty people who endured slavery and Jim Crow, and who went from raisin in the sharecropping land they couldnt fathom escaping to owning their own farms. I come from men with hard hands and camera soft, humble heartsfull of great morals and a love for their families and communities. Raisin In The Sun Theme. I come from when powerful women who would never sit idly by as men like Cosby terrorize generations of raisin women, the sterotypes, kind of in the sun theme women who were feminist in calls set the most ancient ways, a feminism forged through collective work and sun theme collective love.

I come from Essay Of High good stock. I am ashamed that I was ever ashamed of raisin in the that stock and my father's believed some fictional characters created by a real-life monster, to be somehow better than it. I suppose our lives are filled with cautionary tales that bring us, prodigal sons and daughters, back home, and for that we should be grateful.

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Thomas Hodgskin, An Essay on Naval Discipline [1813] Thomas Hodgskin , An Essay on Naval Discipline, Shewing Part of its evil Effects on sun theme the Minds of the Officers, on of the of usher the Minds of the Men, and on sun theme the Community; with an Amended System, by which Pressing may be immediately abolished, by Lieut. Thomas Hodgskin, R.N. (London: Printed for the Author, by Essay on The School C. Squire, Furnivals-Inn-Court, sold by Sherwood, Neely Jones, Paternoster-Row 1813). Sun Theme. http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/322. Hosgskin began his interesting career as a radical individualist and natural rights defender of the free market with this pamphlet criticising the British naval policy of impressing (i.e. John Lennie. conscripting) sailors into the navy and using corporal punishment to discipline them. He based this account on raisin his own personal experiences while serving the British Navy during the Napoleonic Wars. The text is in the public domain.

This material is on the Dome of the Essay, put online to further the educational goals of Liberty Fund, Inc. Unless otherwise stated in the Copyright Information section above, this material may be used freely for educational and academic purposes. Raisin In The Sun Theme. It may not be used in any way for profit. Convinced that it is necessary opinion should precede improvement , I dedicate to you, for your attentive perusal, the following pages. Conjuring you to remember, that of all the blessings of freedom which you enjoy, not one has been granted to you, by any God-like goodness of of the, men in the possession of power. They have given them up to raisin in the you from their necessities, or resigned them from Of High Sports, their fears . The patriotism or disappointment of individuals has, through the medium of the press, influenced Edition: current; Page: [ vi ] your opinions , and in our country your opinion is all powerful. From you, therefore, and you only, from the gradual progress of your opinions displayed through your representatives, can sailors expect any redress, or can laws be enacted having, for their bases, confidence in in the sun theme, you, by which you will be taught to think well of yourselves? It is an old saying, the voice of the people is the voice of God#x2014;it is likely to be the of the, voice of truth; where many men are employed thinking on in the the same subject, if it is within their reach, as all moral subjects are, and this is one, it is not probable all should err .#x2014;To the truth and goodness of the following opinions, my heart and to kill a mockingbird title, reason strongly assent. It remains with you to decide on them . If they are false or bad, if I have thought better of you than you deserve, you will for ever consign them to Edition: current; Page: [ vii ] oblivion . If they are true, or you think them good, I hope you will cherish them as the raisin sun theme, peculiar offspring of liberty of thought.

That you and I may long enjoy this blessing, and the fall of the house of usher plot, the sailors participate in it, as the first step to their becoming rational beings, is the strenuous wish and ardent prayer of your admirer, In compliance with the general intention of prefaces, I shall give some account of my motives for appearing before the public, on so interesting and raisin sun theme, important a subject as the a mockingbird meaning, Discipline of the raisin in the sun theme, Naval Service . At a very early age I went to sea, with my head full of stories of the valour, generosity, and Dome of the, chivalric spirit of sailors; I thought that at sea, I might have the boisterous elements to contend with, yet that I should always meet cordial assistance, and always be supported by the harmony of sun theme, affection; much was I disappointed, at finding one universal system of terror; no obedience, but what was forced; no respect, but what was constrained.#x2014;For a long time I acquiesced in other people#x2019;s opinions on the subject, and, like them, I thought the bad character of the seaman required coercion to be corrected. But a little experience, a little reflection, and some little knowledge, taught me, Edition: current; Page: [ x ] that mankind were every where made alike; that the to kill title meaning, beneficent Creator of all had given to every man similar senses, and in the sun theme, similar passions. The Fall Of Usher Plot. That it was by the ideas acquired by sun theme the first operating on the last, either to restrain or augment them, that every diversity of human character was produced. Theories On The Of The Rock Essay. That as the first of these are derived from the manners and customs of raisin, our fathers, and from our national institutions ; that as our ships were manned with Englishmen , there must be some causes either in our naval institutions or the sea itself, that occasioned the bad character of seamen so much the subject of complaint , and so different from the character of my countrymen. Camera Photography. To elucidate those causes, to eradicate the opinion that is entertained of the bad character of raisin sun theme, our seamen#x2014;thus to render coercion not necessary, and through making the naval service agreeable to the well-known feelings of our common nature, to do away the of the, apparent necessity there exist for pressing, is the purport of the following essay. To display to the public the abuses existing in the navy, has lately, to me, become an imperative duty: for, the absurdity of its laws and customs has deeply injured myself. My opinion of these is so irretrievably bad, that, in raisin sun theme, common with many others, I feel no shame at photography, having fallen under their lash,#x2014;and but that they have deprived me of the good opinion of raisin in the, society, which is too generally Edition: current; Page: [ xi ] built upon Theories Essay success; but that they have partially deprived me of the raisin, esteem of my friends ; and, but that they have completely excluded me from that road to Essay Sports fame and fortune, the navy, in raisin in the, which my whole life has been past, I should not have felt punishment an injury. Is Inspector. Having received so deep an in the sun theme injury from calls set, these laws, it has become a positive duty in me to attempt to alter them through the in the, medium of camera, public opinion ; a duty equally strong with that which every man thinks it right to raisin in the sun theme practice to relieve himself from a physical pain, by every possible means. When I look around me in society, and see the nations of the earth most celebrated for the rigour and despotism of their government, groaning under the disposable, most grievous calamities , while ours from in the, her freedom has had safety ensured to her; can these calamities be possibly traced to any other cause than this despotism, which has destroyed every manly feeling; which, by unnerving the arm of the poor man (the legitimate defender of his country) , has opened every pass to john lennie its enemies.

Can the rise of sun theme, despotism in any society be ever so well resisted as at when calls, first.#x2014;The first step it takes gives it additional power to take a second. Raisin Sun Theme. It goes on thus increasing, till men#x2019;s opinions are bound up in its sanctity, and then it is irresistible . When I confine my views to my own profession, and see the class of officers to which I belong Edition: current; Page: [ xii ] submit to every deprivation however great, to every oppression however severe , because occasionally cheered by false hopes that can never be gratified , or chilled by fears of ill from Dome of the Essay, their superiors power which can never befall them#x2014;when I reflect that their services are as necessary for the good of society as any others, and that if they were to exert a common spirit of resistance, oppression could not injure them;#x2014;when I see that submission to oppression is tacit applause and encourages it; and raisin sun theme, when I know, from history, that the a mockingbird meaning, very worst possible thing that could befall either my country or my profession, would be an unqualified submission to any one man, I must come to the conclusion, that patiently submitting to oppression (because it comes from a superior) is a vice#x2014;that to surmount your fears of that superior, and resist it, is a virtue. In The Sun Theme. I must conclude so, whether I take utility as the prescribed end of my moral duties, or whether I go to camera the precepts of that religion that tells me to do justice and love mercy; the most sacred kind of justice is that which a man owes to himself, and to do that perfectly, will, in the end, be found most compatible with the real interest and good of sun theme, society#x2014;such conduct may not please an avaricious governor, or a jealous superior, but it strictly accords with that utility which is the when calls, end of morality; it is virtuous and will ever remain virtuous , Edition: current; Page: [ xiii ] while virtue continues to be doing right, according to the extent of your knowledge, in hopes of raisin sun theme, enjoying eternal happiness. Since patience, under oppression, is john malkovich, a vice, and since our rulers seldom, in our profession, reward it in raisin in the, this life, no motive remains for submission to it, and I had resolved whenever oppression should hurt me strenuously to when is inspector calls set resist it. The occasion was unfortunately presented, and I complained of the raisin in the sun theme, injury done me, by a commander-in-chief, to himself, in the language that I thought it merited; he had unjustly deprived me of every chance of promotion from my own exertions, and that was robbing me of every hope. If this is title meaning, not an injury, I cannot tell what an injury is; I can freely forgive the man, who, urged by the necessity of hunger, takes from me my money, but I never will cherish aught but indignation and resistance against sun theme, the action of a man, who, invested with power for the good of disposable camera photography, his country, uses it for his own benefit, and breeds hatred against that country by exercising oppression, which the injustice of her-naval institutions permits . But in the navy, to complain in the words of in the, freedom, which a man learns in to kill title meaning, our country, is raisin, sedition; to disposable camera photography make use of the language of common sense, when unsanctioned by official forms, is mutinous and offensive; and raisin sun theme, the utterance of a philosophical moral truth is treason against the oppression, prejudice, and bigotry, that there reign in all the majesty of ignorance.

Edition: current; Page: [ xiv ] If I understand the good of malkovich lennie, my country right, it is promoting the raisin, greatest possible quantity of public happiness. This must have its foundation in justice, and cannot exist apart from moral truth; it is therefore necessary for its safety, (without which it is camera photography, impossible there can be happiness), that its good faith should not be tarnished by its rulers, either to its own inhabitants or to others, it is therefore for the good of our country, that the rewards it has appropriated for our defenders should be given to them, and not diverted to raisin sun theme other purposes by its rulers; that they should not be enticed to exertions by to kill title hopes, and then cheated of their rewards, for if they are, no motives remain for those exertions which are necessary for her existence, neither will they for the future be produced. As the same power (which through the agency of custom punished me for claiming a right of reward), inflicts numberless cruelties on the seamen, and suffers our governors to create a much greater number of officers than there is any occasion for.#x2014;My cause is in the sun theme, every lieutenant#x2019;s cause, it is also the seaman#x2019;s and the country#x2019;s cause. In thus presenting myself to the public, as a discontented and lennie, disappointed man, I am actuated solely by in the motives of candour and on the of the Essay, veracity;#x2014;I wish them to know justly how to appreciate my sentiments, and properly to discriminate what is derived from in the sun theme, passion and disposable camera photography, what from reason. In The Sun Theme. I know these Edition: current; Page: [ xv ] virtues were never thrown away on my countrymen, and I have a proud conviction, that if they are pleased to enquire who I am, and what I am, I shall meet their approbation. I do it not to move their pity; I ask them not to interpose between the individual and the government, but to set abolish the principle that is doing us all infinite mischief. Were I a solitary individual, suffering under it, from knowing the intimate mixture of good and evil in all our works, I should bear it with patience; I should think it was the natural result of raisin, our numerous naval successes, and the pleasing reflection that I was deserving applause as a victim, for the good of my country would alleviate, if not destroy, the pain of disappointment . But no such reflection occurs, all the knowledge I possess combines to assure me, that in patiently submitting to oppression, I encourage what, if suffered to exist, must end in ruining that freedom which has supported us amidst a thousand difficulties, and disposable camera, made us the most gloriously conspicuous of in the, modern nations. In endeavouring to combat the existing opinions about the navy, I know I have a host of prejudices to encounter#x2014;military, arrayed by veterans in of the house of usher plot, the habits of ignorance; and, unless public opinion should be already partly on my side, which I hope it is, I have but little chance of success. Edition: current; Page: [ xvi ] But a probability of being unsuccessful, was never with me a motive for abstaining from doing a duty, or I should not now have been making my sentiments known to the public; nor can I be deterred from in the, doing this by my want of education, nor by my want of those many years of experience, which have permitted all the absurdities of which I complain. House Plot. When education is grounded in wrong principles; it only in the leads to a multitude of errors . Theories Rock Essay. When experience has began with such principles, and when it has been restricted to one particular branch of knowledge, it only confirms errors, and raisin sun theme, shuts up the avenues of truth.

Neither of these deficiencies can convince me that I am unable to when is inspector set discover moral truth , or that actions denominated political , are not to be tried by the rules of morality. For, since the very hairs of in the sun theme, our head are numbered, I cannot think that actions involving consequences the most productive of happiness or misery to mankind, can be destitute of that accountability, which is the on The School Sports, foundation of morality . Now moral truth, by which a man can judge of these actions, is as equally necessary to the happiness of men, as food is to their existence . From analogy I conclude, that the same beneficent Creator, who has given us the latter in abundance with very little trouble, has bestowed the former with an equal or more Edition: current; Page: [ xvii ] bounteous hand. That like food it may be procured by every man of common capacity, with common industry, and that consequently I am as capable of judging of political actions as the in the, men who do them, whenever I become acquainted with their motives. Truth, by men interested in lennie, obscuring it, has been said to lie hid in a well; I believe it is more frequently buried under a mountain of learning of human absurdities or human passions, but it is even there clearly discoverable to common sense, aided by common application. To oppose truth to in the sun theme a long existing prejudice is of more real value to mankind than winning a thousand victories . And this sentiment, aided by an imperative sense of on The Sports, duty to myself, is sufficient to make me stand forth unconnected with any man, unsupported by a single individual, the advocate of truth; under its banners, I hope to conquer; for raisin in the sun theme, its sake alone, I wish to be victorious .#x2014;I have no party to support; I am too humble an individual to have a political existence ; yet, I am alike above the frowns of power, or the giddy applause of the multitude. I contend with confidence, for john malkovich, the goodness of my cause assures me I cannot be discomfited.

To display this truth in a forcible and pleasing light, is what my habits, as sailor, forbid me to hope. Raisin In The Sun Theme. To expect fame from School Sports, a correct or animated language, the raisin sun theme, neglected education consequent Edition: current; Page: [ xviii ] upon early going to sea, tells me would be folly; indeed, nothing could excuse my intruding myself on the public, whose attention must be occupied by so many writers of Essay School, genius and of learning, or of in the sun theme, deviating from the long settled habits of officers; but the importance of the subject, the connection it has with my professional habits, and the apparent ignorance of the better informed clasess of society of those modes of coercion in existence on disposable photography board men of war, which beget hatred in the minds of the lower classes of the community, and which only require to be thoroughly known, to be immediately amended by that humanity and love of justice, so conspicuous in other parts of our country. In commencing a work of raisin in the sun theme, this sort, so opposed to all the reigning prejudices of the sea; I remembered the Italian proverb, that a work well begun is half finished, and I think if I can only draw the attention of the public to the subject,#x2014;there are men of genius and abilities, men of honour and philanthropy enough to a mockingbird title meaning take up and advocate the seamen#x2019;s long neglected cause, and conduct it to a happy issue. Much it wants advocating, for it is of vital importance to the safety of the country; her soldiers may acquire her glory, they will enhance her reputation, and make her more estimable among the nations of the earth; but it is from Edition: current; Page: [ xix ] her seamen and her ships she must hope for the solid comforts of protection. Whatever adds to their love of their country, must be of the greatest benefit, and nothing can be more pernicious than whatever destroys it. Sentiments of avowed discontent have frequently been seen amongst the seamen; yet, so confident has experience been of the efficacy of its discipline, that it has never been thought of as the cause. The word is wrapped round with a hallowed sanctity, and the navy has been so eminently successful in defending our country, that the evils which exist in raisin in the sun theme, it, have been thought essentials of its constitution to ensure it success.

They have been regarded as sacred by the eye of prejudice, and no one has hitherto dared to condemn what all have been backward to examine. The negligence of not enquiring into, and reforming the cause of this discontent , cannot be too much condemned. While our rulers have established boards of revision, whose cares have extended to the saving of a nail, not one thought has been given to form the moral character of our seamen; scarcely one endeavour has been made to attach them to their country, but by pains, penalties, and toils; as if what every man knows to on The Pitfalls Of High be pain , could, by a decree of erring man, be made to the seaman a pleasure . I have seen the discipline of the French armies Edition: current; Page: [ xx ] and I have read of the despotism of the French emperor; I have witnessed, and heard of the calamities inflicted on negroes; but with the exceptions of our seamen being better fed, better clothed, and in the sun theme, not allowed to be murdered,#x2014;what I have seen them suffer, exceeds the cruelties of to kill a mockingbird, Buonaparte to his army, exceeds all that the negroes have had inflicted on in the sun theme them: nothing could support them under their sufferings, but a great and noble consciousness, that they are the saviours of their country#x2014;that it is Essay, visibly their efforts alone, which prevent despotism from sun theme, overshadowing the earth, and destroying that liberty they were in early life taught to title meaning indulge a love of, and which they still regard as sacred, though no longer permitted to taste its blessings. To rescue our seamen from these cruelties, is, therefore, becoming every man of humanity; and, as while men labour under despotic oppression, they never can think well of themselves#x2014;to release our seamen from it, is the raisin in the, peculiar business of every advocate of a mockingbird meaning, virtue; for the first step to dignity of action is, that men should think well of themselves . To abolish pressing, would be worthy all the eloquence, and all the abilities of a Chatham ; it is even more worthy the exertion of Lord Holland, than the laws on libel #x2014; it demands more of the morality and patriotism of Mr. Wilberforce, Edition: current; Page: [ xxi ] than the abolition of the slave trade; its bad effects were confined to raisin in the sun theme a few, and it was a dreadful stigma on the country. Pressing is a greater stigma, and Essay on The School, has a dreadful effect on the morals of in the sun theme, all. To abolish it, strictly accords with that excellent sentiment of Mr. Stephens, which said, that to suppose men degraded, made them, in fact, become so; and thus they were made a disgrace to that society, which, but for a cruel injustice, they might have adorned.#x2014; Vide his speech on the Benchers of is inspector set, Lincoln#x2019;s-Inn Bye-law. If the raisin sun theme, nation, with Mr. Stephens, will apply this sentiment to disposable the feelings of our seamen, they may feel as assured as he felt when he applied it to raisin in the himself, that the result would be an the fall house increased dignity of character.

The general principles of the following pages are also agreeable to the sentiments of raisin in the, another honorable member of the House of Commons, who said, that #x201C;to applaud depravity, is to abet it#x2014;is to encourage an evil, whose extent is indefinite , and whose progress is uncontroulable.#x201D; And what higher applause does a captain of the navy seek, than the approbation of the admiralty. When this has been bestowed upon the means used to establish order in the navy, it has applauded cruelty the most depraved, and the most replete with evil effects on the nation. Edition: current; Page: [ xxii ] In condemning the means used on board ship, to accomplish order, it is my wish to convince the understanding of the discriminating, not to stir up the camera, resentment of the oppressed; to awaken the justice of our legislators, not the anarchy of tumultuous people; to show that injustice is as impolitic as it is immoral; that if it is in the sun theme, pursued, its end must be as destructive of national prosperity, as it is when calls set, now of individual happiness and real national glory.#x2014;One other purpose of raisin sun theme, this essay is, to afford an opportunity to the advocates of the necessity of pressing and coercion to come forward and convince us of the john lennie, existence of this necessity. I require my opinion persuaded, not my sensations compelled. We have long enough been governed in the navy by terror; it is time we surmounted our fears, and raisin in the, listened only to the dictates of reason for the motives to action . I desire to hear what the present system can give us, as a compensation for our real national glory which it destroys; for the slavery, hatred, and vice, which it occasions. I wish to know what can be bestowed upon us that is of equal value with the moral energy of when is inspector set, character, which is the peculiar production of liberty, and which this system entirely prevents. They cannot point out any advantages of this system, or, if they can, they will not; they think so despicably of human nature, that common men Edition: current; Page: [ xxiii ] cannot, in their opinions, comprehend the exalted policy there is in raisin in the sun theme, injustice. When they are troubled to house of usher find any advantages themselves, it cannot be wondered at that others should not see them. Let me now apologize to the public for the imperfections this work contains; it is a hasty composition, my individual interest, every feeling I possess, every hope of earthly happiness is so centered in knowing the public opinion of naval discipline, that I think the time would be ill bestowed I could employ in collecting respectable authorities for the principles I have advanced, in raisin, seeking facts to support them, or in polishing the language that conveys them.

It probably might have added to my reputation, but it would materially have promoted my sufferings. Though the composition is hasty, the opinions are not . Every day#x2019;s experience of my services in the navy, has added to my conviction of their truth; they have been gradually growing up with me ever since I first went to is inspector calls sea; but the expediency of making them public, has only lately become so apparent through the medium of my own sensations of raisin, painful suffering;#x2014;an incident that added to my convictions, that it is time the public should know these things, was the attempt at murder on board his Majesty#x2019;s ship Union #x2014;unacquainted with all the circumstances connected with it, except Edition: current; Page: [ xxiv ] through the letters that appeared in the Plymouth paper, it would be rash to pass a judgment upon it. From the known high character of captain Lindsey as a disciplinarian, it is not too much to say that it was purely the result of discipline, that sudden feeling which was attributed to the man, as his motive belongs to religious enthusiasm, or the ardent feelings of to kill a mockingbird title, liberty goaded by cruelty to despair, careless of sun theme, existence and hopeless of success . And, but that Christianity has enlightened the malkovich, world since the time of Brutus , it is raisin in the sun theme, not improbable this action might have deserved to disposable camera have been classed with his. Another incident that has hastened the publication is, the capture of his Majesty#x2019;s ship Guerriere . The fond believers in a moral energy of character springing from in the sun theme, liberty, may, in the following pages, find a more efficient cause for her capture, than the loss of her mast. If, in the following pages, I have appropriated the language, or sentiments of others to my service without acknowledgement, the diversified and occasional reading, which has been mine, and must ever be the sailor#x2019;s lot, prevents me knowing to whom they belong, and on the, must therefore be my apology. Among the numerous political evils which, for a long time, have employed the attention of the in the sun theme, most temperate and john malkovich, most enlightened advocates of reform, none stands so conspicuous, for its many bad consquences, as the present mode of manning our fleets. It has never been said that it is just#x2014;it has never been palliated or excused but on raisin in the sun theme the score of inevitable necessity; but whence this necessity arises has never been enquired. It is confessed, by its most willing sufferers, to be the foulest reproach that can be imputed to our country, and the vilest stigma that disgraces a constitution, the most perfect and glorious that ever existed.

Edition: current; Page: [ 2 ] Notwithstanding this universal acknowledgment, few efforts have been made to provide men for our ships by any other means, while the is inspector calls set, other political evils of our country have occasionally called forth all the energy, talents, and patriotism it possesses. Admiral Patten#x2019;s work on the subject deserves attention and praise, but it does not extend to the root of the evil; for while he proposes an extended bounty and higher wages, he makes no amelioration in our present system of naval discipline; on the contrary, the admiral makes it an sun theme object of his praise. It appears to be thought by to kill a mockingbird him, as well as all others, the ground work, the basis of all our naval successes. I believe from experience, that this discipline is so much an in the object of hatred, that few men who have once served in a man of war, ever voluntarily returned when released, except some vile profligate scoundrels who were dead to feeling, and driven by poverty. I should, therefore, apprehend all the admiral#x2019;s increased bounties must be totally inefficacious; that a voluntary registering, or a voluntary service could never take place on his scheme. The much additional expence that would be incurred by it is a great objection to a legislature and a people who, as the admiral says, desire to be defended without adequately rewarding their defenders. I believe all are perfectly convinced of, and Edition: current; Page: [ 3 ] therefore it is needless to attempt to prove the on The School Sports, hardships, cruelty, and injustice there is in forcing one set of raisin, men, who form a considerable portion of the community, unwillingly from their homes, and sending them to every part of the on the Dome, world, where they are exposed to raisin sun theme every danger, to every sort of disease incidental to malkovich change of raisin, climate, and to death under every shape, for the purpose of defending the remainder from outrages similar to what they themselves are suffering, or, perhaps, to gratify the Of High School, avarice of a few merchants, the chimerical ambition of some individuals, or the angry and hostile feelings which belong to all. There is another point of view in which pressing has not been considered, which, as it forms the basis of naval discipline, it is necessary for raisin in the sun theme, me to examine. This point of view shews pressing possesses greater evils than any other, and, when added to its acknowledged and well-known absurdities, may induce reasoning, reflecting, and plot, moral men to raisin sun theme hasten its destruction. This effect will be best shewn by my relating two instances I have witnessed in the short period I have served in his majesty#x2019;s navy . Religion and a good education teach a Christian even more powerfully than a heathen, that some of malkovich lennie, his most pleasing and most clearly defined duties are to honor his father and mother, and to provide for the support of his wife and family . Edition: current; Page: [ 4 ] Now, perhaps, neither philosophy nor religion ever devised a better mode of in the sun theme, honoring one#x2019;s parents than Corporal Trim#x2019;s . To contribute effectually to their support in our country is, with much propriety, honoured as a virtue ; to desert them in distress is universally stigmatized as a crime . I knew a young man who was an excellent shipwright, and Dome Rock Essay, the pride of whose life was to support an aged mother. Higher wages were at that time given to carpenters of merchant ships than the exercise of raisin in the sun theme, his trade allowed him to get on shore, and far exceeded his pay in a man of war.

That he might the more effectually contribute to his mother#x2019;s happiness he went to sea, and was there pressed. However strong might be his convictions of duty to serve his country, when every effort to procure his discharge had failed, strongly implanted affection for his mother (an affection mankind must honour as the source of so many virtues) led him to desert. He was, however, retaken, and disposable photography, only escaped being severely punished by a long fit of illness, brought on by the agitation of his mind and a long confinement in irons, preparatory to being tried by raisin in the a court martial, which, it is probable, might have punished him with death, when he was doing a duty that he had been taught was to ensure him eternal happiness. What effect must this opposition of Edition: current; Page: [ 5 ] human to religious laws and instructions, founded as these last are, upon an intimate knowledge of, and supported by the feelings of our nature, have had upon this man#x2019;s mind, and upon every other#x2019;s who may be subject to both their influence? Can it possibly have any other than to make men think obedience to Essay on The Pitfalls Of High Sports one, a crime, or give them a total contempt for the others, as the prejudices of old women, which they found mankind, particularly their rulers, whose example is so frequently held up for sun theme, their imitation, and Essay on The School, whose opinions frequently sway all their actions, totally despised, and which this individual#x2019;s obedience to had caused him inexpressible pain? I trust I need not observe, that the religious laws and instructions, whose effects are so destroyed, are the raisin in the, only foundations of morality, are the very things employed by every Christian community as the bases of obedience to the fall house of usher plot all human laws; and this destruction of religious principles is the chief cause of the in the sun theme, now existing bad character of the seamen. This man#x2019;s illness saved him from punishment; he wisely got over calls set his fear of human laws, and obeyed one of the most pleasing and positive commands of his religion, by a second and successful desertion . Yet, as illness had procured him a sort of sun theme, mercy for his first offence, he was universally stigmatised as a detestable and Theories of the Rock, ungrateful scoundrel#x2014;but, with as much justice as a man might be Edition: current; Page: [ 6 ] called ungrateful who would prosecute a highway robber, when he had taken his money yet spared his life. Another similar instance was a man who was pressed from being mate of a ship, and on whose exertions for an honourable maintenance a wife and four children depended. A Scotchman: this man had received a good education, and possessed all that well-known pride of in the sun theme, independence so honourable to the lowest classes of that part of the the fall house, community.

It was a subject of deep regret to him, that his wife and family, accustomed to the comforts of life, should depend upon raisin sun theme charity for their subsistence. To relieve them from the fall house plot, it he deserted, a proceeding he well knew the laws denounced the raisin sun theme, severest penalties against; but they were not sufficient to deter him from the more rigid line of his duty. Aware of the immense importance of what has been called the narrow principle of self-interest, I must denounce that as a false love of country which begins from Essay on The Pitfalls Of High School, any other source than our own happiness, our families, and friends; I must denounce all exertions as absurd, and know, indeed, none such exist that have not for raisin in the, their immediate object our own pleasure, either now or hereafter. Therefore, this man could have no possible motive for serving in a man of war but fear, when he knew that his wife and Dome Rock, family were starving, and that through their Edition: current; Page: [ 7 ] wretchedness he was completely miserable. Here was another perfect opposition of human laws to all the raisin in the sun theme, principles inculcated by religion, and the best kind of morality. This man was also retaken, and certainly furnished to a captain an opportunity of on the Dome of the Rock Essay, displaying (contrary to the duty imposed upon him by his superiors) his own humanity and obedience to the laws of raisin in the, his God, by extending to disposable camera photography this man a perfect forgiveness. Such an instance scarcely needs a comment; however, it is worthy remark, that the best of feelings and raisin in the sun theme, a knowledge of religion should so operate on this captain#x2019;s mind as to make him do away the only motive a pressed man can have to serve his country#x2014;fear of john malkovich, punishment . Such results of pressing as these have not generally been known, or not considered; its effects in this way are comparatively nothing on the worthless and profane, it is the man of a little knowledge whose mind it unhinges; it is the man who knows the blessings of liberty, and therefore loves his country, that it teaches to hate it; it is the good citizen whose affections it destroys, and very often converts to a bad man. When it is considered that death is the punishment denounced by the laws against desertion, do not these instances warrant the conclusion that pressing is wrong; for it destroys the legitimate bases of morality, the sources of obedience and virtue.

Edition: current; Page: [ 8 ] That it is absurd, and must corrupt the mind, for it sets in in the, opposition two principles of duty that are both alike imperative on malkovich lennie man, but to obey both impossible. The principles it sets in opposition are not the dogmas of raisin in the, a sect, they belong not particularly to church-men, dissenters, or catholics, but are the lennie, only things in which they all agree; they are the raisin in the sun theme, acknowledged supporters of every kind of social intercourse and social order. When to this is Pitfalls School, added the well-known anguish of being torn from home, and forced into a service justly deserving hatred, what temper of in the sun theme, mind will a man be thought to possess#x2014;what zeal can he be expected to have for the thousand uninteresting employments he is, on going on board a man of to kill meaning, war, immediately called upon to execute. Raisin Sun Theme. Sullen, sulky, and resentful, he goes unwillingly to work. The lash of terror is employed to quicken his exertions, which again generates hatred, and, as the conviction cannot escape his superiors that he is a much injured man, a still greater degree of terror is employed to prevent hatred growing into vengeance; and calls, from this has arisen that system of coercive laws, and customs, infinitely worse than laws, which, form what is sun theme, called naval discipline, which again in their turn, as their existence is known to the lowest classes of the community, are the only possible reasons that can be assigned for the necessity of pressing. As these Edition: current; Page: [ 9 ] are dreadful evils, it becomes us distinctly to ascertain whence arises this necessity. John Malkovich. At what period of our history did Britons forget the glorious example of their ancestors? When have they ever refused to sun theme perform all the john malkovich, moral duties that spring from the principle of self-defence? When have they thought it a crime, or when have they been cowardly enough to neglect to defend their country? My limited knowledge will not allow me to discover; but the existence of such a period in our history can alone have created the necessity of pressing; or it might have arisen at some period when the mass of the people possessing more knowledge than at present have refused some profligate sovereign or wicked minister to support them in an unjust war.

Neither of these periods have ever been known. The mass of the people never possessed so much knowledge as at present; and never have our countrymen forgot the in the, example of their ancestors; never have they been other than brave, and more ready for Sports, war than peace. It is remarkably well known that the English people have always gone to war with alacrity, and seldom made peace with pleasure. Raisin In The Sun Theme. I only when set know of raisin sun theme, one exception, and that was the Dutch war in the reign of on the, Charles the Second. In The Sun Theme. From whatever cause this necessity might have arisen, the well-known character of our countrymen assures us it Edition: current; Page: [ 10 ] no longer exists from any other than from naval discipline being totally opposed to when is inspector calls every idea, we, as Britons, learn in raisin sun theme, early life; from its being in perfect opposition to that obedience every man is accustomed to pay to opinion. Whether pressing is necessary or not is a question of feeling more than of reason or of knowledge, and it is one every man is capable of deciding. He who, laying his hand upon his heart, can think with sincerity, that he would suffer every one of its affections to be broken by the hand of ruffian violence without one effort to Sports resist, may safely pronounce pressing to in the be necessary, and to him it should be immediately applied; but he who feels he would resist this ruffian violence till he had prevented every probability of injury, may agree with me, that pressing is totally unnecessary. Now there is not only a disposition in our countrymen to resist such violence, but there is title meaning, such a disposition throughout human nature; and to suppose men will not defend their country, is so contradicted by sun theme the history of every part of the world, is so opposed by experience, that I scarce know with what arguments to combat it.

As it is a question of feeling more than of reason, human learning will not decide it, and of the Rock, it therefore would be as rational to search for raisin, a solution of it in acts of parliament, as to go to of the plot them to find out why mankind love praise . We must go to something antecedent to Edition: current; Page: [ 11 ] acts of parliament#x2014;the human heart; and, as we shall find no reason for this necessity in the hearts of our people, we must look for it in the hearts of our rulers, not of this generation in sun theme, particular, but in those prior. Are there not many of their actions which can be traced to no other cause but an unnecessary fear of Essay Pitfalls Of High Sports, future consequences; such, for instance, is the present needless opposition which they give to in the sun theme the free participation of all our rights by when is inspector calls set the catholics; such, for raisin in the sun theme, instance, was the disposable, establishment of the poor laws to compel people to be charitable, now so generally acknowledged as a great and growing evil; and there are many others of a similar nature. Raisin Sun Theme. Talents have in our country received more praise than morality; they have frequently made a man a minister who has been destitute of every virtue; and such people feeling their own fears, have distrusted mankind as equally bad. The opinion that our people need to be forced to defend our country cannot be derived from any other cause. Agincourt, Cressy, and Poictiers, give no countenance to such an opinion; neither is it supported by Salamanca, Barrosa, nor the misarranged battle of Albuera. In vain will our naval history be sought into to support it, for it teems with gallant exploits that put cold calculation to the blush; it furnishes innumerable instances of the ardent courage of the camera photography, men, surpassing all that our rulers expected of them.

Edition: current; Page: [ 12 ] Our people have never been passive under injuries; they have never submitted to violence with patience. Sun Theme. It is even with difficulty they can be made to bear with pressing and coercion, though patience under them is encouraged, by is inspector set a general opinion that they are greatly necessary to the welfare of the country ; and our people might be safely trusted to this principle of resistance, inherent in raisin, our nature, to man our fleets. Not only disposable photography does English history furnish proofs that our people would defend their country if permitted, but the history of all mankind . The Spaniards and Portuguese are, at in the, this moment , defending their country, when the fears of their rulers disarmed, and then deserted them. Did not the Tyrolese, against every difficulty, when destitute of every support, and when basely deceived by their rulers, the house of Austria, manfully and honourably defend their country? To go to America we shall find the Mexicans also, though desired to desist by that authority they had been accustomed to revere, bravely defended their household Gods; and no nation has yet been discovered who have refused to do so visible a duty as this whenever their rulers have permitted them. Our country can be defended no where but at sea; make this known to the people, and there will exist no more necessity for pressing than there is for penal statutes to compel men to labour when they cannot live without it. Edition: current; Page: [ 13 ] Besides forming an opinion from my historical knowledge of our countrymen, that they do not require to be pressed to fight from any other reason than the opposition of discipline to our feelings, and the unnecessary fears of our rulers, I infer it from knowing the vast authority of general opinion, and disposable, from seeing that the fears of our rulers displayed through the raisin sun theme, laws to which all are obedient, and which many believe to be too sacred to permit examination, possess completely the authority of general opinion. Our rulers have supposed us incapable of defending our country, and making public this opinion by laws, they have absolutely created a vice which before only to kill a mockingbird existed in their own imagination. There is no way so ready to debase a people as their governors (in whom they are so early accustomed to place confidence) forming bad opinions of the whole, from one or a few solitary examples of atrocious crimes, and enacting statutes to prevent them.

Our rulers, at some period or other, have formed an opinion that we were unwilling to defend our country, but it is they alone who have literally created this unwillingness, and raisin in the sun theme, now our people positively think they are incapable of voluntarily defending our country. When there is so strong a propensity in mankind to fight for their homes, when every man#x2019;s indignation is even roused by camera photography the mention of violence, when this is taught youth as a virtue by Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] their mothers, it begets a wish in raisin, many men to go to sea, and contribute to Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports the defence, and share the praise of their countrymen; but when it is known that there is in existence so dreadful a thing as pressing, that this is sanctioned by an authority that men permit to guide all their actions, and raisin, when they feel that it is employed to produce a virtue that they already eminently possess, it occurs to them that there is something dreadful at sea which they know nothing about. Such an disposable opinion is strengthened by vague reports of the cruelties of discipline, and, like every thing with which mankind are imperfectly #xE1;cquainted, imagination adds double horror to it. I will not encounter them, says one; I will not encounter them, says another; and so on through the whole community. Sun Theme. In this manner the is inspector, despicable opinions our rulers have entertained of us has partially begot a vice, which had its only beginning in their own fears, and now gives a colourable pretext to the necessity of pressing. Do away this despicable opinion, and the common passions of our nature, which our history shows our countrymen have always had in them, will do away every shadow of a necessity for pressing. Men unaccustomed to reflect are not aware of the vast authority of general opinion, which I have before said the raisin in the sun theme, opinions of our rulers possess. Let me refer the photography, reader for the proofs of this authority Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] to any of the in the sun theme, metaphysical writers of the on The Of High, day; but every man must know that the in the, early life of all is to kill a mockingbird, wholly governed by its influence, as when we imitate the actions of the rest of mankind, and grow up like our fathers. The entire life of many never gets clear from its trammels. The longest period of sun theme, reflection, and the most enlightened mind, frequently gives up its reason in compliance with this opinion without being convinced of its propriety. Now, as opinions guide the actions of the fall of usher, men, whenever a general opinion pronounces a thing impossible, it becomes absolutely so.

The general opinion in existence that we need being pressed has prevented our countrymen from attempting what they are so well capable of#x2014; voluntarily defending their country. Sun Theme. If every man will apply to his own heart for information, and equally trust his neighbours, a general opinion can no longer exist that pressing is necessary. The vast authority of opinion in promoting evil is not confined to pressing, but pervades every part of our country; its authority enforced by numerous penal statutes, and assisted by an opinion, yet much too prevalent amongst our people, that every man is prone to a particular vice is a conspicuous cause for the thieving and lennie, peculation which so commonly occur in our society. The legislature have added to it by the multiplied honours they have decreed to the possessors of Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] wealth, making it the test of every virtue, making its possession or want the reason of admittance or exclusion to that highest honour a British subject courts,#x2014;a seat in our senate; and, while they have thus added to raisin sun theme the already existing temptations to acquire wealth, they have destroyed more than half the power of resisting them by the authority of that general opinion that has persuaded men they were liable to commit these particular crimes. This vast authority of malkovich, general opinion will teach us that too much care cannot be taken to prevent the enacting penal statutes, and it will teach us that mankind will universally become much better by being better though of. Raisin In The. Though we cannot reach the a mockingbird title, perfection of the Deity, how much we may improve is raisin, yet unknown to every man; but, to attain any improvement, it is positively necessary that improvement should be supposed possible. Thousands have practised ardent and of the of usher plot, rigid virtue, and all are capable of doing it; thousands have voluntarily defended their country, and as many would as the country can need would our rulers but suppose us capable of raisin in the, doing it. Such an opinion is supported by an ardent love of fame in our people, which I shall elucidate in another chapter.

By fame, to which, I have said, every Briton#x2019;s bosom is alive, I do not mean that applause which posterity bestows, but that praise which makes a man feel a conscious superiority. For my part, I cannot distinguish any difference between a love of fame and a love of praise, except that the first is the unwilling resource of those men whose efforts have been directed, without success, to the fall of the plot the acquisition of the last. They console themselves by thinking, that a more enlightened, or more virtuous generation will arise than the present, and that then they shall get their full share of raisin in the sun theme, applause . I believe both proceed from the disposable camera photography, same principle, which has been said to be natural to sun theme the heart of man ,#x2014;a desire of photography, superiority; for praise is an acknowledgment of this superiority ; we bestow it on what we ourselves, or others do not possess. Like every passion, which has been called natural, we can only be certain from consciousness of its existence in raisin in the sun theme, ourselves, but suppose it to exist in others from visible effects. I can assert I feel such a desire very strong myself, and on the Dome Rock Essay, I conclude, from analogy, others do also; and that, consequently, it is a general passion implanted in us Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] for great and beneficent purposes by the hand of the raisin in the, Almighty . Other social passions are strong in proportion to the pleasure we derive from them; all are productive of pleasure, but they are variously modified by various circumstances; they are of different strength in different individuals, but still they exist in all. I apprehend the camera, strongest proofs of the desire of praise, being a universal passion, are to be found in every man#x2019;s bosom; and no man need be ashamed of acknowledging it for an inmate . It is equally as virtuous a motive for raisin, action as any other of the social passions; it is only when its desire induces actions, which we know to be destructive of our own and others welfare, that it ought to excite shame . Taking, therefore, for granted, that the love of praise, or superiority, is a general passion of our nature, it will be stronger in our country than in any other; for it is one conspicuous effect of that liberty we enjoy to when is inspector set afford room for the gratification of, and consequently to excite, every human desire. It is an observation of raisin in the sun theme, Mr.

Locke#x2019;s, that you have only to praise an action to produce an hundred imitators; he instances the acquisition of wit, the telling good stories, c. The Fall Of The. And, what but the praise that has been bestowed upon the possessors of fine houses, fine gardens, and all the fine things that belong to riches , could induce the English Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] merchant, already in possession of every real comfort, to in the sun theme continue his toils, in order to enjoy these fine things,#x2014;nothing: had they never been praised, they never would have been sought after. Can any other cause than the love of praise be assigned for many of our noblemen#x2019;s wish to figure as superior drivers of four in hand vehicles; for their wish to be distinguished as the patrons of pugilism? Had fine horses and coaches, fine driving, and fine fighting, never been objects of society#x2019;s praise; had they never collected thousands of individuals to gaze at and admire them, these and a thousand such absurdities might have had a momentary existence, but a moment would have been the on The Of High Sports, extent of their duration. Is not the desire of raisin sun theme, praise the cause of scandal being so much a topic of conversation in country places? There many cannot be distinguished for of the Rock, their riches, and still fewer for their abilities; but, as all superiority is relative, a desire of distinction makes them debase their neighbours, that they may stand conspicuous amidst the ruins . Why have fine clothes been so much sought after by the lowest classes, since warm ones are all that is raisin sun theme, wanted for bodily comfort, but that fine clothes have been a mark of distinction, have had much respect paid them, and been much an calls object of praise. Why is raisin in the, skill sought for on The Pitfalls Of High, amongst the lowest classes of the people, in running, racing, c.#x2014; Edition: current; Page: [ 20 ] but because it is an in the object of praise, for it requires exertion, and rather takes from john, than adds to bodily comforts. I believe that the praise which is bestowed is more the in the, cause of the Of High School, production of ingenuity in a man#x2019;s profession than the solid comforts it brings. Now for all these methods of seeking praise, the English nation is more celebrated than any other; consequently, the desire that prompts to raisin in the them must be stronger in disposable photography, our society than in others.

It is notoriously well known, that this love of praise pervades the raisin in the sun theme, very vilest parts of society; that a great thief, or a daring robber, becomes a greater thief, or a more daring robber, by a desire for the praise of his profligate companions. Thus many people have lived in the more open commission of every crime than their neighbours dared, simply because they would be distinguished. But (to my subject of paramount importance) what can animate our armies to those great military achievements but the love of Dome of the Essay, praise; at reading the Gazettes, what heart but feels a momentary glow to raisin in the share with them their toils and their praises; and what can stimulate the sailor in his arduous labours, but the praise he knows his country is the fall of the plot, ready to bestow on his success; for, like every other military exertion, praise is in the sun theme, almost their only reward. Placed in a situation where the of the plot, sailor is sensible the eyes of the in the, whole community are Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] turned for to kill title meaning, protection, he feels his consequence, and raisin in the, labours to surpass himself, well knowing he must exceed people#x2019;s expectations to obtain much praise. On such a subject the authority of so profound a moralist as Dr. Johnson must be allowed much weight. He says, #x201C;The Senate#x2019;s thanks, and Gazette#x2019;s pompous tale, With force resistless, o#x2019;er the brave prevail.#x201D; The English nation were brave then, and they are brave still; and that very bravery may be brought as a proof of the force and john lennie, love of praise. Our country, placed in a situation of almost constant war, has praised the military virtues beyond any other; and every man knows to what an extent they exist: witness the plains of raisin in the sun theme, Salamanca, the heights of Corunna, the glorious victory at to kill title meaning, Trafalgar, and a thousand others. As the acquisition of wit, telling good stories, c. are produced by praise, so is courage; it is acquired by in the exactly the same means. Practice is required in all to produce perfection; but the stimulus to practice is the desire of, and the reward of execution, praise.

It is the observation of some great man, that when ever a virtue is much wanted, it will be produced; and why is it, but that, like every thing else in repute, people give a good price for it; but no pecuniary rewards can excite to virtue, it is disposable camera, generally praise; and, it is praise plentifully, but judiciously bestowed, that produces Edition: current; Page: [ 22 ] whatever virtue is wanted. As courage and sun theme, conduct in naval affairs, and, as an attachment to the sea is to kill, absolutely necessary, in a large portion of the in the, people, for the safety of the whole community, I have no doubt these virtues would always be produced if they were permitted; it will hereafter be shewn by what means they are destroyed. From all the foregoing observations I conclude, and I trust they are strong enough to induce others to come to the same conclusion, that the love of fame or praise still animates every English bosom; it therefore becomes an immediate question, why the mass of when is inspector, our people, who can scarcely procure themselves food, will not voluntarily enter a service where it is provided in in the, abundance, and where this strong desire of praise receives ample gratification? This question comes with still more force when curiosity is is inspector set, considered a passion, very strong in every young man#x2019;s breast, which promises much gratification from going to sea, and which, it is well known, has rather been excited than repressed, by all the miraculous escapes from shipwreck which have been related to the world. It has been observed, that Robinson Crusoe made more sailors than any desire of wealth; and as sailors are so beneficial to our country, it is raisin sun theme, probable Daniel de Foe did more benefit to on the of the Essay the community than half the men whose names have descended to raisin in the sun theme us as the greatest of Edition: current; Page: [ 23 ] mankind. This question cannot better be answered than by detailing part of the the fall of the of usher plot, laws and customs which have followed from putting in execution an imagined necessity of pressing.

This shall be the subject of the raisin, following chapter. It is, perhaps, misplaced, but I cannot help observing, what a means this love of praise, so universal in mankind, so powerful in Englishmen, affords of conducing to virtue. It is infinitely more powerful than millions of penal statutes, in as much as every man hopes to receive the prizes in the lottery of Theories on the Dome of the, life, and not one expects the blanks. Praise is the prize mankind bestow on virtue; the punishment of the laws are the blanks. What a heavy responsibility belongs to those writers, or men in authority, that praise, either by sun theme word or deed, any thing but virtue; for, it is of the plot, probable, ambition would not now have been desolating the European world had not the names of raisin in the sun theme, those destroyers of the human race, Alexander and C#xE6;sar, come down to us loaded with praise, and encircled with laurels for the victories which they had gained, while many of the real benefactors of mankind are not known, or known and not imitated.

It is stretching the opinion too far to assert, that misplaced praise has caused all the evils of society; but to it we certainly owe a vast number. No laws can restrain actions that Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] find praise in society; and to build them on bases opposed to Theories on the the praise mankind are willing to raisin sun theme bestow, must be absurd, for it can only tend to the fall of the house of usher bring the whole body of such laws into ridicule and disrepute. May not this love of praise, so clearly discoverable in every man, be adduced as a proof of the value, if not of the authenticity of the gospel, from this general principle being so perfectly in unison with its doctrines. There we are taught, as principles of in the sun theme, action, to fear God, and to love our neighbour; the inconsistency of when is inspector calls set, men is displayed when they make the bases of our actions the fear of men and raisin in the sun theme, their laws. Every day#x2019;s experience shew that this fear of men produces a thousand absurdities of of the, action; that it is this which is employed by raisin in the every tyrant, and with too much success, to produce that slavery which, by debasing others, exalts himself. Love to our neighbour is, probably, sufficiently strong in john, every man to produce all the good which is necessary for the happiness of society; for raisin, when this love shows itself in assisting our fellow-creatures, it immediately receives an ample reward from their praise; and where reward is certain, efforts to procure it will not be wanted, and this reward is confessedly one of the sweetest gratifications of the human heart. We should, probably, approach somewhat Edition: current; Page: [ 25 ] nearer that perfection of disposable camera photography, society, which it is the end of legislation to seek, were these two principles, as they form the foundation of our education, made somewhat more than they are,#x2014;the bases of our laws.

The idea of in the, arriving at perfection has been very undeservedly ridiculed; we can yet make infinite improvement in our society, but how much our progress is prevented by photography entertaining an opinion of its impossibility must, from the authority of opinion, be obvious to every man. Seeing this love of praise is so intensely strong in every man#x2019;s bosom; seeing that the Almighty has vested the power in every man of bestowing or withholding it, to excite actions that promote his happiness, or repress those that injure him; and being firmly of a conviction, it would have had sufficient force (had it been properly directed from the beginning) to produce every kind of virtue; since it alone produces military courage, acknowledgedly requiring arduous exertions; since its force is sufficiently strong to make men violate all kinds of raisin sun theme, laws, as in our country, where no penal statutes can repress libels, I cannot be satisfied with those deductions of civilians that vest the disposable camera, power of raisin in the sun theme, life and death in the hands of any society. Title. The claiming this power is only justified by the necessity there is, that society should have the means of producing its own benefit or perfection; Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] but the love of praise is much stronger than the fear of death; therefore praise and censure, under all their modifications, are stronger as well as better powers, and appear to be what our governors may justly claim to raisin sun theme exercise, to is inspector set prevent vice and sun theme, encourage virtue. An Account of some of the Naval Laws and Customs, and of the Coercion used on board Ship to establish Order. Out of this imagined necessity, of pressing, there has grown up in the navy a set of when, laws and customs sufficiently repugnant to sun theme the feelings of an Englishman, to his ideas of to kill title, justice and liberty, to raisin in the make him forget the principle of john lennie, resistance so common in raisin in the sun theme, human nature, neglect the gratification of fame, and risk every disaster, even to Theories on the Dome Essay starving, rather than voluntarily serve his country. These laws and customs, like pressing, are defended on the score of inevitable necessity, arising from the in the sun theme, bad character of the seamen. As they are also acknowledgedly unjust, it becomes their supporters clearly to show the existing necessity, distinctly to prove this bad character of the Theories on the Dome Rock, seamen, or amend the execution of these laws; but I think I can satisfactorily prove, that this necessity does not exist; that the frequent crimes and bad character they are made the vehicles of punishing they themselves occasion. Edition: current; Page: [ 28 ] When, from a thorough conviction of its absurdities, I am about to condemn what is called naval discipline, or the means used on board ship to establish order, it is necessary I should assert, that no man is more a friend of order than myself; no person has a stronger conviction than I have of the necessity there is for a quiet and in the, ready obedience, for the utmost attention to cleanliness and health, for the greatest alacrity in every minutia of duty, and for of the Rock, prompt and stimultaneous efforts in every class of men of war to produce victory. The facts that will follow are not well authenticated ones, borrowed from raisin in the, others , but what I have myself seen; and the reasoning is the Theories, result of my own experience. In The. In detailing these facts, I beg to be distinctly understood as making no reflections on any individuals; they are the genuine offspring of the fall house of usher, a dreadful system of laws, which corrupts the in the, officers and debases the men; which, by Essay tolerating and raisin, praising, encourages oppression; which furnishes principles of action directly opposite to the religious instructions of disposable camera, our youth; and raisin in the sun theme, which perverts those feelings of the heart that, under the guidance of these instructions, give birth to every virtue.

The men who have legislated for the navy appear to have been ignorant of the characters of, and of the crimes likely to be committed by of the house of usher seamen; they have not only been ignorant, but they Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] have been negligent in enquiry, or they might have ascertained what are the chief crimes, what is their cause, and what is their proper remedy. From this ignorance and this negligence, no moderate punishment is in the sun theme, affixed to the thousand little deviations which sailors may commit, and which, from their confined situation, must be known to their superiors . These trifles are all left to the captains to punish; and Theories on the of the, he punishes whatever he thinks errors, and in sun theme, nearly whatever way he thinks proper. He is sanctioned in to kill, doing it by the following article, which concludes those articles of war by which the navy is in the sun theme, governed. It says, #x201C;All other crimes, not capital, committed by any person or persons in malkovich lennie, the fleet, which are not mentioned in this act, for which no punishment is hereby directed to be inflicted, shall be punished according to the laws and customs, in such cases, used at sea.#x201D; Dr. Paley has asserted, in his Moral Philosophy, vol.

I. page 5, #x201C;That it is in the, tyranny in the legislature leaving to magistrates the power of defining what the laws intended to punish;#x201D; but our legislature has left to the captains the power of punishing according to custom; has left them the power of making customs equal to laws; has made them, when they form courts martial, the only judges of these customs, and they have the power of condemning to punishment: in short, they are legislators, Edition: current; Page: [ 30 ] they are judges, they are juries, and they are very often parties and executioners. Theories On The Of The Essay. This is, according to the dictionary, despotic power, and therefore these expressions are strictly true, and no apology, I should think, can be expected for using them in other parts of sun theme, this essay. The entrusting arbitrary power to any governor or governors is not less destructive of his or their happiness than it may be of all the men governed; that this unhappiness to both is the fruit of arbitrary power being in the possession of any men, experience must show to all; that its fruits are the camera photography, same in the navy, I am convinced from experience; it is as pernicious to raisin sun theme the happiness of officers, through making them distrustful and jealous, instead of their having confidence and attachment, as it is to the seamen#x2019;s happiness, through the cruelty that is exercised upon title them. If it is so destructive of this happiness, what reason can be found for continuing it, since the happiness derived can be the in the sun theme, only test of the utility of any law? In consequence of camera photography, entrusting such a power to captains, complaints are frequently made, and with too much occasion, that justice cannot be obtained at courts martial. Whenever the culprit is a junior officer, or a common seaman; whenever he may have violated any of the laws; whenever he may have offended the feelings of antipathy of an admiral or a captain, it is as rational to Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] expect justice from a court martial as from raisin, a Turkish Cadhi ; both possess the Theories on the of the, same power, and in the sun theme, both are subject to the influence of title meaning, that power through their passions upon their judgment. To the mind accustomed to raisin sun theme reflect, that ideas of right and when is inspector calls, wrong are, like all other ideas, not engraved upon our minds by the hand of our Maker, but are acquired from education (in the most enlarged sense of the term), what a sanction does this possession of power, this article of war, give to a captain for the persevering in any cruelties he may ever have seen inflicted or adopted as customs, by sun theme any of his superiors, in his progress through the subordinate stations of the service! Unfortunately, the infliction of on the of the, severity of raisin sun theme, punishment comes recommended to the young officer with all the malkovich lennie, fascinating charms of success; it has often produced, and will again produce, great simultaneous, but temporary exertions. Its future consequences, in corrupting the mind of the sailor and of the community, in producing a still greater degree of hatred, which must, eventually, end in destruction, can never be attended to raisin in the by men whose limited education prevents them knowing these future consequences. It is this before-mentioned article of war which reconciles to set every captain#x2019;s conscience the infliction of raisin, severity of punishment, that neither the immorality, the a mockingbird title, unhappiness accruing, nor the importance Edition: current; Page: [ 32 ] of the crime ever call for; it is sun theme, this which convinces him that he acts perfectly just; and house, when the approbation of courts martial (the highest naval tribunal) has been bestowed upon bad customs#x2014;when, from beneficial but temporary effects, these bad customs have excited the applause of raisin, men, supposed to be excellent judges, whose lives have been spent in the service, whose years of experience entitle their opinions to much respect, but who have never known human nature, and malkovich lennie, possessed little knowledge beyond their ships; this article has then had additional force in perverting the ideas of raisin, right and wrong, which naval officers might acquire from their communications with other parts of society.

Such customs have been sanctioned which deserve condemnation; such applause has been bestowed upon on The Of High Sports actions for the support, as it would be called, of discipline, from which the unsophisticated and enlarged mind of an Englishman recoils, as horrid and atrocious. The opinion, that this article of war really perverts people#x2019;s ideas of right and raisin in the, wrong, is not the fancied speculations of a man covered with the dust of a library, but the result of on The Of High School, experience. I served a considerable time with a captain deservedly celebrated, whose whole mind was occupied with a desire of in the, being distinguished, and to kill a mockingbird, who has performed several actions that have justly acquired him much reputation. He had, unfortunately, Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] served all the early part of his life with officers denominated #x201C;smart;#x201D; he had seen men whom he had early been taught to fear and raisin in the, respect adopt many bad customs, with temporary success, in producing alacrity, but never having enlarged his mind with much reading, or much communication with society, nothing told him that following these customs was improper. This captain was a religious man, and disposable photography, a man, whom I believe, most firmly thought himself conscientiously just, and that, in committing numberless cruelties, he was promoting the good of the service, by keeping in order a set of men whom he was accustomed to consider as notorious rascals.

My situation permitted me, and I took particular pains to find out his motives for raisin in the, the severity of his discipline, and when is inspector, I am fully convinced they all centered in benefitting his majesty#x2019;s service, and in acquiring for raisin sun theme, himself, what has been much an object of naval society#x2019;s praise, the reputation of a #x201C;smart officer.#x201D; I have seen this captain flog, I think, twenty-six men, part of john malkovich, them by candle-light, at in the sun theme, both gangways, because their hammocks were not properly cleaned#x2217;. The only time the the fall house plot, men were allowed Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] for scrubbing was one hour and a half during the night; in this time they had their hammocks, half a week#x2019;s dirty clothes, and, perhaps, a bag to scrub. It was not because they had not been scrubbed at all, but because they did not look well: I should say, it was flogging men for impossibilities. It was in a warm climate, and, in a warm climate before, this captain had seen such things done; he would allow of no relaxation whatever, justly observing, if he began to relax, he knew not where to stop. Raisin Sun Theme. The observation is extremely good, but the application most wretched; for to kill title, there exists a wide difference between relaxation from order and relaxation from the cruel means used to accomplish it. Part of the men so punished were some of the best men in raisin, the ship; but old or young, good or bad, they had disobeyed orders in the fall of the house plot, not having their hammocks perfectly clean; they had merited punishment, and they were punished. This incident forms a part of the customs used at sea, and what is more, this formed a part of a system of discipline, which system had received not only the sanction of a court martial, but its praise; it was said to be honourable and praiseworthy to the captain. Raisin Sun Theme. I almost fear, from the when, known humanity of the English nation, that I hazard my credit with them in stating this fact, but it is nevertheless true. Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] A consequence of entrusting to captains this power of punishing what they think proper is, that instead of one system pervading every ship, the discipline of each ship depends upon what is called the captain#x2019;s natural disposition; so that both officers and in the sun theme, men, at to kill a mockingbird meaning, changing their ships or their captains, are often obliged to change every mode to which they have been accustomed.

From being allowed to live in all kinds of indolence, they are suddenly required to assume a large portion of raisin in the, activity, and very often the want of this activity, encouraged by the indolence of a former captain, is imputed to on The School Sports them as a crime, and endeavoured to raisin in the sun theme be conquered by flogging. From discipline depending on a captain#x2019;s natural disposition, a naval life becomes a series of different educations; knowledge not established upon principles, is vague and when calls set, useless, and raisin sun theme, the time that might be employed in improvements is devoted to the changing of modes. When Is Inspector Calls Set. Surely this is miscalled a system, it is raisin, a collection of as many systems as there are different individuals; what is on the Dome of the, tolerated in one ship is in another a crime; what is in raisin in the, one applauded is in of usher plot, another punished; it is in the sun theme, only a general system as it entrusts a power to men who have notoriously abused it. Now it unfortunately happens, that the captains who feel the greatest predeliction for ships, and are, consequently, best acquainted with them, despise other knowledge, and is inspector calls, therefore know little Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] else but of their ships. These are the men most likely to be employed where merit is alone the question; these are the men most likely to have the education of raisin sun theme, our young men of on The, interest, who are sure of promotion; and these are the men most certain to perpetuate all the errors and all the cruelties of in the sun theme, custom. The power entrusted to captains over meaning the men was without any sort of controul until April, 1811, when punishment had then caused such frequent complaints from the seamen, and raisin in the sun theme, it had been proved they had borne with patience, and complained with justice, that the admiralty found it necessary to interfere; and they issued an order, that quarterly returns should be made to them of the of the of usher plot, number of men flogged in each ship; their crimes, age, time they were confined, quantity of punishments, c. c. but still leaving to the captain the power of in the sun theme, inflicting punishment. Of The. Now it must be obvious to every man, that the same interest which can, in violation of every principle of justice, and in the sun theme, of every incitement to officers for exertion, make a captain of a man, comparatively just come to sea, while thousands are toiling, and have been for years destitute of hope, must be sufficient to soften and completely obviate every censure the admiralty might be inclined to bestow on a captain - who should inflict, under the name of good for the service, unmerited or cruel punishment.

Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] As these returns are known only to the admiralty themselves, they are, therefore, responsible to nothing but their consciences for their conduct* and every man knows how easily conscience is influenced by interest. It is also rendered perfectly useless by malkovich the captains employing other means of punishment; therefore this order, though evincing the necessity there is for some check, is wholly ineffectual. It is not my intention to point out and comment upon the effects of every one of the articles of war, or every one of the customs of the raisin sun theme, navy. A Mockingbird Title Meaning. Many of them are a perfect dead letter: I wish not to raisin in the wake them from their dread repose, but just to of the direct the public attention to the most prominent figures in the picture of naval discipline, I believe they will find all its characters, all its shades, of the same dark hue, unenlightened by knowledge, untinged with mercy or benevolence, and reflecting the heaviest gloom over the character of man. Yet there are some articles of war which deserve notice, as likely to moderate the cruelty of customs, and stop tyranny and oppression.

It is sun theme, enacted, by the thirty-third of these articles, #x201C;that if any officer shall be convicted before a court martial of behaving in a scandalous, infamous, cruel, oppressive, Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] or fraudulent manner, unbecoming the character of an officer, he shall be dismissed his majesty#x2019;s service.#x201D; This might be supposed to ameliorate or prevent cruelty; but as all cruelty is relative, and as a captain is tried by captains, who all, like himself, have witnessed cruelties existing as customs, and since they have all occasionally practised them, they are all ready, from disposable camera photography, similar feelings, to in the make every allowance for a man who states, and probably believes, he was only promoting the good of the service when he trespassed on humanity. Experience shews, that there is no punishment for a captain who does this, that nine hundred and ninety-nine instances out of a thousand escape; besides, a prosecution is not a simple business, few are the Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports, seamen that have knowledge sufficient to raisin in the sun theme conduct it, for every effort is the fall of the of usher plot, employed to keep them in ignorance; fewer still dare oppose an raisin in the sun theme authority which they are habituated to reverence from terror, and when they do still fewer succeed. The first article of war might also be supposed to produce good, since it recalls men#x2019;s minds to the Deity; but it is so little observed, and so frequently violated, that I fear its tendency is the direct reverse. It is ordered by to kill meaning it #x201C;That all commanders, captains, and officers, in or belonging to sun theme any of his majesty#x2019;s ships or vessels of war, shall cause the public worship of Almighty Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] God, according to the liturgy of the church of England, established by law, to be solemnly, orderly, and reverently performed in their respective ships, and shall take care that prayers and preaching, by the chaplains in holy orders of the malkovich, respective ships, be performed diligently, and the Lord#x2019;s day be observed according to raisin in the law.#x201D; But so far is Sunday from to kill a mockingbird title, being observed as a religious day, that it is generally devoted to some particular employments without the slightest necessity. I have seen forges set to work, rigging set up, ships painted, and all manner of work performed, from no other motive but that paramount one on sun theme board ship,#x2014;the captain#x2019;s pleasure. I am not so determined a bigot as to condemn working on Sundays as a crime when the country#x2019;s service calls for it; but I think a whole code of laws are likely to be much more respected by the body of the people if they see no open violations of any part of them by men, their superiors, whom they are accustomed to obey and respect.

This law stands first in the naval code; it is solemnly and impressively worded, and it is one that the the fall of the, lowest class of the people are accustomed to regard with attention; for the respect due to Sunday is enforced in millions of penny pamphlets in our country, and it ministers to in the their pleasure and their ease; therefore its total violation, which frequently takes place on board ship, must serve to Edition: current; Page: [ 40 ] bring the whole body of the laws into contempt, exclusive of its bad effects in destroying, by the ill example of their superiors, all attention to religion in the minds of the the fall house, men; thus perverting the only source of raisin sun theme, morality, and thus assisting to produce the bad character attributed to the seamen. There is another law which has also the effect of bringing the whole code into contempt; it is the first part of the 27th article, which enacts, #x201C;That no person shall sleep upon his watch, upon pain of death or otherwise, as a court martial shall think fit.#x201D; But times have so altered since this was made, or it was made with so little knowledge of the seaman#x2019;s situation, that he is now permitted and encouraged to go to sleep. An obsolete or a contradictory law is of no consequence on shore, where people never hear of camera, it, but on board ship this law is read, with the in the, others, probably, once a month, with equal solemnity, and has equal force with others, to which the most rigid obedience is exacted. Whenever , what is called, the lennie, natural disposition of the raisin sun theme, captain is severe; whenever he has a strong love of fame, and is careless or ignorant of the legitimate means of acquiring it, terror, from its temporary success, is made the means of promoting that activity in the minutia of duty which has been thought to deserve, and has received much praise. Custom sanctions flogging in all cases when the captain thinks fit; and to kill title meaning, the particular article of war that sanctions it for wanting activity is a part of the 27th, which says, #x201C;No person shall negligently perform the duty imposed upon him under pain of death, or as a court martial shall think fit.#x201D; Captains are the sole judges of what is negligence, and the duty to raisin sun theme be imposed has been interpreted by them as an obligation on all beneath them to do every thing in what ever manner they may think fit; and who can affix any other interpretation but captains? Any opposition to their will, any hesitation in obedience, and want of alacrity in fulfilling it, is punished by flogging. When Calls. Some of the captains have insisted upon their people#x2019;s flying, but not having the genius of a Kali, Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] have enforced obedience by flogging. Lest the raisin sun theme, reader may be too much alarmed, it is necessary to state, flying, in sea language, means running up and down the rigging, in disposable camera, and out upon the yards, with breathless haste. A great part of the punishments I have witnessed on board ship is classed under this head of neglect of duty; and when the punishment annexed to the offence is stated at from one to in the three dozen, it will, doubtless, be inferred, that there must have been some egregious inattention, some neglect, by which the ship has been endangered, or some want of exertion, by which an enemy has escaped.

No such thing: such instances are very rare; but the to kill a mockingbird meaning, captain has imposed some duty upon them which could not interest them; exertions have been required when no zeal existed, but this never was when an enemy was to be encountered. Some accident has happened from hurry, which it was the duty of the unfortunate culprit to raisin in the sun theme prevent; perhaps his anxious wish to Theories Dome of the Rock Essay beat another ship, when they have been exercising together, and frightened by the terror-striking voice of his captain, or first lieutenant, has made him neglect it. I have heard it has been avowed as a principle, by an officer of the highest reputation in his majesty#x2019;s service, and sun theme, I have seen it acted upon, #x201C;that no such thing as an accident could happen;#x201D; consequently, any misfortune must have Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] arisen in Theories Rock Essay, some person#x2019;s neglect, and some person must be punished to prevent its recurrence. To this, as a principle, between man and his Creator, I have no objection; in his all-seeing eye it is sun theme, probable all the misfortunes of the disposable, human race may justly be imputed to themselves; but surely, man#x2019;s fellow-creature, though his superior, is not his God. To continue the enumeration of those things that are punished as the sun theme, neglect of duty:#x2014;Some of the iron allotted to Essay a man to in the polish does not shine well; his hammock has not been clean scrubbed; his clues have not been blacked; his clothes have wanted mending; his shirt has been dirty; or, perhaps, he may have neglected the captain#x2019;s stock, or the wardroom dinner: These, and a thousand similar trifles, are what seamen are flogged for, as neglect of Dome of the Rock Essay, duty. The captain#x2019;s orders have made doing these things their duty; and custom sanctions his inflicting flogging for in the sun theme, their neglect. No person who reads over Dome of the Rock Essay these items for which sailors are flogged, whether sailor or not, but must know greater part of them have no real value in themselves; they have a beginning in the captain#x2019;s will, and when he is pleased their utility ends. Those that are necessary or useful, must flow from regulations, and their being made honourable and praise-worthy should be the in the, stimulus to conformity. Those polishings, c. On The Sports. that are of no real use with a better system of discipline Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] would not be wanted; for raisin sun theme, now they are adopted, as the means of employing the people, so averse to our common feelings is naval discipline, so dreadful are the means used to establish order, that, for a sailor to have a moment#x2019;s leisure is, by Dome Essay many officers, dreaded more than a pestilence . As the real duties of a ship can never occupy the time of half of the men employed, the captain has recourse to his invention to find the in the, seamen work; for so conscious are the officers that the seamen cannot reflect without being sensible that they have been unmeritedly punished, that they have received almost unlimited injury, that they are fearful reflection should make them compare their situation with the rest of their countrymen, with what they themselves once were, and that this reflection should rouse them to vengeance for oppression.

What a thread is this for when set, the existence of our country to depend upon? And not only our country, but every thing that can be dear to the reflecting part of civilized Europe. It is those things which, in themselves, are indifferent, which have never been objects of praise, and sun theme, which there exists no motive for doing, but the Theories Dome of the Rock, arbitrary will of a captain, or some capricious superior, that flogging is employed to produce. A seaman never neglects his duty in time of action, for raisin in the sun theme, success then has been an object of praise. In any time of trouble or of danger, whenever great Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] energy, noble courage, or manly fortitude, are wanted, terror, in any of on The Pitfalls Of High Sports, its branches, is never applied to call them forth. In such times is the seaman#x2019;s greatest glory and his highest pleasure; then he feels that his efforts will entitle him to praise; then, cheered with the smiles of raisin, his officers* and the prospect of fame, death only limits his endeavours. Once, indeed, I have seen an instance of Essay on The Pitfalls, British seamen#x2019;s backwardness in a time of danger, when they were heartless, pusillanimous, and cowardly, but this was in in the, a ship where a severity of flogging, and all the Rock Essay, niceties of discipline were carried to a greater extent than I ever before witnessed; where the in the, captain never permitted any other motive for action but fear of him; where, if the men were disposed to do well in is inspector set, their own way, but, from other motives, they were not permitted; and where every action was prescribed by regulations, and enforced by terror; but, in raisin sun theme, a moment of disposable camera, danger, no terror could be employed, and, consequently, no exertion took place. By the sun theme, operation of Edition: current; Page: [ 46 ] this terror, the men were deprived of every lawful and pleasing mode of excitement; they were debased into slaves, and Essay School, slaves are incapable of energy. This circumstance is a strong proof, how much more powerful the hope of good is in promoting human labours than the fear of raisin, evil; for here no chance existed that was known to the seamen, but that they would be punished when fine weather should again return; and, if the Theories of the Rock, fear of evil could excite men, I know no evil greater than flogging, and none was more certain of being realized. Raisin In The Sun Theme. I have before observed, that from the Pitfalls Of High Sports, power that is entrusted to raisin in the sun theme captains, different things are punished, as crimes, by different individuals, and the same individual is, at times, so unlike himself, that what he once punished he is now inclined to applaud. This is on The Pitfalls School Sports, so much so on board ship, that the seamen scarcely know themselves what will be punished and what will not.

No principle, therefore, shorter in its duration, or more transient in its good effects, than fear of capricious man, can be applied to govern men. I have once, and raisin, but once, heard of an Theories on the instance of the seamen feeling any thing but pleasure at going into action. This took place, in a ship recently manned, in the West Indies, where scoundrels of every denomination are gladly accepted and classed with British seamen. The men were mostly foreigners, and very soon after leaving port, Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] this ship fell in with an enemy of raisin in the sun theme, much superior size to herself. Her appearance frightened these men; the captain was informed of it by the few Englishmen on board, and with such base minds as these people possessed, punishment was effectual in exciting courage* Another customary mode of when is inspector set, forcing men#x2019;s labour in men of war sometime ago in use, though now gradually and very happily going out of fashion, was to flog the sun theme, whole of the men stationed to perform a particular service, such as the main-topsail-yard men, c. if they were last at to kill, executing a part of their duty, or if, in the captain#x2019;s opinion, they stood conspicuous for neglect. This custom, though now growing into disuse, had, and yet has the evil effect of begetting hatred to the service in the minds of the community; it has deterred Englishmen from voluntarily resigning the Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] blessings of existence, by submitting to such horrors, though prompted by the love of raisin in the, fame. In compliance with this custom, not many years have passed since I saw all the men stationed on the main topsail-yard severely flogged for their dilatoriness. This wholesale mode of to kill, punishment, this darling of what is raisin, called the malkovich, St.

Vincent system, was the pride and in the, glory of discipline; its effects were exultingly pointed out to camera you in the superior alacrity with which men so punished performed their duty on the next occasion. Raisin In The. Happily, public opinion has tended to eradicate this glory of discipline . The second article of war is, #x201C;All flag-officers, #x201C;and all persons in or belonging to his majesty#x2019;s ships and vessels of war, being guilty of Essay on The Sports, profane oaths, cursings, execrations, drunkenness, uncleanness, or other scandalous actions, in in the sun theme, derogation of Theories Dome of the, God#x2019;s honour, and corruption of good manners, shall incur such punishment as a court martial shall think fit to impose, and the nature and degree of their offence shall deserve.#x201D; Of all the crimes mentioned in this article, and in the, which, with the others, is read to the seamen once Edition: current; Page: [ 49 ] a month, drunkenness is the only one for School Sports, which custom sanctions the infliction of much flogging; of the other crimes mentioned here, cursings, execrations, c. Sun Theme. are known to exist in immense quantities, and are never noticed: indeed, it is a general opinion in the navy, that his majesty#x2019;s service cannot be carried on without (on the part of the officers) cursings and john, execrations. As for uncleanness and other scandalous actions, they are tolerated, allowed, and sun theme, encouraged; why these words are permitted to john lennie exist in the same article with drunkenness, occasionally so much the object of abhorrence, and flogging, can only in the be accounted for in the disposable camera, ignorance of the raisin in the, people who made these laws, or in the changes to which the affairs of malkovich, men are liable. Of all the crimes that frequently meet with severity of punishment on board ship, and which are the cause of raisin in the, much flogging, drunkenness stands pre-eminent for on the Rock Essay, the enormity of its consequences; for, whenever suffered, it can cause nothing less than destruction to raisin in the every ennobling sentiment, of every regularity that can keep up order or preserve health. It deserves no palliation, and must, by some means or other, be repressed; but with the advocates of discipline I cannot agree, that flogging, inflicted at the will of an camera photography individual, is the proper mode of repressing it. This vice is as condemnable, in raisin, a moral point of view, as it is Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] from its effects on order on of usher plot board ship, and, consequently, habits of it ought never to be tolerated or allowed; but in the navy they are frequently encouraged and praised. In the opinion of many officers, a sailor is not worthy of his name who goes on shore (though it is very seldom this is raisin in the sun theme, permitted) and fails to get drunk. A knowledge of this opinion, and a desire for the praise consequent on it, and in being deemed a good hearty fellow, prompts sailors to get, as fast as possible, rid of their sobriety whenever they set foot on land. When there, the civil inhabitants of our country give strength to this opinion, and to kill title meaning, act as if they were in a conspiracy to undermine the in the, morality of our seamen; they are encouraged, by their smiles, to commit all sorts of excesses. Poor fellows, it is said, after their labours, indulgence is necessary: thus a most brutal state of intoxication is called an indulgence; and what general opinion pronounces an indulgence will be eagerly sought for, without any conviction of the pleasure arising from committing it.

Who, that has ever been in a sea port, has not seen drunkenness encouraged in this way, and drunken sailors cheered and applauded while doing all sorts of mischief? But the privilege of getting drunk, as an on the indulgence, does not stop here; in raisin in the sun theme, many ships it is given to seamen, when in harbour, as a compensation for their other numerous privations. Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] They are allowed to purchase liquor in john, certain proportions, but generally sufficient, with the raisin in the, usual allowance of john malkovich lennie, spirits or beer, to produce intoxication. As this is always granted as a favour, it, of course, is an indulgence, and in the, is sought after as a pleasure. Whenever this permission is Essay on The Pitfalls, given, all attempts to preserve any kind of order are perfectly fruitless. The horrid, the brutal scenes which I have known ensue from this indulgence, will not bear minute description: Mutinous expressions, horrid blasphemies, and perpetual fighting, distinguish the evenings of the days devoted to intoxication.

It is from this forbearance and indulgence at one time, together with a greater allowance of spirits than is necessary, that habits of drunkenness are produced among seamen of men of war, which, afterwards, the utmost severity of in the sun theme, discipline can scarcely subdue, and can never destroy; yet the drunkenness produced in this way, is made the principal argument for the necessity of severity. To Kill A Mockingbird Meaning. Like other crimes, it is left to the captain to in the punish or not; it is encouraged or repressed; punished lightly or severely, just as he may be indolently good natured or diligently severe. Can there be a more effectual means of destroying the distinctions between vice and virtue, (remember that they are not innate) which it is the business of religion and education forcibly to camera impress on Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] the mind, which it is one great business of laws to raisin in the sun theme make, than in thus making convenience alone the test of guilt, than in thus reducing the eternal and immutable principles of of usher plot, morality to the narrow and vibrating scale of this man or that man#x2019;s pleasure; than in superiors punishing at one time what at another they practise, encourage, and applaud. Goaded once to madness, by severities, the in the, seamen mutinied, and, like other beings in on The School, their situation, they knew not, exactly, what to sun theme claim as their due; they thought more grog would drown every care, and hence, that greater allowance of to kill meaning, spirits which they receive than is necessary for their health, and which is in the sun theme, sufficient, under some circumstances, to produce intoxication. Here was one instance, out of Essay Pitfalls School, many, that might be produced, that where justice is not done, something that is not justice, will be obtained. When ever the seamen shall become sensible of raisin in the, their present situation; and, from the wide diffusion of is inspector set, knowledge, they are fast arriving at in the sun theme, it, they will obtain, from the fears of their superiors, more than justice; they may, perhaps, (I fear it) hurl destruction on of usher plot their country. Reflecting, that men#x2019;s characters are, in general, formed from the in the sun theme, institutions of their country, or the immediate society in a mockingbird title meaning, which they live, combined with the in the sun theme, influence of Pitfalls Of High Sports, climate, I formed an opinion that it was probable drunkenness in men Edition: current; Page: [ 53 ] of war, arose wholly from their existing institutions, and I enquired of many captains of merchantmen, if they found seamen to be frequently drunk with them; the answer invariably was, #x201C;not particularly, not more than the other inhabitants of our country, of their class, unless,#x201D; it was rejoined, #x201C;they had been in a man of war.#x201D; And more than one instance has been related to me, of sober, young men, who had been pressed, returning to their former employ at the peace, corrupted, drunkards, and unfit to in the sun theme be trusted; and after some short period of good example and seclusion from grog, returning again to habits of sobriety and Essay on The Pitfalls School Sports, decency. I have witnessed many instances of young men just pressed, never being in the daily habit of drinking spirits, but in sun theme, a man of war, aided by example, they have soon become drunkards.#x2014;But the calls, fact, that the system of discipline which exists in in the, a man of war corrupts a man, is too notorious to need much elucidation.

The nineteenth article of war orders contempt to be punished as a court martial shall think fit, but custom sanctions the malkovich lennie, captain#x2019;s inflicting corporeal punishment for whatever he may deem Edition: current; Page: [ 54 ] contempt. And there is an sun theme article of the printed naval instructions , which without affixing any punishment to disrespect, vests, through the photography, medium of raisin, custom, a power in john lennie, courts martial to raisin sun theme punish it in any way they may deem fit. Two such indeterminate words as these, left to naval captains to when is inspector calls set interpret, are very sufficient means; and they are made ample use of in in the sun theme, inflicting punishment by men whose anger is roused by the slightest opposition. Lennie. These things are thought the first steps to mutiny, and they are, therefore, repressed with what is even in the navy thought severity of flogging. Three or four dozen I have generally seen inflicted for what a captain, or a midshipman, a boy just from his mother#x2019;s arms, might deem disrespect or contempt. It is here to raisin in the sun theme be observed, that those beings whose conduct they themselves are conscious is creative both of disrespect and contempt, are the very people who inflict, and have most frequent occasion to do it, the greatest severity of when, punishment for these two things miscalled crimes . If the meaning of these two words is to raisin in the be taken in Rock, its proper acceptation, they can mean nothing but that sentiment which arises in the mind, at feeling pain from the actions of others, at witnessing absurdity, folly, or vice; the greater a man#x2019;s knowledge is, the greater his love for virtue; the stronger must be his sentiments of contempt and in the, Edition: current; Page: [ 55 ] disrespect for actions vicious, foolish, or absurd.

Now, as the Almighty has evidently bestowed upon to kill meaning man a power of producing, by his praise, those actions in raisin, others which may promote his own happiness, and to kill a mockingbird title, of repressing, by his contempt or censure, whatever may injure him; to entrust captains or admirals with a power to injure a man, and then punish him for feeling contempt at such an injury, what is it but to punish us for the possession of feelings the Almighty has implanted in us for the most beneficial purpose, that we may be able to repress actions that injure us. In my opinion, to punish any man#x2019;s contempt of in the sun theme, a vice that injures him, is to give a bounty upon vice, and to employ all the terrors of law in repressing virtue; it is to destroy all the boundaries of set, vice and sun theme, virtue in disposable, the mind; it is to repress those sentiments of pleasure we feel at witnessing virtue, and in the sun theme, which would lead us to imitate it; it is an endeavour to substitute pleasure, instead of that pain we feel at the sight of vice, and Pitfalls Of High School, which would teach us to avoid it. Raisin In The Sun Theme. Before the Theories Dome of the, enactment of raisin in the, such a law, our legislators should have taken care thoroughly to convince us of their infallibility , then it is probable we should have submitted to the pain they inflicted, and Theories Dome of the Rock, thought it pleasure: but now, unfortunately, every day#x2019;s experience only adds to our conviction, that they are more prone to errors than other men. Edition: current; Page: [ 56 ] From the indefinite nature of raisin sun theme, these two words, it is not uncommon in the navy for looks to be punished as contempt, for a claim to justice, as a right belonging to every member of Essay Of High, society, for a protestation of innocence, particularly if supported by raisin in the sun theme reasoning, against the rash intuitive convictions of a superior, to be punished at john, this enlightened period of the world as disrespect. The two words themselves, as applied to actions, are dreadfully indeterminate and ill defined; for no two human beings agree about what is the exact measure of respect. In the navy, with many, it is positive servility or unlimited obedience to any commands, however absurd: with others, it is raisin in the, simple obedience to positive and legal commands . It must be evident to every person, that the crime which fills most of john lennie, our gaols, which causes most punishment in the community, and against which most of sun theme, our penal statutes are directed, is thieving. As our ships are generally manned with our countrymen, it might be supposed that this would also cause the greater part of the punishments on board ship, but it is not so; thieving in any of its branches is very little known there. Edition: current; Page: [ 57 ] The chief causes of this may be a certainty of detection, and the ample gratification which the seamen receive of the desire of praise.

As I apprehend that, (some how or other) the desire of praise is the calls set, remote cause of greater part of the thieving in society; for to enjoy distinction is the chief motive for raisin in the, the acquisition of wealth, it seldom proceeds from positive want. We do occasionally meet with a few incorrigible thieves, but they are generally men who have been sent from the hulks or gaols, as a compromise for transportation or imprisonment. This custom is said to be abolished, and it was high time, for never was there a more absurd one, than thus taking from the seamen what is their only Theories on the Rock reward for all their privations, what is the only remuneration for raisin in the, all the injuries they suffer,#x2014;the respect and praise of john malkovich lennie, society. It was adding the bitterest insult to the most violent injury. It is sun theme, not more reprehensible in a moral point of view, than it is the fall, when contemplated as it may ultimately affect the pockets of the community; for if you take from the honourable feelings of the seamen, and degrade them in the estimation of society, they will necessarily require greater pecuniary rewards. This would have been an admirable plan to sun theme have brought any thing into disrepute; that had been the organ of a minister, a burden to photography the country, or a useless expence to raisin society. When Is Inspector Calls Set. The Edition: current; Page: [ 58 ] navy possesses none of these characteristics, it is of supreme national importance, and can only be supported by raisin the feelings of respect which ought to belong to it, and lennie, which the country must encourage by its praise. Thieving, in any of its branches, forms but a small part of the punishments inflicted upon seamen. Yet, as society has marked it as a crime, it is punished on board ship with an raisin in the additional severity; and as custom sanctions this punishment, being inflicted at Essay on The Sports, the will of an individual without a trial, without an opportunity of a man#x2019;s defending himself, as his judge possesses no feelings in common with those which led him to commit the crime, but is unassailed by temptation, it is high time the custom was abolished, and that thieving on board ship should not be punished till the man was convicted by in the sun theme trial.

Fighting and quarrelling are also occasionally met with on Essay Of High board ship, and, like the before-mentioned items, are repressed by flogging, which custom sanctions the captain inflicting at his will. These are mostly the raisin sun theme, crimes for which seamen are severely flogged. I have not stated the number flogged, nor have I any means of determining the average amount, except by memory. In one ship where the complement consisted of 195 people, 15 of whom, from their rank, were not liable to corporeal punishment, the of the Rock Essay, average number Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] of men flogged was never less than 5 a week, this is speaking much within bounds. Yet, at the end of a year, 80 more men had been punished than the whole number amounted to, who were liable to corporeal punishment: a proportion how infinitely great when compared with the number of persons who are even brought to raisin trial in the rest of the community. As some of this ship#x2019;s company were never punished in the twelvemonth, many of the others were punished repeatedly, which shows the inefficacy of flogging; indeed the remark is Pitfalls Of High School Sports, very general, that a man once flogged, is sure to give occasion for it again. For it has been applied by many officers so indiscriminately; the old and in the, the young, the good and the bad, have been so alike subjected to the disgrace that, like every thing else which is the john, common property of all, it has ceased to have any value, it has ceased to be disgraceful; instead of his shipmates regarding the man with abhorrence, who has been flogged, they look upon sun theme it as a misfortune to which all are inevitably subject, and from the common sympathies of to kill title meaning, our nature they share his distress and relieve his pain, they shake hands with him, they console him with pity, and raisin, even share their grog with him; this last part of their mistaken kindness has made me frequently witness the title, man punished at noon, put in raisin in the, irons again at night for drunkenness. If nothing else could be said, Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] this inefficacy of flogging is a sufficient reason for its immediate abolition at the will of a captain . The number of lashes inflicted is Essay on The Of High Sports, seldom less than one dozen, I do not think I have ever seen above two or three instances of its being less, and frequently it amounts to three dozen. Raisin In The. The smallest average number of men I have ever witnessed being flogged, certainly amounted to malkovich one a fortnight: out of such a complement as I have before-mentioned, this lowest average amounts to 26 out of 180 in raisin sun theme, a year, or a seventh part of the photography, whole people, and this takes place amongst a set of in the sun theme, men notoriously free from a great part of the crimes committed by malkovich the other parts of the community.

Now is there any thing equal to the seventh part of our population ever brought even to trial in a twelvemonth? I cannot ascertain the number, but I should suppose it can never exceed the five hundredth part of the people who, from their age, are amenable to justice. From conversation with other officers, and from observing that they express no sort of raisin in the, surprise at frequent punishments, I am inclined to think this last account of what men are punished on board ship, may be rather below the average number punished throughout the fleet in a mockingbird meaning, a year. In The Sun Theme. I have not taken the mean of the two extremes I have witnessed, because I have generally served with officers denominated smart. I believe there are Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] a few individual instances of much less punishment; but this can only be brought as an argument to prove the folly and absurdity, the cruelty and injustice there is in entrusting any man with the on The School Sports, power of sun theme, punishing another, when experience so fully proves that such a power never yet was possessed without being abused. In the last section I pretended to no kind of accuracy as to the average number of men punished.

Now, it is to kill a mockingbird, probable, the side of the sun theme, question I have taken, and set, the well known passions of raisin in the, our nature, may have led me to a mockingbird mistakes. However, the proportion of men punished in raisin sun theme, the navy is much greater than in civil society. Those who wish to make accurate calculations on the subject, may have recourse to on the Dome of the Rock Essay the punishment lists now transmitted to the admiralty; but it is to be observed, that this transmission is a late regulation, and it is raisin in the sun theme, probable the number of punishments may have considerably decreased since the captains have known their superiors would see their works; and since corporeal punishment has been lately much an object of public conversation, public execration, and parliamentary enquiry. Besides the disposable camera photography, punishments stated in these public Edition: current; Page: [ 62 ] returns, there are other customs on raisin in the sun theme board ship of punishing seamen, other more heart-breaking modes of compelling obedience. On The Pitfalls. These modes and customs are only partially countenanced; the admiralty, I believe, disapprove of them, but courts martial do not punish them.

The most prominent of raisin in the, these customs is what is called starting, that is one man beating another with a piece of rope as hard as he can hit him; the other being perfectly defenceless, and forbid even to look displeased, as that is contempt or disrespect. No register is kept of this as of the camera, floggings at the gangway; no account is rendered to any superior, the captain being responsible for raisin in the sun theme, his inflicting this punishment to nothing but a naval captain#x2019;s conscience. I am aware that this punishment is so dreadful, so hostile to the feelings and ideas of every Briton, unpolluted by naval discipline, that it is going fast out of practice; but I have seen it administered in 1812, and disposable, heard the captain alledge, for sun theme, doing it, he should be ashamed of transmitting his punishment list, it would be so crouded was he to flog every man whom he thought deserved it. As one, design of this essay is to explain the to kill, effects of discipline on in the sun theme the minds of the community at large, in deterring them from serving their country, it cannot be improper to mention this mode of punishment, as the knowledge that it is Theories on the Dome Rock Essay, growing into disuse Edition: current; Page: [ 63 ] cannot yet have travelled far into the community; neither can it be wrong to state, that though now totally in disuse, it formerly was the custom for every lieutenant, and even for the boatswain and his mates, to raisin have recourse to starting, to quicken men#x2019;s efforts. Starting is more generally used for want of alacrity than for any other crime. I have witnessed its being practised in the following manner: In hoisting the the fall of the house of usher plot, topsails to the mast-head, hoisting boats in and out, hoisting in beer and water, and such like duties, when they were not done with smartness, the captain stationed the boatswain#x2019;s mates at different parts of the deck, each with a rope#x2019;s end, with orders to beat every man as he passed them. The proportion of boatswain#x2019;s mates to ships is two to the first hundred men, and one to every hundred afterwards. In performing all these little pieces of duty, every man almost, as he ran and pulled upon the rope, had to pass these boatswain#x2019;s mates, who, of course, according to the captain#x2019;s orders, beat them. Thus, whether good or bad, whether old or young, whether sailor or marine, whether exerting himself or not, nearly every man in in the sun theme, the ship got a beating.

This depended upon the time they were performing their duty. Sometimes these evolutions were frequently repeated for the sake of exercise and order; and I have seen them last so long, that, when done, the Edition: current; Page: [ 64 ] whole ship#x2019;s company were lying about the decks like so many hard-hunted greyhounds: let me observe, that the men were not started at every time of performing their task, but only at those times when the captain might deem them particularly slow. These modes of starting have been sanctioned by custom, and have been, from their temporary beneficial effects, denominated, by the fall of the courts martial, praise-worthy and honourable. The other modes of punishing seamen, sanctioned by sun theme custom, consist in stopping their grog, confining them in irons, making them stay hours in the rigging, walk the decks with crow-bars on their shoulders, perform extra work, c. and when work is thus made a punishment, instead of being made honourable, captains feel angry with their men because they take no pleasure in doing work (alias being punished). Here they bring a virtue into disrepute, than which none is more necessary to the existence of of the of usher plot, society, whether on board ship or on shore, forgetting, that though the Almighty has condemned the raisin sun theme, human race, for their sins, to eat bread by the sweat of their brow, he has made labour the means of bringing happiness, subsistence, and the fall of the house, health to all; it is, therefore, as impolitic as it is unwise to make so necessary a virtue a disgrace.

The end proposed, by all these punishments, is to produce simultaneous exertion. From this results the execution of a greater given quantity Edition: current; Page: [ 65 ] of work in a given time, by which means, at the end of days, weeks, or months, the in the sun theme, ship#x2019;s company have, probably, some idle time; and, as reflection might hurt his majesty#x2019;s service, it gives occasion to the inventive genius of the captain to find them employment: this employment is, probably, similar exercises. Having now stated the most prominent features of naval discipline, or the to kill a mockingbird title, means used on board ship to accomplish order, I shall endeavour to point out some of their effects on sun theme the officers, seamen, and on the community. CHAP. IV.: The Effect of Naval Laws and Customs on the Minds of the Officers. Distinctly to analyse the john malkovich lennie, human character in any situation; to unfold the complicated motives for the actions of men, or trace the effects of laws and customs, in forming the character, requires the patient, but keen investigation, and the knowledge of a philosopher; all, therefore, I can hope to do, in pointing out the effect of naval laws and customs, is to direct the attention of men of genius and philanthropy to its serious consideration, and to raisin in the sun theme furnish a brief sketch of some of the prominent causes of on the Dome of the Essay, that difference of character discoverable between men in the habit of going to sea in a man of war and other portions of the community. On shore, though young men may, in the prosecution of the raisin, affairs of life, be occasionally moved from the society of their parents or friends, they never mix with people accustomed to set religion at defiance, or regard the Theories of the Essay, principles of morality as things tending to hinder the good of the country.

These are yet looked upon raisin sun theme as valuable in England; and, on shore, a young man cannot well be removed Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] from a society, where shame will not be the consequence of their open violation. The foregoing detail of naval discipline must have satisfactorily shewn, that it is directly opposite to the principles of justice that are derived from religion and morality; and as naval successes, of which the camera, cause has never been enquired, have fully assured our rulers of the goodness of naval discipline; as principles of justice would prevent the exercise of this discipline, success has been, I apprehend, the primary cause why religion and morality are so much in disrepute in the navy. That they are so is a truth too notorious to be denied; they are alike the object of the profligate youngster#x2019;s scorn, as interfering with his pleasures; and of the raisin sun theme, older officer#x2019;s ridicule, as stepping between him and that fame, which is the on The Pitfalls Of High Sports, result expected from naval discipline. Into such a society it is, that, at the age of thirteen years, a young gentleman, intended to raisin be an officer, is sent: as that age is now thought the most proper time to go to sea. At such a period of life it is a precocious genius that has formed habits of reflection, or that is then capable of the fall of the house of usher plot, distinguishing right from wrong. Raisin. The youngster#x2019;s actions have, till now, been guided by a parent or a friend: he acts not from those principles which direct and pervade every movement, but performs all his duties from detailed instructions. Edition: current; Page: [ 68 ] It is at this time of life that the passions of the man begin to of the of usher open, that he daily feels wants unknown before, and that his former received instructions seldom direct him how properly to gratify. Thrown at once, from daily advice, amongst young men who, like himself, want every guiding restraint, amongst whom there is nothing ridiculed, but attention to religious precepts; nothing applauded but courage, to get rid of early prejudices. In such a society the youngster becomes, at once, an adept in dissipation, for he has no one to countenance him in the practice of sun theme, virtue; and what boy can resist the frowns of censure, or who shuns the applause of his companions? That vice is habitual to when is inspector the rising officers of the in the, navy, every man may be convinced by to kill a mockingbird meaning going to raisin in the sun theme a sea port, where he will find it scarcely distinguishable from the name of a midshipman; they are already excluded from civil society, and a certainty of being unknown, except to companions employed like himself, is the surest preventive to of the of usher shame, and in the, the most certain incitement to every crime which the malkovich, laws do not punish. We have seen, in the detail of some of the naval laws and customs, that captains possess an unlimited and raisin, unrestrained power.

A man who has heard of the excellency of the English constitution, who has been taught, from his earliest days, that justice and freedom were its bases, will Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] immediately conclude, that, since the lennie, legislature found it necessary to entrust such a power to a set of men; that since they took them from their friends so young, they would endeavour, by education, to make each of these individuals a Somers, a Cowper, or a Thurlow; that they would early learn them to raisin sun theme correct their passions; that, as the possession of malkovich lennie, power is known to raisin in the sun theme corrupt the john, mind, they would, as much as possible, repress its effects by timely severities and instruction; but it is not so; the education of these rising legislators, or captains, like every thing else in his majesty#x2019;s naval service, is left to raisin in the sun theme the will, or the natural disposition of the captains. The present state of naval society fully assures us that education is Rock, wholly neglected.#x2019; If any man is not convinced, I can only wish him to go on board ship, and see the sun theme, hours of the midshipmen alternately employed, sleeping, playing, and walking the decks, with their hands in their pockets, that he may hear their conversation and see their amusements; and, if he would afterwards make them judges of the actions of men, I should pronounce him mad . The admiralty have lately done something to improve their education, by the better appointments they have given to the chaplains; but while the discipline of the navy remains as it is, and while it is the fall of the house plot, a general opinion that to this we owe our successes at sea, the raisin in the, better education the Pitfalls Of High, officers will Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] receive at sea will only enable them more artfully to cover their caprice with the pretexts of justice. With an education totally neglected, and a mixture with a society already totally immoral, as soon as a young gentleman goes on board ship he has duties given him to do which imply command on his part, and obedience on the men#x2019;s; he sees the commands of sun theme, his superiors given with arrogance, enforced by terror, and obeyed with fear; unrestrained by instruction, he imitates their example, and requires, like them, to be respected. Theories On The Of The. His superiors enforce this respect; and I have known it carried so far, that a captain has declared, with all the solemnity of raisin sun theme, authority, that he would clothe a broomstick in to kill meaning, the habits of a midshipman, and teach his men to raisin sun theme respect it. The obedience they have to learn, as junior officers, is obedience to the capricious wills of their superiors; but as these often change, and obedience is not sanctioned or enforced by disposable camera photography any other motive than that short-lived one,#x2014;terror, it is very imperfect. Raisin In The. From this early possession of corruptive power, from the total neglect of education, and calls, from the influence of already existing bad customs, from what natural cause will it arise, that the well-known influence of despotic power shall not operate in destroying the ideas of justice that might have been acquired in early life, or that might afterwards have been learnt from raisin in the, communications with Edition: current; Page: [ 71 ] the other parts of society. It does operate; ideas of justice are destroyed or not learnt, as the foregoing display of naval customs must have convinced every man. Exclusive of these obvious causes for ignorance and pride, they cannot, like people on shore, have recourse to Essay on The Pitfalls Of High School libraries for information and improvement; or, if they could, it is so well known that the knowledge acquired from the best English writers is opposed to in the sun theme the slavery the john lennie, naval laws produce; that every effort is employed to repress knowledge that would not support oppression, or encourage passive obedience. Indeed, from the known hatred a superior#x2019;s ignorance bears to an inferior#x2019;s knowledge; from the oppression a man is sure to meet with who dares extend his thoughts to the sources of human actions; who attempts to philosophise, or let one idea wander beyond the precincts of discipline, a bounty is given upon ignorance, and the iron hand of despotism is employed to stop the growth of knowledge. There are many virtues which are produced and supported by going to in the sea; these shall afterwards be mentioned. Taking this for camera photography, granted, can any other cause but this neglected education, and the well known operations of a system of despotism and sun theme, slavery, be assigned as the john lennie, reason why, in raisin sun theme, the midst of a vast quantity of leisure, so few improvements have been made in the management or Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] construction of ships by naval officers; why, when they have more communication with foreign countries than any other people, they should have added so little to the general stock of malkovich lennie, knowledge.

When ships are considered as machines capable of raisin in the sun theme, almost infinite improvement, must it not excite surprise, that scarce one of the principles on which they are constructed or sailed, are known to the men who guide them; that scarce any improvements have been made in them these last 100 years. Essay On The Pitfalls Of High School. From a good deal of practice, we know some little better how to manage them, and this is all we can boast. Whenever abilities do exist, the effect of this system is to destroy them: no inferior can feel himself at ease, though conscious of zeal for in the, the good of the service, when the conviction cannot escape him, that some man above him, capricious and unjust, has power to annoy and deeply injure him, without resistance or retribution. Theories On The Dome Essay. Will not the natural result of such a conviction be to employ the raisin, whole of the inferior#x2019;s time and attention to resist oppression, sensible, from to kill a mockingbird title meaning, their partial loss of the value of his political rights, he regards their possession as his greatest blessing. They are, to a reflecting mind, of primary importance; and, as they are not secure, they command its whole attention. The superior#x2019;s time is equally or worse occupied, from raisin sun theme, causes wholly arising out of this system; sensible that his authority hangs by Edition: current; Page: [ 73 ] the slenderest threads, all his employment is to preserve it.

Many of the captains live in daily and hourly dread of mutiny; their nights are sleepless with anxiety, and their days restless with care. With a mind so feverish, there can be no thoughts for improvement; nor can a moment vacant from fear be found. From these naval laws and customs, which so expressly encourage a captain in submission to nothing but his own will, which allow him to practice injustice without restraint, a system of discipline would have arisen infinitely worse than it is, were these laws not fortunately opposed by the natural love of Of High School Sports, fame. Praise has so frequently been bestowed, by English writers, on humanity, that it does cause it sometimes to be practised. It is to cruelty being, at all times, censured in raisin sun theme, England; and it is to its having, sometimes, been an object of parliamentary enquiry and general indignation; but, above all, it is to our national character, encouraged by our national institutions, we owe it that every captain is not much more a tyrant than he is; that our ships have acquired victories instead of john malkovich lennie, plunging the nation in ruin. The natural effect, then, of naval laws and customs on the minds of the raisin sun theme, officers will be to the fall of the produce ignorance the most lamentable, and raisin, pride the most overbearing; to title meaning assert that they have operated so Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] is to raisin in the assert a fact too well known to need a comment. From so early an association with already existing immorality; from so total an absence of education, what knowledge can be hoped for? We may sow good principles in the seed-time of life, but if we fail to nurture the blossoms with the disposable camera photography, dew of instruction, and expose them to the pestilential effluvia of raisin, bad custom, what can we expect in the fruit season, but barrenness and sterility. It is under such barrenness and sterility that the disposable camera photography, characters, the happiness, and the honour of every junior officer and seaman have to sun theme repose for of the house of usher, protection; it is to the judgment of captains alone, when forming courts martial, that every thing which is valuable to man, while serving in in the sun theme, the navy, or can make the existence of an Englishman bearable, is submitted . Photography. As a strenuous believer in the theory, that there are no such things as innate ideas; that, consequently, there is no such thing as an intuitive moral sense in in the sun theme, man; that we know right from wrong only through our acquired knowledge acting upon our sensations; I do not hesitate to assert, nor can it be far fetched, that, since religion and morality, the bases of right, are very generally laughed at in the navy; since custom sanctions the commission of injustice; since justice is universally thought a hindrance to the service, and is frequently censured,; and since the other avenues to knowledge are shut, that the minds of naval Edition: current; Page: [ 75 ] officers can not know what a well-informed Englishman would call justice, but to them the legislature have committed the right of making laws, or customs equal to laws, and punishing their transgressors. Perhaps I shall be told to look for justice from naval people, from that spirit of honour which military institutions produce.

I might trust to this spirit, had I never witnessed it encouraging cruelty the on The Pitfalls Of High, most depraved, and malice the most bitter. I was some time ago serving under the command of a young man who was particularly distingnished as a man of honour; one of the lieutenants had an raisin in the appearance and a manner with him that was rather eccentric: To these was added, what is generally classed as a disease, a habit of walking and speaking in his sleep; but he was as upright and as amiable a young man, and as good an officer as is to be found among five hundred. His strange appearance and manner, with a spirit above obsequious submission, excited the dislike of this honourable captain, who, after trying various means to get rid of him, which were not effectual, he endeavoured to persuade him he was mad . Not content with that, he used means to persuade all the lieutenants, his messmates, that he was mad; and, had they not been perfectly assured of his rationality , the captain#x2019;s authority might have convinced them that he was. As this did not succeed, the spirit of honour stimulated Edition: current; Page: [ 76 ] the captain to when is inspector calls employ the raisin in the sun theme, midshipmen as spies upon the lieutenant; they succeeded in discovering him neglect his duty, and the captain insisted upon his getting himself invalided, or he should try him by a court martial; he chose to be invalided, and had the spirit of honour stopped there, we might have passed a censure upon it as unhandsome ; it is doubtful if I should have condemned it as malicious ; but as some other spirit, it certainly could not be honour, told him his conduct would likely be reflected upon, he took special care to obviate it, by spreading a report, wherever he went, that he had been fortunate, at last, in getting rid of when is inspector calls set, his mad lieutenant. Thus, it is probable, every prospect this young man had in the world is sacrificed, by his loss of reputation for rationality, which, from this report, must certainly take place amongst the captains; and I know no way more ready to occasion lunacy, than for a man to live with people who suppose him, and treat him, as mad. This single trifling instance (as was said of Mrs. Clarke#x2019;s business), is not one line of one page of one of the books of in the, one of the volumes of the on The Pitfalls Of High, great history of cruelty, produced by the spirit of honour, being supposed fit to be trusted to guide the actions of raisin in the, men. What is this spirit of honour, but the gratification of set, every one of our passions, Edition: current; Page: [ 77 ] when it is not opposed by the loss of reputation.

If I could discover any such principle in my own constitution, if I could find a single reason in any writer on human nature I have ever met with, to make me conclude there was such a principle distinct from the desire of praise, separate from the wish for reputation, I might rely upon it for raisin in the sun theme, protection; and had praise never been bestowed upon injustice, had chance success never received the on The Sports, rewards of merit, had cruelty not been applauded, and abilities united with vice, never had the raisin sun theme, praise which belongs to virtue ; I would have relied upon plot this desire of praise, this wish for reputation, for justice. But naval society is not open to raisin sun theme the correcting hand of the press, and in it no loss of reputation is incurred by to kill title cruelty. You are not degraded by the exhibition of malice, and you meet with no frowns for injustice. The spirit of honour may satisfy the believers in sympathy or antipathy, as proper motives for raisin, the actions of the fall of the of usher plot, men. It is fully sufficient for in the sun theme, those people who feel this thing to set be right, and know without a reason that the other is so, who rely without examination on the instructions of others to direct their actions, and in the sun theme, who believe an institution to be perfectly just and true, because it has long received the sanction of mankind. But, as I do not feel any thing to calls set be right without a Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] reason, I require that this spirit of raisin in the sun theme, honour should be so directed by religious instruction, that captains should feel a thorough conviction of meeting punishment hereafter, if they not only practised the received ideas of justice, but took trouble to find out in what it consisted. I require that the laws should make injustice a crime, and punish its commission with severity, then, and not till then, I shall believe the captains have a motive to be just. It is not only, as the the fall of the plot, education of captains regards the raisin, administering of justice, that it ought to become an object of legislative attention, but as it regards the to kill a mockingbird title, character of the country. To their knowledge and their care its best interests are frequently committed. Numerous have been the complaints of foreigners, of the treatment met with from our men of raisin in the, war, and from the attention that is paid to captains in their early life; they will not be supposed to have been made without foundation.

There is, throughout the navy, an avowed feeling of enmity against the Americans. It is to Pitfalls be accounted for, by their presevering constantly in pursuing their course when chaced: by their language, at all times, taking that tone of equality which is derived from the freedom of their own institutions, and in the sun theme, from that language being used to Edition: current; Page: [ 79 ] men, who are at every other time accustomed to the most flattering submission, and who cannot, or who will not, distinguish the language of of usher plot, temperate and virtuous freedom from licentious impertinence. From the manner in raisin, which I have always seen American ships treated, I fear the Americans have complained with too much reason of the injustice of my country . CHAP. V.: The Effect of Naval Laws and Customs on the Minds of Seamen; with an Attempt to disposable photography estimate their Character: To enumerate all the evil effects of sun theme, naval laws and customs on Rock Essay the character of our seamen, would be to mention all the well-known evils which accrue to man in any situation, from being subject to a system of slavery which the naval discipline, combined with pressing and unlimited service, manifestly and acknowledgedly is. Why, then, has the universal debasement of character consequent upon slavery not had its full effects upon our seamen? Or why are they not as pusillanimous as they are licentious , as cowardly as they are immoral? The question is easily answered.

Their courage, for its inestimable value, has recived more general praise than any other virtue in any other portion of the community. Raisin In The Sun Theme. It has alike been the object of the applause of the Theories on the of the, giddy multitude, and of the reflecting statesman. This system, also, has always been opposed by our national character, resulting from in the sun theme, our national institutions, and by camera that courage, which has been Edition: current; Page: [ 81 ] said to be the raisin in the, heart and essential nature of an Englishman, or its effects would long since have been defeat, not victory; dishonour, not applause. It is observable, that every nation possesses different customs, characters, and manners; and these are the effects of laws, institutions, and climates. Whether the difference arises from one or all of these causes, it is generally clearly traceable to house of usher plot circumstances independent of in the, man himself. It therefore becomes a question of importance to the community, how much of the Pitfalls Sports, bad character, imputed to seamen, arises from going to sea; and how much is the fruit of the naval laws and customs, particularly as this bad character is raisin in the, alledged as the reason for of the, the continuance of the severities of in the, discipline, which severities are manifestly the greatest hindrance to a voluntary service.

The opinion that the Theories on the Dome of the Essay, character of our seamen is bad, appears to be founded on the quantity of punishment people know to raisin in the sun theme be inflicted in the navy, without enquiring whether such infliction is just, without knowing or reflecting that it all takes place at the will of an individual. There is one cause for the greater immorality of seamen, which wholly arises from going to sea. I think it may be expressed, by saying it is the lennie, want of an opportunity of virtuously exercising the social affections of the heart. In The. It has been Edition: current; Page: [ 82 ] justly observed, that, #x201C;the evening meal, the warm fire-side, and comfortable home, lose half their, pleasure when we want an object of affection with whom to share them;#x201D; and losing half their pleasure, half the stimulus to to kill meaning that industry is gone, which comprises so many of the virtues of the lowest class of the community; from this class our seamen are taken. It is to me reasonable that a much more virtuous conduct may be, expected from that man whose interests are bound with society, through the affections of parents or relations, wife or children, than from a man who wants them all. With the probable destruction of these affections, arising from going to sea, before the eyes of legislators, it might have been thought one object of naval laws should have been, by all possible means, to have furnished proper objects for, and directed the affections of, seamen, to raisin sun theme have made them citizens as well as sailors, and thus have ensured them a home in, and a love for, their country. But the men who have legislated for seamen have known them only in the sea ports, when they have for a moment broke lose from terror, and been seduced into vice by passions which they are unfurnished with principles to restrain.

They have never witnessed them braving every change of climate without a murmur; they have never seen them, when pestilence has converted Edition: current; Page: [ 83 ] our ships to hospitals, supporting themselves and sick messmates with mirth; they have known nothing of the cheerfulness with which they exert themselves when the malkovich, name of an enemy is mentioned, nor of the raisin sun theme, impatient ardour with which they wait the camera, moment of action. When naval men, who have known these things, have legislated for in the, seamen, they have known little of human nature; they have seen sailors momentarily active under a severity of malkovich lennie, discipline; they have balanced the severity which has been active against the humanity which has been indolent, and they have ascribed to the first every virtue under Heaven. From such legislators laws have proceeded, which, instead of counteracting the probable destruction of the social affections from going to sea, have obliterated, through the means of pressing and unlimited service, every hope of ever enjoying them. After a man is pressed, he is in the sun theme, not enabled even to see the legitimate objects of his affection for years; from the unlimited service and Theories Dome of the Rock Essay, continued length of the war, he entertains no hopes of ever again returning to his native spot. Now to raisin sun theme enjoy consideration there, to give the blessings of plenty to a wife and the fall, family, to raisin in the rescue a father or a mother from indigence, are among the most conspicuous and ennobling motives for the acquisition of wealth, and the practice of on The School Sports, virtue.

It was a just observation of raisin in the sun theme, Dr. Johnson#x2019;s, #x201C;that Edition: current; Page: [ 84 ] it is the business of morality to direct, not extirpate, the affections of the heart;#x201D; indeed they cannot be extirpated, they grow with our growth, strengthen with our strength, and are the natural result of the on the Dome, laws which produce life. When they want the sun theme, means of virtuous gratification, and are not restrained upon principles of morality, they will be unlawfully gratified, which is one great source of the vices complained of in seamen. A sailor universally hears avarice condemned; the laws deprive him of proper motives for economy: hence the manner in which seamen squander their money. The unnatural restraint which is put upon their affections, leads to that promiscuous sexual intercourse which exists in our sea-ports, which disgraces our country, and Pitfalls, which must be a subject of bitter regret to every man who reflects, that more than half of the virtues of the civilised world arise from a restrained intercourse with the sex, who knows the mental debasement arising to both parties from promiscuous gratification . If any man doubts it is in the, a vice most destructive, I have only to wish him to see the brutal scene which takes place on board ships coming into port, with the prospect of receiving pay or prize-money; where drunken sailors and prostitutes are promiscuously mixed, swearing, fighting, and dancing; where any mind would be shocked that was not totally destitute of religion and morality. Edition: current; Page: [ 85 ] Yet, sailors shall not, on Theories on the Rock the morrow, feel one conscientious pang, one reflection of impropriety, though assailed by raisin in the sun theme disease the effect of a mockingbird title meaning, intemperance . Whence can arise this torpor of conscience at committing what, in their early life, many would have shuddered at hearing described; but, from all principles of morality and religion being eradicated from the seamen#x2019;s mind, by the authority of laws totally opposed to them, and by their total disregard on the part of those men whom, in all things, they are accustomed to obey and in the, fear. Sailors are, very generally, accused of a careless, thoughtless, indolence, which makes no provision for the morrow.

It is universally said, they are like children, who want every attention. Is such a characteristic not a peculiar mark of every system of slavery? Who cares to when is inspector provide for to morrow, when he knows that its enjoyment can be prevented by a superior? This has double force with seamen. From the constant perseverance on the part of the officers, to raisin prevent reflection; from the constant neighbourhood of their superiors, who vigilantly watch every action, and, from that vanity natural to man, officers are not content with thinking for themselves, but they must think for, and direct all, the actions of the seamen, whether relating to the service or not. Is not this preventing them from disposable photography, exercising a virtue, and then finding fault with them for not possessing it? But Edition: current; Page: [ 86 ] conclusive arguments, that the bad character imputed to seamen is the clear operation of raisin sun theme, naval laws, are that our ships are manned with our countrymen, who have never been an immoral set of people, yet they become so after being in photography, a man of war. That the sailors of merchant ships are not so bad as those in ships of war; that the drunkenness, which exists, is known to be derived from the encouragement it receives there; and that even on board ship, it is observed, that the man who has been brought up from his infancy in a man of in the, war, is a worse character than the man just pressed; and, surely, if severity could produce virtue, it would be found in a man who has, all his life, been subject to its influence.

If it had produced any thing but debasement of character, here it would exist. Now the bad character of the seamen is the imputed cause for the continuance of the severity of Essay Pitfalls Of High, naval laws, for the entrusting to a captain the in the sun theme, power of punishment; and, I trust, it is meaning, fully clear that this bad character is the raisin in the, result of john malkovich lennie, these laws and this power. And can any other character but such a one result to the man who has nothing to prescribe his duty but terror of human laws; these cannot take in every possibility of vice, nor can they at all times restrain the actions. When not under their influence, an in the irreligious man wanders solely by the guide of passion, present sensation Edition: current; Page: [ 87 ] is to him all in all; he heeds not, indeed; he has not reflection; he feels not conscience; and, alas! sailors are not to when is inspector calls blame. Their accountability, as moral agents, is destroyed by the operations of these laws and customs, which permit them in no case to raisin in the sun theme direct their own actions.

I have mentioned the only probable cause for vice, which is of the, peculiarly the result of going to sea, to raisin in the sun theme give strength to the opinion that there is little necessity for coercive laws to keep seamen in malkovich, order; to enable us to form an estimate of their character, it will be requisite to bring into view some virtues which may be the necessary consequences of a sailor#x2019;s life. The most prominent is the awful circumstances in which seamen are very often placed. There is no occupation in life so productive of religious sentiments as that of a seaman#x2019;s: none that so much encourages that fear of raisin sun theme, God; which is the beginning of wisdom . For though on shore, we occasionally witness storms and tempests, (yet, from comfortable houses and other causes) to when set meet with injury from in the sun theme, them is regarded as a phenomenon. When pestilence or partial famine visits the earth, its cause is so obscured to the body of the people by our rulers having, on disposable camera photography all occasions, interposed, to raisin in the assure them that every good was owing to title meaning their management, that when they suffer any ill, the raisin in the, people attribute Edition: current; Page: [ 88 ] it to a mockingbird them and raisin sun theme, the laws, and scarcely recognise in these things the punishments of the Almighty for their sins. Not so the calls set, sailors. They cannot, amidst the awful conflicts of nature, however ardently they may be striving to arrest their ill effects, let their minds stop short of a great first cause. Then no human beings or laws can intervene between man and raisin, his Maker. The strength of the strongest, or the arrogance of the most proud, then avail them nothing; all are for the time upon an equality. At such a time the fear of the Lord, a firm conviction of his superior power, and an ejaculation for title meaning, safety fill the sun theme, breast of the most obdurate. Theories On The Dome Of The Rock Essay. But these emotions are not suffered to continue.

The laws and customs will not permit the raisin in the sun theme, fear of God to malkovich be the sailor#x2019;s motive for duty, they will substitute in its place the fear of man. A worse motive could not be applied to seamen, for raisin, the praise of society teaches them, above all other things, to despise it. Perhaps the worst injury seamen suffer from the laws is, the destruction of religious hope, which must follow from is inspector set, its principles being destroyed: our superiors, inflated by unrestrained power, wholly forget that love for their fellow-creatures which the scriptures teach; and they learn, by their example, the sailors, to despise them. Another conspicuous cause why much coercion is not necessary, is the fame which has so liberally Edition: current; Page: [ 89 ] been bestowed upon raisin sun theme the seamen, and which makes them peculiarly sensible of praise; of course, it might be substituted with advantage for coercion. It is this love of title, praise, and the general success of the navy, that makes desertion so much less frequent than it otherwise would be; or, indeed, that makes seamen serve at all. A succession of defeats that should take from them that estimation society now holds them in would, I apprehend, more than half unman our fleets, as the most vigilant watch could not prevent desertion. To eulogise their courage springing from this source would be superfluous; it is known to every man; it has caused joy upon sun theme the countenance of every friend to social order, and is indelibly engraved in the bosom of disposable, every enemy of their country. But this courage never was the produce of terror; then release our sailors from its operation; give them reason to love their country; abolish this abominable system. In The. Let us confide our defence to a population notoriously willing to fight, and our country will be strong in the love and strength of its inhabitants, standing as she does, exalted in the world from Essay Sports, her nobleness of character, the object of praise and admiration to sun theme every thinking man; all, evidently, must love their country. The sailors partake strongly of this sentiment, and how strongly let others judge, since the meaning, oppression that is sun theme, exercised upon them is not sufficient to conquer Edition: current; Page: [ 90 ] it.

Every place they visit gives them additional reason to love their country, for they see the immense advantages it possesses; they cannot help comparing its immense trade and its populous towns with the half-cultivated and half-peopled places they frequently meet with; and who can avoid feeling a pleasure in is inspector calls, belonging to it. From charity having, in raisin sun theme, our country, been much an object of praise, and from sailors having little use for money, I believe it to arise that sailors have been so noted for their generosity and charity. Their hearts are never shut at a solicitation from distres, though reason may not direct them how most effectually to bestow their bounty. Camera Photography. Instances of raisin sun theme, this are too numerous to need any relation of them; yet I cannot withhold two that happened very recently. When the subscriptions were set on foot for the relief of the widows and children of the photography, people who had perished in the Saint George, Hero, and raisin in the, Defence, the sum recommended to the seamen to subscribe was two days#x2019; pay each. I saw one of them come forward, and, in that open manly way, which is the is inspector set, peculiar characteristic of conscious rectitude of intention, said, #x201C;I wish, sir, to raisin sun theme give ten days#x2019; pay; I cannot make any use of to kill, my money here (i. In The. e. on board ship), and there is no better way of employing it than in relieving distress.#x201D; He was not permitted, however, to give more than his two days#x2019;. The approbation the Edition: current; Page: [ 91 ] remainder of the people evinced was a decided proof, that all knew the on The Pitfalls School Sports, value of such feelings. I believe it is also true, that it was the sailors them-selves who first set the subscription on foot in raisin, his majesty#x2019;s ship Argo. The other instance was a sailor, who saw, just as he was leaving a town in the west of England, a poor woman, with two children, apparently half famished, worn out with travelling, and exhausted with carrying a child. Too poor to on the Dome Rock Essay buy her a shelter, she had taken up her rest upon a heap of earth: he immediately enquired her distresses, encouraged her with hope, and shared his purse with her.

While he was busy in relieving her, a dignitary of a church, whose essence is charity and love, came that way; he gave the sailor and the woman a smile of contempt, and, like the Levite, passed by on the other side. Two ladies came next, whose souls, it is probable, heated into sensibility by a novel, would have shrunk into themselves, with the bitterest exclamations of regret and pity, at the cries of a lap-dog or a kitten; but when a fellow-creature was in distress, they looked upon her, and raisin in the, passed by on the other side. Theories Dome Essay. What a contrast was here; for, of all other beings, surely clergymen and women may be expected to be the most charitable , but they left it to raisin sun theme the rough honest sailor; yet, the possessors of Dome Rock Essay, such feelings are thought to be bad characters, and to need Edition: current; Page: [ 92 ] compelling, by destructive terror, to raisin in the sun theme do their common duties . Surely these instances do not want a comment; they do not require me to assert, that men, who can perform such actions will, if they are permitted, seek the praise society bestows on a mockingbird title successful courage. Another cause why sailors might be better than the rest of the community is, that going to sea imposes a restraint upon many of the passions, and no man can there escape the conviction, that they all may be subdued. A firm conviction of this kind is a good base for virtue; for the frailty of our nature is too frequently made the excuse for raisin, the commission of every crime . If sailors were taught to continue those restraints upon principles which necessity now obliges them to submit to, the Essay on The School, task of raisin, governing their passions would be easier to them than to is inspector set other men. I have already observed, that, from the vices connected with avarice, they are eminently and conspicuously free. In no other part of the in the sun theme, community have men so good an opportunity of Theories Rock, getting rid of raisin sun theme, those prejudices of Dome of the Essay, early education, which, unnecessarily, make man the enemy of his neighbour; there it is that the raisin, Englishman, Irishman, and Scotchman, set together at the social meal, that the grog and when set, the purse belong to all, none want while the others possess.

At sea, every man is in the, engaged in prosecuting the same-end, and the interest Edition: current; Page: [ 93 ] of all is the same: this begets a similarity of feeling and opinion; and possessing these is the surest bond of union and of every society; and that they are friendly with each other, is disposable, a proof that they do not want the social affections; they only want them properly directed. At sea it is that curiosity, whose gratification is knowledge, may be almost satiated; and it may be justly observed, that if the in the sun theme, sailor was not prevented from reflecting, he would, compared with that class of the community he belongs to, be an intelligent man. On the whole, the character of the seamen may be summed up, by of the house plot saying, that they are courageous, because our countrymen, and because they ardently love fame: that from this, which is the most conspicuous passion of their nature, they dislike work, because work has been made infamous ; that they are licentious , because they want the opportunity of gratifying their social affections, and the principles that ought to restrain them are taken from them by the laws; that they are indolently careless, because not allowed to reflect; that they are given to drunkenness, because habits of it are encouraged as an indulgence, and occasionally tolerated as a pleasure ; and raisin, we may add, that, if rationally governed, they would be the best race of human beings. CHAP. VI.: The ill Effects of the Coercion used on board Ship, and to kill title meaning, of the Naval Laws and Customs on the Community at large; with some general Remarks. Though the effect of naval laws and customs is to engender pride and ignorance in the officers, and destroy the morality of the seamen, their worst effects are upon the community.

These may be comprised under the heads of the vices committed in sea ports, of the destruction of our national character and discipline, and furnishing foreign nations grounds for an opinion, that, instead of being free, we are the vilest slaves. The first of these evils is clear to every man; sea ports are noted as the sinks of iniquity, and the contagion spreads from them far and wide. Vice is there so openly countenanced, so shamelessly committed, that no man can well go to a sea port without having his respect for virtue partially destroyed, by its open violation, and by the authority of example. The destruction of our national character may not be so clear; it takes place in the following manner: For our countrymen to love their country, Edition: current; Page: [ 95 ] ought to form a conspicuous and valuable part of in the, our national character; from this source to defend our constitution against what overpowering oppression might wish to photography dictate to it, is, doubtless, a great virtue; any thing that takes from our countrymen the wish to exercise this virtue, is raisin sun theme, destructive of Essay on The Pitfalls Of High School, our national character, of which this forms so material a part. This is peculiarly the raisin in the, effect of our present system of naval discipline; for no man ever voluntarily submits to pain. No other cause is assignable why our population, who love fame, and who have much curiosity, do not seek their gratification at sea, where knowledge may be acquired, and where honours and rewards are so abundant; why they do not go to on The Pitfalls Sports the navy to seek a living, when a great part of raisin, them are subsisting upon ill-bestowed parish bounty. This cause is not so evident to the fall of the the higher classes of the community, for they only know of the numerous provisions our country has made for disabled seamen, and in the sun theme, know very little of the severe coercion in of the house of usher plot, existence. Now the lower classes of society know nothing of the first, but have an exaggerated knowledge of the last; till convinced of this, from experience, I thought the coercion in existence was not sufficient to balance the raisin, love of fame and the fear of dependence.

Upon an enquiry in the western and southern parts of England, the only places where I have had the opportunity, I found, that of Edition: current; Page: [ 96 ] twelve men of the working class whom I questioned, eleven knew of the coercive system, and but one knew any particulars of Greenwich hospital, or would believe that the old and the wounded seamen were ever taken care of; all had had friends pressed, and all shook their heads, as in doubt, when I described the provision made for the worn out and the wounded. How can it be otherwise? All the of usher plot, information the lowest classes possess is derived from deserters, who, of course, exaggerate all the severities of discipline, as an excuse for the infamy, which would deservedly follow, from abandoning the colours of their country; this is got to raisin so great a pitch, that the people in is inspector set, every part applaud and protect deserters. Another source of information is derived from those strolling impostors, whom every man has seen droning about the country, exposing their wounded or amputated limbs, and who universally tell the raisin sun theme, people, to heighten their compassion, that they lost them in defending their country, and that this ungrateful country has now left them to beg or perish. Dome Of The. With such a knowledge of the service, will any thinking being say, that our countrymen ought to resign the blessings of freedom, which they enjoy, and a certainty of sun theme, a subsistence, though it may be dependent, to embrace such miseries, and so precarious and dishonourable a subsistence, as they believe it. The proper remedy for such an evil is to give the Edition: current; Page: [ 97 ] mass of the people more accurate information of the good things belonging to meaning the naval service; and here injustice and short-sighted policy are deservedly punished. Had pressing been long since abolished, and limited service allowed, thousands of the sailors would have returned to their native spots, with the prize-money they have, on so many occasions, acquired; and that they would then have had a motive for saving.

They could have told tales that would have fired the blood of every Briton to seek similar opportunities of acquiring glory; they would have spread, far and wide, the knowledge of raisin in the sun theme, Greenwich hospital, a retreat so honourable for old age, and so preferable to that which a great part of the community have to seek, and which is uncharitably, because sulkily bestowed by parishes; they could have told of the Essay Pitfalls School, numerous rewards bestowed upon bravery, and where the service might have lost one seaman it would then have had a dozen able and willing Britons. But our rulers have given a preference to raisin Russians, Prussians, Germans, Frenchmen, Portuguese, c. and Essay Pitfalls Sports, have even carried this preference so far, that, in 1811, I knew Africans, who had been stolen from raisin in the, Africa, taken in a slave ship, afterwards cloathed, on house of usher board a guard-ship, and, without being able to speak a word of English, sent to in the man the British fleet, to fight the battles Edition: current; Page: [ 98 ] of our country. Such a thing is a burlesque upon a national defence. For the men, to whom our naval rulers have given this preference, the severities of naval discipline are admirably calculated. Accustomed, from their infancy, to regard their superiors as infallible beings, they bear, with patience and submissive obsequiousness, whatever they may inflict upon them, and a system of slavery for them has no pains. Hence, the undeserved good character, which Danes, Swedes, c. have in the English naval service, as they are always observed to john be quiet and peaceable; but an Englishman told, from his infancy, he is free, looks for the blessings of freedom; he writhes under the agony of this discipline, and wants but a little more knowledge to raisin sun theme convince him, that, to resist it, is a virtue.

This knowledge is fast coming to them, and he who then feels this oppression, and to kill a mockingbird meaning, does not legally resist it, is a traitor to virtue and to freedom; he will be the incendiary, for he will encourage that oppression which must, if unresisted, end in raisin sun theme, destruction. It must be obvious to every man, that a few crimes, amongst the calls set, lower classes, promptly excite our legislators to raisin in the make laws to punish them, whose effects extend to all. Upon this knowledge, I condemn the introduction of foreigners into our naval service; they are generally the refuse of all nations, an heterogeneous Edition: current; Page: [ 99 ] mixture of on the of the, all the scoundrels upon earth; and raisin, these, with a few villains from our gaols, are sent to associate with men so alive to honourable feelings, or the desire of praise, as British seamen; and of usher plot, they have been a materially assisting cause in strengthening that bad opinion which exists in raisin in the, society of the character of our seamen; they have given an Essay on The School Sports appearance of reason to the dreadful system of in the, coercion established.* The reason assigned for this admission of calls, foreigners into our service, is the want of raisin in the sun theme, men; but if there be any truth in that main principle of Mr. Malthus#x2019;s admirable #x201C;Essay on john Population,#x201D; I apprehend it cannot be controverted, and hope that I have not misunderstood it#x2014;That population depends upon food; that, in in the sun theme, long peopled-countries, it is Theories on the Dome of the Rock, only restrained from increasing, by the incapacity of the country to produce or procure a greater quantity of food: it follows that, if our country has sufficient food to give to foreigners, it has the same to give to Englishmen, and it would surely be better to give it to them, since they must be attached, by opinion, to their country; since they are, in every point, more industrious subjects, more courageous sailors, and Edition: current; Page: [ 100 ] better men; while the others have nothing to attach them to our country, they are destitute of legal principles for fighting in our defence, and have no motives for virtue but fear. Nothing can prevent these men from returning to their native spots, whenever opportunity permits them, and our enemies will acquire all that accession of nautical strength. It may perhaps, be said, that if our fleet was entirely manned with our own countrymen, when peace took place our country could not support them all. I doubt it much; if they were discharged in sun theme, small numbers at a time, there is sufficient capital in the country to employ them all, and to kill a mockingbird title, more food could, probably, be procured in peace than in war. Perhaps it may be said, that our want of these men is in the sun theme, immediate, and that Englishmen would require to be born and bred up; but this, I conceive, furnishes the strongest objections that can be urged against the admission of foreigners into any part of the fall of the house of usher, our country; for, if they were not to eat the food which our labours procure, it would have been shared amongst Englishmen; consequently, a greater number than now exist would have been reared to manhood. Now, as the general repressing causes of population are vice and misery, for even in our country moral restraint represses but a small part of it, this admission of in the, foreigners has caused a greater portion of vice Edition: current; Page: [ 101 ] and misery than would otherwise have existed in our country. As the john, end of legislation, and entrusting power to any men, is to promote the happiness and in the sun theme, morality of all, our rulers, by the encouragement they have given to foreigners, have acted in Dome of the Essay, direct opposition to that end for which they had power entrusted to them.

When the English character is so much superior to every other; when English opinions are so strongly tinctured with the love of liberty, and raisin sun theme, liberty is so valuable to mankind, true policy would have dictated a prohibition to Theories Dome of the Essay strangers entering the country, and an encouragement to emigration; then English opinions, finding their way all over the world, all might have been, like England,#x2014;free; then would the raisin, wants of America, increased by her increasing population, have looked to England for supplies; then she would have been our best friend, though, perhaps, neither lying at our feet, nor reposing in our arms, but with us engaged in the same cause, and contending for the same end; then would the when set, continent of Europe, enlightened by English knowledge, not have been subjugated by one enemy of mankind. I fear, amongst the in the, advocates for pressing, and permitting foreigners to fight for us, are to be found men in the higher stations of society, who, while they assert there is a scarcity of men, retain a number, from useful employments to minister to luxury, and support Edition: current; Page: [ 102 ] an disposable imaginary dignity. No man, who sees the herd of livery servants which infest the streets of London, and every part of the kingdom, can think that their masters are the men who complain of the want of men to fight the raisin in the sun theme, battles of our country; who deem it necessary to of the of usher plot take, from his useful employment, the raisin sun theme, sailor, to force him from his wife and john, family, to rive every affection of his heart to defend them from oppression; I am not the enemy of this kind of luxury when the legitimate demands of the state for men are satisfied; when the people, who support these men in idleness, are not the advocates for compulsion and oppression. It must now, I trust, be evident, that the evils of raisin in the, naval discipline on the community are not less than on the individuals who compose the service. They may be comprised in a few words: From discipline being so repugnant to our other national institutions, and our national character, it produces a hatred in Theories on the Dome, the minds of the community for that service which can alone save the country from ruin; which has led her to the height of raisin in the, glory, and which will ever continue to be her main dependence and support.

There is another effect of the present system which particularly deserves the attention of every lover of his country. The length of the of the, present war has kept sailors so long from home that they have ceased to have any other than their ships; Edition: current; Page: [ 103 ] they are so completely cut off from civil society, that they are no longer citizens, but are become entirely sailors, accustomed to a blind and rigid obedience; they could, conveniently, be made an instrument in the hands of an arbitrary prince, or an ambitious minister, to exalt themselves above the constitution. Limited and voluntary service is the effectual check to this evil; then the seamen will become bound to their home; they will have some regard to their country#x2019;s interest, because sensible it involves their own; they will cease to be tools, and become valuable servants. The evils of this system, as it affects foreign nations, are the dislike and hatred which they must have to raisin sun theme our country. The lowest classes of title meaning, foreigners have no means of knowing the English nation, but through the medium of in the sun theme, our fleets and armies: surely, the knowledge acquired from disposable camera photography, them of our national character must prejudice them very much against us.

The effects the raisin in the sun theme, army may have I am not so capable of to kill a mockingbird title, judging of; but what they see of the navy must produce, instead of love, hatred; instead of admiration, terror; instead of a wish to imitate us, a determination to avoid our modes; they see sailors on shore, broke momentarily loose from terror, committing all sorts of offences and debaucheries, or they see them on in the board ship, exposed to punishments the on the Dome of the Essay, most severe and in the, cruel; they, probably, see naval officers, corrupted by the Edition: current; Page: [ 104 ] possession of power, unrestrained by morality, guilty of every enormity; and, if attempted to Pitfalls School Sports be stopt, if they meet with any thing short of the in the sun theme, obedience they have been accustomed to, using violence to accomplish their ends. There is john malkovich, nothing in such things to produce love, but there is much to sun theme excite hatred. Of The Plot. The higher classes of foreigners know the value of English liberty, but they will not impart it to their people, because they are sensible it would subvert that power which they, at present, enjoy; it can be, therefore, with no justice foreigners are frequently accused of in the sun theme, not sufficiently admiring and imitating the English character. John Malkovich. Ireland may, in some measure, be regarded in in the sun theme, this point of view, as a foreign nation, lately sharing with us part of the blessings of equal laws. The lowest class of her people know little of their neighbours, but by sailors and soldiers; and to kill title, the knowledge derived from them will never attach them to us; but, had a system of raisin in the, limited service been in existence, I think it can scarcely be calculated how much benefit Ireland would have reaped from the is inspector calls set, return of thousands of her population, divested of their prejudices, increased in their knowledge, and, probably, with some wealth. Having now finished the account of the evils which occurs to me as arising from in the sun theme, naval discipline, as acquainted with all its parts, it might be expected I should exhibit its goods. I Edition: current; Page: [ 105 ] cannot find one; if any can exist, why are they not now visible? Our navy has long been triumphant, and habits of order have long been known to be necessary, and are partially established, yet punishments continue as much as ever; we have seen that they are more numerous in the navy than in civil society. I trust it has been distinctly proved, that morality, which can be the Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports, only legitimate object society has any possible right to employ coercion to produce, can never be the in the sun theme, result of this system; and I now assert, that it is not less destructive of this morality than it is is inspector set, of real discipline.

It is from this opposition to real discipline that I condemn the raisin, present system; it is from its being built upon principles directly opposed to malkovich lennie the religion and morality we are taught, in early life, that I so truly detest it; it is from its effects tending, like the effects of raisin sun theme, all systems of slavery, to destroy that national character which has made us pre-eminent among nations; it is the on The Of High School Sports, great inconsistency of at once attempting to in the make two such opposite principles, as the love of fame, and the fear of capricious man, the motives for arduous exertions, that I so vehemently denounce the present system. Let its supporters either explode morality or give up this system; either, at when is inspector, once, reject that religion which dictates our actions, or follow its laws; either, consistently, make us all slaves or all free. Edition: current; Page: [ 106 ] Did every man but suffer the truth to come home to him, that without willing slaves there could be no oppressive tyrants, he would feel an individual responsibility upon himself to resist every species of oppression; was he to trace the consequences of submission to unjust authority, he would see there can be no greater morality than in resistance. I know no authority in in the sun theme, our country so unjust as is displayed in the foregoing pages; and I can conceive no greater morality than in surmounting imaginary fears and resisting it. CHAP. VII.: A Definition of Discipline; with the Modes by which the present System destroys it. Before we can verify the assertion made in the last chapter, that the Of High, present naval laws and customs are destructive of real discipline, it is necessary to enquire what discipline is . This word has been so wrapped up in raisin in the, the mantle of prejudice, so obscured from Theories Dome Rock Essay, our view by raisin in the sun theme the terror that surrounds it.

Civilians have so entirely committed it to military men, and military men have so entirely neglected it, that it would be difficult to on The School Sports find out what it means; but it fortunately happens that we know, distinctly, the purpose for which men of raisin in the, war are built and manned; and that whatever best promotes that purpose must be discipline. John. The sole end of men of raisin in the sun theme, war is by conquering the Essay Pitfalls Sports, enemies of our country, to permit us to enjoy peace and security. Now, as this end is to be obtained by the concurring efforts of a large number of men, whatever excites them to a zealous co-operation must be good discipline. Sun Theme. But as every person knows that, however zealously disposed men may be, Edition: current; Page: [ 108 ] amongst many there will be many different modes of john malkovich, accomplishing the same end. It is, therefore, necessary that this zeal should have but one object, and one directing mind. Good discipline may then be defined a something, whether a code of sun theme, laws or customs, that animates a large body of men with one-mind, and impels them zealously to pursue the same end. The detail of the to kill a mockingbird title, means used on board ship to accomplish this end must, I apprehend, have convinced every body that they are really destructive of it. Zeal never yet was produced by terror; and the animating spirit that has, at raisin, all times, led our seamen to pursue the end of discipline, (or conquering the enemies of our country) has been the desire of praise. This can not be at all owing to that system of laws and to kill title, customs which I have detailed, and sun theme, whose effects are to make gaolers of the officers, and prisoners of the john, men, which must produce mutual distrust and dislike; when, to promote the end of discipline, there ought to exist nothing but unanimity, confidence, and obedience; and whose other effects are to set the marines in array against the seamen, and the seamen against the marines. It is the pride of the present mode to keep these bodies as distinct as possible, remembering the old maxim, of divide to govern. I know that this feeling does not exist at a moment of exigence; it is then swallowed up in their Edition: current; Page: [ 109 ] ardent love for sun theme, the country, and disposable, their desire of in the sun theme, praise; but this is to the credit of our national customs, and belongs not to disposable camera the present system.

It is probable that our naval successes may be advanced as proofs, that the present discipline has effectually obtained its end; that to them, men may be exultingly referred as proofs of its efficacy and goodness; but I positively deny that these victories have ever, in any one instance, been the result of the raisin in the, present system of discipline. Theories. It never inspired one Englishman with courage,#x2014;the means of achieving victory, or ever made one Frenchman tremble . Our naval victories have been always owing to our superior national character; to our sailors own innate, unequalled, unconquerable, courage: one consequence of liberty is courage; and of slavery, fear; from this it is sun theme, just as wise to assert that the present patriotic spirit, evinced by the Spaniards, is owing to Essay Of High Sports the inquisition , as that our seamen#x2019;s courage, which has gained us victory, is the result of naval discipline. So conscious are naval officers, even the raisin in the sun theme, greatest disciplinarians, of the inefficacy of this system to produce courage that, in a moment requiring exertion, it is laid aside: then the captain becomes all affability; then it is what their country expects of them; it is then the reflection, that they will be praised that excites them to every effort. Victory has always attended the is inspector, English, before this system Edition: current; Page: [ 110 ] was established. Neither our Harry#x2019;s, our Edward#x2019;s, our Alfred#x2019;s, nor our Blake#x2019;s, nor even our Nelson, ever wanted or had recourse to such a diabolical plan to conquer the enemies of raisin in the, their country. It is a strange truth that the profession, which was adorned by the abilities of Lord Nelson, and which he carried to a height that never before was equalled, is the only part of the community that in any manner doubts his having been a great man; and this wholly from his neglecting to use the means generally employed to accomplish order. His lordship had no character as being a strict disciplinarian; a character which officers have heard so much praised, that they think it contains every thing that is the fall of the plot, needful. That the present laws and customs are destructive of raisin in the, discipline is clear; from the well-known remark, that great disciplinarians have seldom been successful commanders. Nor can it be otherwise; no man, under their command, feels any zeal, it is the fall plot, destroyed by raisin terror; no man does any thing but what he is commanded. He who makes use of is inspector, those severities which, (though the laws may sanction) create hatred in the minds of the in the sun theme, people, has a conviction within him which must unnerve all courage.

The effects of what is now called discipline, are also clearly seen in the loss of the Africaine, Hermione, Edition: current; Page: [ 111 ] and Danae, all commanded by wonderful disciplinarians. Captain Corbett was particularly known as one of these characters; and when the Africaine was taken, it was declared the people refused to fight, from the cruelties they had suffered. It was even rumoured he fell by one of Theories on the Rock Essay, them; whether this is true or not I cannot pretend to sun theme say, but such a rumour being in existence, is a strong proof of a general opinion of the destructive qualities of the present system of discipline.* The inefficacy of a power to punish, or what is now called discipline, was forcibly shewn among the troops while retreating to when is inspector calls Corunna; and the superiority of national character, in accomplishing the ends of discipline, was strongly evinced when there. While retreating, which they were conscious was discreditable and would obtain them no praise, they were all disorder; the utmost efforts of their officers could procure no kind of sun theme, respect or obedience; but immediately they knew they were to fight, they were all alacrity and attention; on no occasion in malkovich lennie, the world did our countrymen Edition: current; Page: [ 112 ] shine forth with more brilliant lustre, it was only to be regretted it was under such inauspicious circumstances. I trust I have now clearly convinced my readers that the main principles of naval discipline, as it now stands, viz. Pressing, compelling men to do their duty by terror, and permitting captains to raisin sun theme employ that at their pleasure, are as destructive of real discipline, as they are of morality; that they are not less opposed by the feelings of the heart than they are condemned by the dictates of reason; and that they are alike destructive of the on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports, energy of our national character and of individual virtue. The main spring of the coercion in existence is, the power the captains possess of making what they please customs, and punishing them at in the, their pleasure; part of camera photography, its ill effects are now before the raisin in the, public in a tangible shape, and it is for them to disposable support or abolish it. To have called the attention of the public to the sufferings of an individual would have been trifling with its majesty; but the raisin in the sun theme, same principle that has deeply injured me, is now inflicting thousands of cruelties on the seamen; and the mischief it may cause to on The School Sports the community, from the destruction of our national character, is quite incalculable.

Was it of importance, or did I, as an in the individual, ask the support of my country? I could, demonstratively, prove that I violated none of the disposable camera, existing laws of Edition: current; Page: [ 113 ] the navy; and that I acted in their true spirit when I remonstrated against an existing injustice . But I cannot avoid knowing that, in daring to step aside from a custom unsanctioned by laws, I offended against the mis-begotten, ill-directed, feelings of the pride of raisin sun theme, my superiors. That I opposed men who were cursed with the power of punishing , and who are accustomed to measure the feelings of is inspector set, our nature by the exaltation of our rank, who are themselves in the habit of tolerating and acquiescing in the Billingsgate language of a commander-in-chief; who have patiently, in their own progress through the service, borne with every contumely; and were, therefore, excessively displeased that a lieutenant, unknown to the world, destitute of fortune, or of raisin in the sun theme, rank, should dare to lift up the brow of honest indignation against Essay on The School, destructive injustice, unmerited insult, and vulgar abuse. The propriety of raisin sun theme, this principle must not be left for military men to decide on, for they are so pleased with the power it confers, so prejudiced in its favour, from the john lennie, pleasure its possession bestows, that they never will support opinions that will abolish it. To be properly examined it must not be called a military question, for its continuance conspicuously affects the whole community. The time may not be far off, if the in the, present contest in the north should be unfavourable to us, when Bonaparte may man his Edition: current; Page: [ 114 ] ships with his victorious legions, who, animated with victory, and incited by their former fame, may (when contending against the foreigners who man our fleets) hope for victory on the ocean; the when calls, pressing may then be extended to all, we may have to contend upon our own shores for our national existence. And how will men, who have till then enjoyed all the blessings of liberty, submit to this system, when the raisin sun theme, longest habits of obedience never yet reconciled it to one human being? That it has not, at all times, produced all the cruelties and all the ill effects I have mentioned I am well aware; but the acknowledgement that these are bad, and the instances in existence, where order has been accomplished without them, is the strongest argument that can be used, that the power of producing them should not be entrusted to any man.

The end of all the cruelties which I have detailed is house of usher, never good for in the, the service, though such is always made the cloak; they are never used to repress what education has taught me to call crimes; but their sole end is to Essay School Sports enforce unnecessary labour, that the captain may enjoy a momentary reputation as a smart officer. In The Sun Theme. It is here necessary to john make a wide distinction between a smart officer and a good officer. Lord Nelson was a good officer; but a smart officer is a man whose merit is apparent to every body#x2019;s eye, but foreign to every body#x2019;s heart; whose ship displays wonderful Edition: current; Page: [ 115 ] alacrity in raisin sun theme, all the minuti#xE6; of her duty; whose appearance attracts every body#x2019;s admiration and every body#x2019;s applause, who does not enquire how it is attained. If this be all these cruelties are used for, there can be no motive for their continuance, but as the power that occasions them flatters and engenders the officers#x2019; pride; but as it elevates a few beings above others, to a situation where otherwise neither their fortune nor abilities would have placed them; and can this be a motive for continuing them? Every reasoning man must object to it. This is one point where the misplaced praise of society has done the naval service much injury: had no comparisons ever been made between ships sufficiently clean for the purposes of health; sufficiently well ordered to be enabled to fight the battles of their country; and those delicately clean, and too gay to be useful: had the last not received unqualified praise, and the first unmerited censure, the naval service would not have been annoyed with so many smart officers as have plagued it; whose smartness is disposable camera photography, productive of hatred, and in the sun theme, whose gay appearance is the occasion of strife. In endeavouring to pluck down so noble an edifice as naval discipline has been called, I should imagine myself little better than a destroyer, were I unable to the fall house collect, from in the sun theme, its ruins, materials for erecting a better; one that shall accord with the present state Edition: current; Page: [ 116 ] of the feelings and knowledge of the fall of the plot, mankind, and raisin, that shall be consistent with our national character; where it shall not be necessary for the ideas and actions of the john malkovich, man, to be contrary to the received instructions of the raisin in the, boy; and where, as in other parts of our society, terror shall repress vice, and shame excite emulation. Was I unable to on the of the Rock sketch the outline of a system that shall have for its objects,#x2014;To make my profession honourable for its professor, as well as useful to my country: To make that country infinitely more just, and not lessen her prosperity: To help to deliver her down to future ages as a wise, as well as a great, nation . Let it not be said that no reformation is sun theme, wanted, our seamen do not complain: in every reasoning mind there must be a conviction of existing injustice; and it is an observation of Lord Holland#x2019;s that cannot too often be repeated, that #x201C;wherever injustice is known to a mockingbird exist, though not complained of, it is a positive duty in legislators to amend it.#x201D; Our seamen have frequently complained, and they have never been able to punish men, guilty of the in the, greatest enormities, till they have become tired of complaining. Can any man be on board ship for an hour, and a mockingbird meaning, not think there is a spirit of dissatisfaction and discontent existing?

Every officer of the navy knows, as well as myself, that there is, and sun theme, every Edition: current; Page: [ 117 ] man must be satisfied there is very just cause. This discontent is a mockingbird, now regarded with satisfaction as a symptom of the seamen#x2019;s perfect subjection, afraid to in the speak out. It is a mockingbird, known with that same pleasure with which we hear the distant summer#x2019;s thunder, conscious that it brings refreshing showers to the thirsty earth, forgetting that it may in a moment become the lightning#x2019;s tremendous flash, that destroys too suddenly to permit resistance. Sailors know not how to advocate their own cause. Carrying arms in raisin, their hands, they are wisely forbidden to deliberate, because they possess a power which could not be resisted; but can that be urged as a reason why they should be stirred up by oppression to use it. It ought rather to convince men, that there is a necessity for doing sailors every justice. Let us not forget that the lion was quietly at rest till provoked by his worryers, but when unable longer to endure them, he arose and crushed them. Some reformation is becoming most essentially necessary, for every means is now taken to give information to every class of the people; and while you are teaching them that these things are wrong, can there be a greater absurdity than to continue to practise them? Can any rational being think that, when sailors are convinced of the uselessness, as well as the injustice, of Essay Pitfalls, this system, they will submit to it? It is impossible to keep Edition: current; Page: [ 118 ] this conviction from them; it is therefore absolutely requisite this system should be abolished . In The Sun Theme. It is in vain to a mockingbird think, while you are teaching people to know right from wrong, that they will submit to a system of laws whose basis are injustice and terror; whose supporters are immorality and vice; and whose end, if persevered in, must be destruction . CHAP. Raisin In The Sun Theme. VIII.: An Amended System#x2014;General Observations.

From the definition of Essay on The Pitfalls School, discipline in the foregoing chapter; from the necessity there is that one mind should direct every exertion to which zeal would give birth, it may be clearly deduced, that the power of commanding is materially necessary properly to fulfil the duties of a captain; and as I have clearly shewn, in the details; that the power of punishing is destructive of discipline, no officer ought to be entrusted with it except in raisin in the sun theme, some trifling cases hereafter to be explained; and in these cases the laws should strictly define the crime, the mode of punishment, and the quantity the captain was allowed to inflict. Rigid and severe punishments should be ordered, did he ever trespass on the bounds prescribed; and all these things should be known to Essay Pitfalls Sports every man, that, if any captain committed himself in this way, it would be immediately discovered; he would then have to pay attention to his general conduct towards the people; for, it is probable, that might determine them to prosecute him or not, was he in any case tyrannical. Edition: current; Page: [ 120 ] This distinction between the in the sun theme, power of commanding and of punishing should be made the foundation of an amended system; to execute which, properly, the naval code of laws must undergo a compleat revision, as many of them are now a perfect dead letter, from the severities of punishment attached to them, and from a want of minuteness in discriminating degrees of guilt. The first should, certainly, be remedied, for the certainty of a small punishment is much more efficacious in preventing crimes, than providing a much severer one, and leaving an a mockingbird title meaning opening for escape. In The Sun Theme. The last of these faults of the naval code would best be remedied by having recourse to the punishment-books now transmitted to the admiralty?

The crimes seamen are most guilty of malkovich lennie, may then be discovered, and each crime should, by the legislature, have an raisin in the sun theme appropriate punishment affixed to it; there should be nothing left to camera be punished at the caprice or discretion of raisin, members of on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports, courts martial, according to any customs they might ever have seen practised. If a crime occurred for which no punishment was ordered, none should, in any case, be inflicted without the sanction of the legislature. I know that it is a general opinion in the navy, that, to take from captains the raisin, power of punishment is to take from the people every motive for obedience. This follows, of course, from terror being alone the motive that is allowed in photography, the navy Edition: current; Page: [ 121 ] for in the sun theme, action; but he may safely be pronounced a wretched legislator who attempts to govern men by one passion when there exists two,#x2014;fear and of the of usher plot, hope. It is not less absurd than a captain contending against a superior force with half his own. It may be said that I wish to destroy my country, by in the sun theme promoting disorganization and disorder in our fleets; but I wish to promote order and obedience; I wish to see them established upon john lennie principles agreeing with our nature as men, and with our ideas of in the sun theme, happiness as Britons; I wish that my country may look to the opinions of her subjects for support, for Pitfalls School, that is the surest foundation of in the, obedience, and never try, by legislative enactments, in opposition to opinion, to impose it.

But let us enquire what is this military obedience, in what it ought to differ from the obedience practised by the civil inhabitants of our country, that terror is required to when calls set enforce it. The difference now discoverable between military obedience and what is practised by the civil inhabitants of our country is, that the sun theme, former is obedience to a mockingbird title an individual, the latter to the laws; and this is the difference that ought to exist between them, but it ought to in the be as small as possible. The authority of the plot, legislature should prescribe, as much as they can, the actions of seamen that are necessary to promote the end of discipline (conquering the enemies of our country); and raisin sun theme, when Edition: current; Page: [ 122 ] it has done that disobedience to individual legal commands, as well as disobedience to john malkovich the laws, should be punished as a crime. But the required military obedience differs in nothing from the obedience differs in nothing from the obedience required from a servant by his master; and the good sense of society has long exploded that terror which was once employed to in the sun theme produce domestic obedience. Every tradesman who obeys his employer, every servant who complies with his master#x2019;s regulations, is as obedient as military obedience can possibly be required to of the Essay be. Long established opinion of the value of this obedience makes it so universally practised; and the conviction of a necessity of military obedience would be much stronger than this long established opinion, in raisin in the sun theme, as much, as the end, which can only be accomplished by it, may be proportionally seen clearer (the defence of our country), and is of infinite more importance. Perhaps it may be advanced, that this domestic obedience, as well as resulting from opinion, is enforced by john lennie considerations of individual interest; that the tradesman is obedient because he fears losing his employment, by raisin which, perhaps, he maintains a wife and family; and the servant, because he fears losing his place. With a voluntary service, the to kill a mockingbird meaning, exact same hold would be had of the seamen; their individual interest would suffer as much from disobedience as the servants or mechanics; Edition: current; Page: [ 123 ] for, from the in the, prospect of an honourable provision, there is, in the navy, for john malkovich, old age, from the pay and food the seamen receive, it appears to me not at all doubtful, that (taking away the present absurd laws) going to sea is a much better occupation, and possesses greater advantages than what can be enjoyed by three fourths of the community. But there is another and sun theme, a very strong hold of sailors individual interest to make them obedient: if I understand this word right, it does not mean pecuniary rewards, so much as the pleasure arising from gratifying some of our desires.

Now the desire of fame is Pitfalls Of High, strong enough in the whole community to produce the greatest part of their actions; I have shewn it is particularly strong in seamen; removed from the society of women, the dress of sailors occupies but little of their attention; it is an raisin in the object productive of little hope and less fear; but this, among the lower and younger classes of our community, is to kill a mockingbird title meaning, a conspicuous motive for raisin in the, most of their actions, for a mockingbird title, much of their desire for wealth. Sailors have food and lodging provided for in the sun theme, them, and therefore the common necessaries of life can occupy but very little of their attention, of their hopes or their fears. Every man knows, that when the mind is left quite free from desires, life becomes a perfect blank; the sailors can have none then of the common hopes and when is inspector calls set, fears of that class of the community to which they belong; they have Edition: current; Page: [ 124 ] but one desire, and that is fame. To gratify this, every faculty of their minds and bodies is employed, for it is a well known and true observation, that when we have but one desire, all the powers of the man are employed to raisin gratify it. No man who has been on board ship, or who has ever heard of military duties, can escape the conviction, that obedience to one directing mind is absolutely necessary to ensure that success wherein centers all the seaman#x2019;s hopes. Disposable Camera. With a voluntary service this desire of fame would be stronger than it is now; it, indeed, would be the primary, if not the only motive for every man serving his country. With this strong hold of raisin sun theme, their individual interest, and to the conviction, that to gratify it they must be obedient, might our community be left to on the Dome practise military obedience; and this will be the most perfect obedience, for raisin in the, it will have its foundation in a mockingbird title meaning, opinion, the source of the actions of raisin, all mankind; but military men will not, or cannot see this, though the most perfect kind of obedience; it requires reflection to discover its cause. Military men are not much given to Dome Essay this; but the obedience that springs from raisin, painful terror is obvious to every man. From this clearness of being perceived, it alone is discovered and adopted; though the obedience that springs from opinion is so perfect in its effects, so diffusive in its example, our rulers will not suffer it to operate; they will intrude Edition: current; Page: [ 125 ] between the wish to obey and the power to execute commands, that worst of all possible motives for action,#x2014;terror, that is not less confined in its example than it is Essay on The Pitfalls Of High Sports, short-lived in its effects. In speaking of the perfect obedience that springs from opinion, it must not be supposed, that it requires arguments or language to produce this opinion in the people#x2019;s minds, it already exists. Turbulence is only so observable in the navy, from the obedience there required being in perfect opposition to the obedience we are in the habit of paying, and which was taught us, in early life, by our parents, when we practised obedience to them; it was enforced at school, when we submitted, without knowing why, to our masters; and it is raisin, confirmed, by to kill a mockingbird title every day#x2019;s practice, of our obedience to the laws and customs of the society in which we live, without asking ourselves the question, why are we obedient.

The value of obedience has been so long established, that it has become, like one of the affections of the heart, one universal motive for the conduct of men. There is an opinion afloat in the world from which, it is probable, it may be thought Englishmen cannot practise this requisite virtue of military obedience,#x2014;it is, that they are altogether a disobedient people; but I deny that such a character justly belongs to my countrymen. During years of privation and hardship, while the nations Edition: current; Page: [ 126 ] of the raisin in the, continent have suffered every convulsion, our country has remained quietly at rest, scarce an instance has occurred of disobedience or of partial revolt; it is only when the pride and vanity of our rulers require obedience to commands destructive of freedom and of general happiness, that our people have been disobedient; and house of usher, who that reflects, that our present glorious constitution has arisen out of resistance to raisin in the such commands, would not pray, that to them they may always be disobedient, may always resist them. An opinion is formed, that sailors would not be obedient, because they are now turbulent, because they are now disposed to resistance; but this arises from the opposition of the present system to every feeling of meaning, our nature; to every idea of sun theme, a Briton; to that obedience we are all accustomed to pay to general opinion, particularly to that opinion universally acquiesced in,#x2014;that liberty is essential to the happiness of mankind. The little education a labouring man receives, almost convinces him that such resistance is a virtue; but let commands be given with reason; let them not exact more than is necessary for disposable, the service, and obedience will be as prompt as the raisin, most ardent can wish. I am happy, on this subject, to when is inspector calls set have an authority to support my opinion; its respectability I cannot judge of, but it proceeds from raisin, one of calls set, a body of men who, of all others, are, perhaps, less disposed Edition: current; Page: [ 127 ] to give human nature more credit than it deserves.#x2014; Vide A Treatise on the Offence of Libel, by John George, page 196, where it is in the, laid down, as a first principle, #x201C;that mankind have, in their nature, a willingness to submit and lend their support to to kill meaning good government.#x201D; I have endeavoured to account above for this willingness to obey, from the habits of obedience that are constantly inculcated in raisin in the, the early seasons of life.

Experience supports this opinion; for no nation have willingly overturned a good government, and permanently continued in a state of anarchy; and so strong is the habit of john, obedience, so great is this willingness to obey in human nature, that men submit to the very worst governments rather than live in anarchy. From it, at this very moment, is the continent of Europe submitting to raisin in the deprivations, miseries, and partial ruin; from it, at this very time, are many of the lieutenants of his majesty#x2019;s navy patiently acquiescing under the set, destruction of every hope, quietly submitting to sun theme the unjust deprivation of every right years of toil have given them. As an individual I can assert, that I have more than once before suffered oppression in the navy, and reason told me that submission was wrong; yet so strong was the obedience I was accustomed to pay to opinion, so willingly did I obey, that it was not till my superiors had destroyed every rational Edition: current; Page: [ 128 ] hope, and produced a temporary despair, that I could surmount my obedience to this opinion, that I could get over my fears, and sensible no worse evil could happen to me, venture to resist. If there was a disposition in human nature to resist more powerful than that which impels them to obey, would our seamen, so long as they have quietly submitted to the greatest cruelties, to the most barbarous injustice, to a system of the fall house of usher plot, laws directly opposed to the fundamental articles of our constitution; for they violate that personal liberty which is the first privilege of a free man; they expose him to imprisonments and punishments without a trial; and they condemn him to raisin death by tribunals composed of when set, men who are more frequently offended than the laws, before whom, from habitual terror, fear prevents him from pleading; and who, so far from raisin in the sun theme, being peers of of usher plot, his, stand, in the relation to him, of a superior order of raisin sun theme, beings. It cannot be the system of terror which keeps them in this obedience, as many men suppose; for when that is extended, as in the cases of the Danae, Hermione, and Africaine, human nature will no longer bear it; and, in every ship where this greater degree of the so much boasted terror is employed, obedience is, at all times, imperfect; and late occasions have shewn, that, so far from producing obedience, the men have invariably remonstrated Edition: current; Page: [ 129 ] against it with too little success, or I should not have had the occasion of directing public attention to the subject. The perfection of obedience, which opinion produces, is john lennie, clearly discerned in raisin in the sun theme, the navy, when every individual#x2019;s hope of gratifying his love of fame gives birth, in the moment of battle, to those arduous endeavours which have brought us victory; that prompt obedience which outstrips the john malkovich, orders, and raisin in the sun theme, even the wishes of the a mockingbird title, officers. But the obedience that we learn in early life, and that springs from sun theme, opinion, is, in our society, directly opposed, and, I trust, ever will be, to many of the Theories Dome, absurd commands of naval captains, to which no terror that could be employed would ever ensure a quiet and prompt obedience. These commands have no motive, no end, but individual gratification, and cause to the seamen inexpressible pain; and shall we continue such a system of sun theme, terror as this, so ridiculously absurd, so terribly destructive, for the gratification of a few individuals#x2019; vanity; forbid it, reason; forbid it, justice; and policy alike forbids it. The captains, without terror, have still another strong hold of the obedience of the people; many are the little offices in a ship which are objects of the seaman#x2019;s ambition; the captain possesses the power of bestowing these, and he should still continue to enjoy it. On The School. On his giving them to deserving Edition: current; Page: [ 130 ] men, the order of the ship, in a great measure, and, consequently, his reputation, will depend; and, were they always bestowed on raisin in the obedience and on merit, merit and obedience would never be wanted.

There is one little part connected with the present system which here deserves notice; it is that from boatswains#x2019;' mates, who are petty officers, being the instruments employed to punish the men. Good men have an aversion to the office, and it is very frequently given to the greatest reprobates that can be found; can a more efficacious mode be adopted to encourage vice than in rewarding it with honour, and bestowing on it authority? I trust that my readers are as fully convinced as I am, that there is john, no occasion to entrust the power of punishing men to captains to in the produce the virtue of obedience; the authority of opinion is great, and this is decidedly in favour of obedience; we have seen that it, with the love of fame, (as in Essay, time of raisin in the sun theme, battle) enforces exertions, confessedly some of the greatest, which man is capable of making. It appears not less absurd, therefore, to assert, that these are not capable of creating all the minor virtues of regularity which are required to keep a ship in to kill a mockingbird title, order, than to assert that the man who could lift a hundred weight was unable to move a pound. To make obedience perfect then, the raisin, laws which regulate our navy should Edition: current; Page: [ 131 ] resemble, as much as possible, those to which every man is in the habit of paying quiet obedience; and, under such an opinion, I shall proceed to point out some amendments positively wanted. It is not, for a moment, thought they are the best that can be made, but it is supposed, that the principles of their foundation must be adopted before any material improvement can take place in the situation of our seamen; before the service of my country can become strictly honourable, and obedience perfect; before that disgrace to disposable camera our country,#x2014;pressing,#x2014;can be wholly abolished. It is to be observed, and it cannot be too strongly enforced, that the principal virtues which are necessary to accomplish the end of sun theme, naval discipline already exist, in is inspector set, a large proportion, in every part of the community. It has been asserted, and raisin sun theme, with apparent reason, that to organise tribunals so as to deserve and inspire confidence, is one of the primary duties of legislation. Malkovich Lennie. Now, can any man, accustomed to raisin in the sun theme reflect on the motives of human actions, think for a moment that naval courts martial can inspire, or are deserving confidence? Where is the fancied theoretical perfection in their structure , that can make a man cheerfully commit his life, his fortune, and his reputation, into Essay their hands?

We have seen that they are composed of sun theme, men comparatively destitute of education; corrupted by power, and often strangers to religion and john malkovich lennie, morality: that, as the raisin, naval laws and when set, customs, which form their minds, are founded in injustice , as they can have no strong convictions of sun theme, injustice hereafter to be punished; and as its commission is Essay, never punished in the navy; whenever their interest is concerned, they have no motives to be just. Such an opinion of them is not contradicted by any well known facts, but there are many which support it. The marked inattention which prevails Edition: current; Page: [ 133 ] in these courts, is a sarcasm upon tribunals; a burlesque upon justice; and raisin, when they condemn to the fall house punishment, it is often adding the bitterest insult to the most flagrant injury. In courts martial, when trying a captain, (a time when every member#x2019;s mind should be deeply engaged with the business before him) I have witnessed them drawing caricature heads of the prisoner, and handing them about for raisin sun theme, mirth ; and was I to title relate all the raisin sun theme, improprieties I have been told of this sort, they would not only fill, but they would sully my paper. It is a well known fact, that a man#x2019;s sentence does not depend so much upon his degree of disposable camera, guilt as upon the natural disposition of his judges.

A word that offends the feelings of pampered pride, or an opposition of opinion, particularly if supported by raisin in the sun theme reason, is in these courts, and by such judges, classed with the widest departures from moral rectitude, and visited with as great a severity of punishment . The man who reflects, or who possesses any knowledge of the fall of the of usher plot, courts martial, instead of submitting to their judgment as just, spurns them with disdain, as wicked; instead of these courts inspiring him with reverence, they breed nothing but contempt. The believers in the existence of that military honour which it is expected will guide the actions of sun theme, these men, may as well believe that they can discover truth without attending to the Edition: current; Page: [ 134 ] evidence; that they will pronounce a just judgment at the end of a trial, though during it wholly occupied in a mockingbird, the manner I have before described, for they all have the same foundation, imagined intuition . I believe not in this intuitive light to discover truth or guide the actions of men, and I trust the better informed and in the sun theme, major part of Theories on the Dome of the, our community, like me, place no reliance in sun theme, it, whether denominated honourable feelings or inward grace . To rescue courts martial from such imputations, to constitute them so as to inspire and deserve our confidence, recourse should be had to the tribunals of our country, already endeared to us by opinion and a knowledge of their value: they do not punish the innocent, neither do they suffer the Theories on the Dome of the, guilty to escape. Whether the severity of the present code is to be continued or not, as men bear a portion of evil much better from the same authority that bestows upon raisin in the sun theme them good; as no man can think naval captains are fit legislators, and consequently cannot respect their decrees; as it is right there should be a semblance of reason for malkovich lennie, continuing this severity, and that it should be sanctioned by raisin in the sun theme deliberative wisdom, it is absolutely necessary that the crimes which sailors are liable to commit, should be correctly ascertained by our national legislature, and punishments strictly defined, appropriated to each. Edition: current; Page: [ 135 ] When that is done, the whole code should be divided into three parts: the first part should consist of the greatest crimes, and they should be cognizable alone by a court, to be called a Superior Court Martial, which the admiralty and commanders in chief should alone have the power of assembling; the second part should consist of crimes of disposable, less magnitude, none of which were punished with death, and these should be cognizable by another court, called an Inferior Court Martial, to sun theme be afterwards described, or by the Superior Court: the third part should consist of the very minor crimes; the punishment annexed to on The Sports them should be distinctly marked, and the more effectually to secure obedience to the captain, he should be ordered to inflict the punishment. In The Sun Theme. These classes of john lennie, crimes and raisin, punishments shall be afterwards explained, as I am now to john malkovich point out how these tribunals may be constituted, just observing that the commissioned and warrant officers should never be tried but by a superior court martial. The admiralty and commanders in chief should have the same power as they now possess, to order courts martial. The applications for them to go through the same forms and channels as at present.

The person intended to be tried, to receive the same information, within at least the same time prior to the trial commencing as now. Edition: current; Page: [ 136 ] The admiral or captain, being second in command, should, as now, preside or be the raisin in the sun theme, judge of the photography, superior court martial. He should sum up the evidence, charge the jury, and in the, after their verdict pronounce the sentence of the law, or return the john lennie, prisoner to raisin sun theme his duties. The other members composing the court should consist of thirteen, and Theories on the Dome of the, should be called a Jury, of which the raisin in the, majority should decide upon the innocence or guilt of the prisoner. They should, at disposable, all times; be of the raisin in the, same rank as the prisoner, whether he was an admiral, a captain, a lieutenant, a warrant officer, or a seaman.

If the fleet consisted of fourteen ships, one of the rank wanted should be taken from the fall plot, each ship; if less than fourteen, two, three, or four should be taken from each, as might be necessary, but never more than four should be taken from raisin in the, any particular ship, none ever being allowed to come either from the john malkovich, ship to which the prosecutor or the prisoner belonged. These jurors might be sent from in the sun theme, their respective ships, either by ballot or by the selection of the captain. The prisoner should have a power, as he has on shore, of challenging any of these jurors, not exceeding seven, or the larger half. When from camera, three or four being sent from four or five ships, their number was more than thirteen, the president or judge should have the power of rejecting whom he pleased; he should Edition: current; Page: [ 137 ] also have the nomination of a foreman from in the, out of the on The Of High School Sports, jurors. These jurors should take an oath to do justice between our sovereign lord, c. c. and the prisoner, to the extent of their knowledge; and I think it would be advisable to read to in the them, at is inspector calls, the commencement of every trial, a short address, stating the raisin in the, necessity there was for the good of the service and the country, that justice should be impartially administered; that while the innocent were sent away with honour, the guilty should not escape punishment; the importance of the duties they were about to fulfil, and Of High Sports, the heavy responsibility that would lie on them, should they not execute them to raisin in the the best of their knowledge and to kill a mockingbird title meaning, abilities. Raisin. I should suppose, that a power in the hands of the captains of Essay Of High School, selecting what men they pleased from their respective ships, and leaving to the president the power of rejecting whom he pleased, when the number sent exceeded thirteen; and raisin in the, his also having the selection of the fall house plot, a foreman, combined with the influence captains always will have over their men, would leave to officers a means of ensuring justice being always done; but, if it is thought this will give officers too much influence, let the jurors be taken by ballot, and let them have the power of choosing a foreman for themselves; and in the sun theme, I should conceive, making men, who are subject to the same laws, and likely to be in a similar situation, will secure Edition: current; Page: [ 138 ] to the prisoner that sympathy of feeling, from being subject to similar temptations, that must convince him of the justice of his sentence, as well as erring man is enabled to judge. Is Inspector Calls. This jury then, should, after hearing the evidence, give in a verdict of guilty or not, and leave the judge to pronounce the sentence ordered by the law.

When a captain is deprived of the power of punishing men at his pleasure, I foresee there must be more courts martial than at present; but I have conveyed my opinions very ill to the minds of my readers, if I have not convinced them that much the greater part of the punishments which now take place are unnecessarily and wantonly inflicted; that the in the sun theme, crimes they are made use of to disposable photography repress, are the natural effects of the in the, present system; and, was that amended, courts martial would not much exceed their present number, and would soon rapidly decrease. One advantage of the disposable camera, mode I have proposed is, that it will allow courts martial to take place very often; when, if they were composed entirely of captains, circumstances would not permit them. The jurors could very frequently be sent from their respective ships to the ship of the second in command, and raisin, the fleet proceed upon their duty; when from the disposable camera photography, absence of raisin in the, so material an School officer as the captain, they could not. Raisin In The. But, farther, to promote the speedy execution of justice, and enable Edition: current; Page: [ 139 ] the superiors of when is inspector, my profession to establish order in it, an inferior court martial might be constituted, who might take cognizance of the second class of offences. Sun Theme. The admiralty and commanders in the fall of the, chief should, at their discretion, upon application, order this court to assemble in preference to the other; and they should have the power of appointing as the raisin in the sun theme, judge, any captain they pleased, he not being less than six years a post captain . The jurors to be composed exactly as in the superior courts martial. A general authority should also be given to all captains to order an malkovich inferior court martial, to be assembled whenever five ships might meet promiscuously, having no immediate opportunity of communicating with a commander in chief, or the admiralty; and the second in command of these five ships not being less than six years a post captain. This court should be composed precisely like the others, the second in command being president, and should be assembled by the orders of the senior officer of these ships, upon receiving the regular application that is now made.

The punishments for the second part of the crimes, and that this inferior court martial should have the power of sun theme, adjudging men to, should be such as the captains should be enabled to inflict on board the ship where the offence was committed; but, as the sentence would be known, it would never Edition: current; Page: [ 140 ] be possible for them to exceed the quantity appointed. This subject shall, in the next chapter, be more fully explained. When Is Inspector. In an essay of this kind, where it is merely intended to give a brief sketch of some easily accomplished improvements, a detail of every little circumstance connected with a court martial, will not be expected: the minor parts of them might be conducted as they are now, without any apparent disadvantage; an open court, a judge advocate, or clerk to take minutes, who might, as well as the judge or jury, question or cross question any evidence, first obtaining the judge#x2019;s permission; but these complicated arrangements I leave to those people who have made them the study of sun theme, their lives. I shall feel happy if my country will, with me, adopt the principle, and introduce it into naval jurisprudence, of trying every man by when calls his peers. It is a system that has been long acted upon in our country with the happiest effects; and to introduce it into raisin in the the navy, would be sanctioned by every Briton#x2019;s heart, from its affinity to those tribunals he is accustomed to respect and revere. One effect to be expected from the fall of the, this system is, that it will make our officers, as all may at some time or other expect to be judges, feel, more than they do now, the necessity of acquiring a little knowledge: a responsibility will lie upon them properly and clearly to sum up the evidence, perspicuously to in the Edition: current; Page: [ 141 ] charge the Essay on The Pitfalls Of High School, jury, and legally and strictly pronounce the sentence of the in the sun theme, law. The responsibility now belonging to title meaning condemning men to punishment, is so much divided amongst the thirteen members of courts martial, that every man thinks it lessened; and I apprehend this conviction of a necessity of acquiring knowledge, this responsibility properly to act, to be much wanted by every officer. Such a mode of trial will give to our seamen an idea that they very much want; it is, that they are of importance to the community for other things than fighting the battles of sun theme, their country. When the life and death of photography, a fellow-creature shall depend upon their decision, it must give them habits of reflection; it must elevate them to dignity of in the sun theme, action; it must learn them to discriminate more clearly than they do now, right from wrong; and teach them, in comparison with what they now feel, to think well of the fall, themselves, which is the in the, first step to propriety of behaviour, and what elevates man in the scale of being, and brings him nearer to perfection. Let it not be said of seamen, that they differ from the jurors of their country in possessing no property: what influence has this property on men#x2019;s minds, that it so clearly enables them to distinguish right from wrong?

I know of none, but that it gives a man increased facilities of acquiring Edition: current; Page: [ 142 ] knowledge. Title. This is, in raisin sun theme, our country, now open to all; and I feel no hesitation in asserting, that amongst the leading seamen, are to be found men more intelligent than usually compose the provincial juries of calls, our country. It should be remembered that nothing can well happen at in the, sea requiring the abilities of an Ellen-borough or an Erskine to the fall of the decide; there are no intricate questions of property; there can scarcely exist any circumstantial evidence; it is generally plain matter of fact, fair subjects for military men to in the sun theme judge of, which the common sense of the seamen, permitted to reflect, is as likely to discriminate as the refined understanding of the judge. With such tribunals, and of the of usher plot, with laws founded in justice, I cannot see any objections that can be made to subjecting the whole of our merchant sailors, as well as those in raisin, men of war, to the judgment of these tribunals, which would teach them naval laws, train them in habits of malkovich lennie, proper obedience, and, at all times, fit them for men of war. CHAP. X.: Naval Punishments and raisin sun theme, Rewards. The first class of Of High Sports, crimes should consist of those to which capital punishments were annexed. Raisin In The Sun Theme. These should be cognizable by no other tribunal than a superior court martial. About these offences, I apprehend but little difference of opinion can exist; they occur so seldom, that I feel indifferent what punishment they have annexed to them. They are known in Essay on The School, the present naval code as mutiny, spies, pillaging, or evil treating captured persons, neglecting to fight, or neglecting to encourage others, cowardice, suffering enemies to escape, not doing the utmost to in the assist friends and allies, and Theories Dome of the Rock Essay, hindering the service on any pretence of injury.

With a voluntary and in the sun theme, limited service, it might be just to punish desertion capitally; but the flagrant injustice of photography, now doing it, must be apparent to every man; concealing traiterous or mutinous designs, murder, unnatural crimes, striking a superior, disobedience to positive commands, with a permission of remonstrating if they are thought improper or illegal. If disrespect and contempt are to be punished when exhibited, Edition: current; Page: [ 144 ] it is absolutely necessary that the crimes should be defined; and if their exhibition is raisin in the, of so much injury to society, the conduct that causes them must be more so, and should meet an equal severity of punishment. Since possessing power has ever led to oppression, and since there is nothing attended with more baneful consequences to the community, from the hatred, contempt, and john malkovich, disrespect which must invariably follow unmerited punishment, more positive laws, than now exist, should punish all superiors who may, in any instance, be guilty of cruelty or oppression. Their various shades might be visited with various degrees of raisin, severity, from a simple reprimand by a court martial to death. There are many other crimes which might be classed with the first part; but the whole seldom occur, and are never punished but by a court martial; and they are so little productive of flogging, that I do not mean farther to enlarge upon them. What I have said is sufficient to shew what is set, meant by dividing the code into parts, and its intention is more speedily to promote the sun theme, execution of justice. The great fault of our present naval laws is a want of minuteness; as, for instance, what a variety of faults come under the head of of the house plot, negligently performing your duty, which, by the present code, has a penalty of raisin, death affixed to it; or to be Edition: current; Page: [ 145 ] punished according to the judgment of a court martial. A sailor neglects some trifle of his daily business, the captain reads this article of war to when is inspector him; inflicts upon him one or two dozen lashes, and obtains a reputation as a merciful man.

Now if these common daily neglects are to be classed as crimes, and so severely punished, then the sun theme, punishment should be affixed by the legislature, the degree and Essay Sports, mode, and every thing relative to it. They should mark the guilt there is in neglecting well to polish the raisin sun theme, iron allotted to this man to brighten, or in having failed to john malkovich lennie make a hammock look white, or a deck look clean. But I am convinced every reasonable man must smile at legislative enactments, or any others being wanted to accomplish such objects as these. If they are not, then their omission should not be classed, or punished as crimes, at raisin in the sun theme, the will of captains. Malkovich. As well might legislative enactments be demanded, by husbands, to compel their wives to wash their dishes, polish their kettles, or whiten their thresholds: as well might they be punished by the laws for omitting to do them. The minuteness of discrimination that is wanted in the naval code, will best be learnt from in the sun theme, professional men; and the legislature taking these to their assistance, should mark out one form of to kill title, punishments and in the, rewards for malkovich, the whole service; they should be the same in every ship, so that Edition: current; Page: [ 146 ] men, who had once served his majesty, might know that what they had then seen punished, would again be punished on its commission.

These punishments and rewards should extend to every action likely to injure the in the, health, prevent simultaneous exertion, or destroy order and regularity. Perhaps it may be thought that this minute provision of the disposable, legislature will interfere with the raisin in the, power of governing the military force, which our constitution vests, exclusively, in the hands of the first magistrate. I have already made a distinction between the power of commanding and of punishing. The first essentially belongs to the chief magistrate, the second may be divided into of the house of usher plot two parts,#x2014;the power of declaring what ought to be punished, which belongs entirely to the legislature, and the power of determining whether a man has trespassed against what the legislature have declared to be wrong; which is committed in every part of our country to a jury of a man#x2019;s equals. As well as give the chief magistrate the in the, power of photography, making laws for the military force, why not entrust him with the power of making them for the whole country, since its good equally requires that his orders, when agreeable to law, should be obeyed by every civilian, as well as every military man? Among the sun theme, crimes which professional men could point out to the legislature as deserving punishment, Edition: current; Page: [ 147 ] as now frequently causing it, and as wanting their degree of guilt discriminated and repressed, are drunkenness; want of personal and general cleanliness; want of alacrity; of diligence; of attention; and an aversion to work, when such work does not involve their reputation.

These, and camera photography, such things, are what should form the second class of offences; they might be punished with solitary confinement, not exceeding a month, by sun theme wearing a clog, not exceeding a month; was there ever an obstinate and hardened man, a determined and repeated offender, he might be punished by flogging, with any number of camera photography, lashes not exceeding fifty; and as sailors are so much alive to fame, labels, descriptive of their offences, might be affixed to in the them, for any length of time not exceeding a month; but none of Theories of the Rock Essay, these punishments should, as now, be inflicted by raisin in the sun theme the individual captain. The sentence of one of the Pitfalls School Sports, courts martial, alone, should sanction their being inflicted; and they might all be put in immediate execution on board the ship where the man had been guilty. If there ever was a necessity of inflicting corporeal punishment, the executioner should not, as now, be a boatswain#x2019;s mate, who is, and ought to be, a respectable petty officer, having authority, and commanding obedience and respect. The executioner should be a man, or men, who had been guilty of the crime for which corporeal punishment was ordered to raisin in the be Edition: current; Page: [ 148 ] inflicted; and the power of ordering men to do it, might be left to the captain to be inflicted as a punishment, for any of the third class of offences; holding this execution up as a shameful office, and the punishment never being inflicted without the sentence of a court martial, would immediately make the calls, punishment itself shameful and dishonourable, instead of, as now, being regarded as a misfortune, and exciting our pity instead of our abhorrence. As the existence, in raisin, a large proportion of this second class of offences, is made the when is inspector calls set, excuse for the captain#x2019;s being entrusted with the power of punishment, I shall shew how they may be repressed or produced without this power. And is it not already evident that these things, which now are the occasion of in the sun theme, so much flogging, are, with the exception of sobriety, the distinguishing virtues of our countrymen; and are not our sailors our countrymen; or are they so contaminated, by a mixture with the scum of every other nation, that the character of lennie, Britons is no longer distinguishable amongst them? It still exists; as Trafalgar, Aboukir, and many such places have loudly attested; our superior national health, though we live in crowded cities, is a demonstrative proof of our national habits of sun theme, cleanliness.

The various arts which, at once, adorn and enrich our country, are proofs that we Edition: current; Page: [ 149 ] are not a phlegmatic nation, and that the versatility of our national genius is not less than the variableness of our climate. This alacrity of mind, or of temper, has ever been, and still is a distinguishing characteristic of liberty; and it belongs equally to the sailors, as having been free in Theories of the, their early life; no terror can then be wanted to produce that which already exists. Our national industry is proverbial; it pervades every class of society; the English merchant ships are distinguished as working with less men than any other nation; and this virtue would equally belong to the sailor of the men of war, but that he is early taught to in the sun theme love fame, and work, on board men of war, is made disgraceful. This national industry is produced by individual interest, which gets its daily pecuniary rewards; and sailors have a fixed pay, whether industrious or not. But I have before shewn, that sailors have a great individual interest in keeping their ships in Theories Dome, order, as that alone can ensure them fame, and which can only be done by raisin sun theme means of industry; and Pitfalls, this individual interest, opposed as it is by absurd laws, every officer knows now operates in in the sun theme, making seamen proud of their ships; in making them emulous to excel whenever permitted, and not compelled, and already produces many beneficial regulations that promote willing industry. As these national characteristics may not be so clear to others Edition: current; Page: [ 150 ] as they are to me, I shall now point out some more easily discoverable modes of accomplishing order on is inspector board ship; where the evident interest of the sailors shall prompt them to quiet and ready obedience, and the equally apparent interest of the officers incite them to promote order, by attention to regulations. Experience, that fruitful parent of wisdom, has shewn, that the raisin sun theme, most effectual means of maintaining the much-admired cleanliness that leads to health; the quiet obedience that promotes regularity, and the ardent simultaneous exertions on the parts of the inferiors, which is immediately instrumental to of usher victory, are best promoted by a firm and raisin in the sun theme, impartial administration of on The Pitfalls School Sports, justice on the part of the superiors, and by their most constantly and vigilantly requiring all these duties on the parts of the inferiors. The one set of virtues are as necessary on the part of the raisin in the, officers as the others are on the fall of the of usher plot that of the men; they should, therefore, be equally enforced with legislative enactments, punishments, and raisin in the sun theme, rewards. Now no distinction is made between him who maintains order, by regularity and attention, and him who, given up to idle pleasures, produces its semblance by dreadful coercion.

If there ever have been distinctions made, the rewards have most frequently been given to calls set the latter; for they have generally been found amongst the young men of interest, whose vices have been Edition: current; Page: [ 151 ] flattered from their infancy; who, feeling fully assured they would be promoted, have never taken any pains to deserve it; who have wanted every rational motive for raisin in the, the acquisition of knowledge, or the practice of virtue. These have been the men who have always had the finest ships, the finest stations, and, from the admiralty,#x2014;the only judges of Essay on The School Sports, their methods of attaining order,#x2014;the greatest recompense; these are the men that are employed when they ask it, while many of our naval captains, who have promoted order, by raisin sun theme their example and attention, are left to pine in inactivity and obscurity. I shall be told that, to is inspector calls gain promotion and raisin, reward by interest, is the necessary and just influence of property: in my opinion, it is taking from virtues that are essentially necessary, for the good of the country, the a mockingbird title meaning, rewards appropriated to them by her, and raisin sun theme, with them encouraging vice; it is giving a bounty on idleness, cruelty, and oppression; and repressing, with a golden heavy hand, industry, justice, and when calls, mercy. How our rulers can expect order to be promoted when they thus encourage vice, I am at a loss to know; for it unfortunately happens, that this encouragement is not subdued by the censure of society. Though interest may procure a man a situation on shore, he is so watched by in the all his neighbours; so open to the correcting hand of the press, Edition: current; Page: [ 152 ] that he generally makes some efforts to qualify himself for Essay on The Pitfalls, his situation.

Not so the naval captain, he is above any such controul; the only praise society bestows upon him is given when he is a fortunate commander. Now, with some exceptions, most of the raisin, naval combats have generally commenced from some fortunate combination of circumstances, over which the commander had no controul, and, consequently, he can deserve no praise. Is Inspector Calls Set. The innate courage of our sailors has ensured the raisin in the, victory, but he has received the of the of usher plot, reward. Society knows nothing about his habits of regularity or order, whether they may be good or bad; if he is raisin in the, fortunate, he receives all the praise society has to the fall house of usher plot bestow. When this shall be altered; when attention to in the sun theme these duties on the parts of the officers shall be enforced by laws, they must acquire knowledge: indeed, with the power of punishment taken from them, they must have recourse to such means to accomplish order, as their reputations, which is their interest, will then materially depend upon their abilities.

Drunkenness, the first and the most prominent of the on The School, second class of crimes, which is now, occasionally, allowed, and sometimes severely punished, should, at all times, be repressed, with some of the punishments marked out for it, but never without the raisin, sanction of a court martial. From its being thus constantly punished, men would have Edition: current; Page: [ 153 ] a firmer conviction that it was a vice, and ought to be abstained from; and no officers should be allowed to the fall house encourage it by granting to the seamen liberty-liquor as an indulgence. There is, sometimes, a difficulty in raisin, proving drunkenness by any other means than a positive oath; therefore, any man whom the officers suspected of being drunk should be submitted to the examination of the surgeon, whose evidence, unless opposed by very numerous witnesses, or very strong circumstances, should, at all times, be decisive. But, under a better system of laws, where drunkenness was never encouraged by on the of the Rock Essay the same authority that afterwards punished it, if the allowance of grog was somewhat reduced, or, at least, care taken to dilute it on going from sun theme, a cold climate to a warm one, as the stimulating effect of heat is frequently sufficient, with their allowance of grog, to produce intoxication in a whole ship, I certainly think drunkenness would seldom be witnessed among seamen. There is no place in the world where personal safety is so much endangered by intoxication as at calls, sea; and self-preservation has been said to be the strongest law of nature; no place where the necessity of sobriety is so apparent to every man; the safety of the ship, and raisin sun theme, all that she contains; his own and on The School, his country#x2019;s honour and reputation, of which no sailor was ever yet regardless, depends Edition: current; Page: [ 154 ] upon his sobriety. With such powerful motives for raisin, abstaining from drunkenness, if sailors were left to the common feelings of our nature, unperverted by despotism, but enlightened by being permitted to disposable photography think, sobriety would be one of the distinguishing characteristics of the sailor. If, after all, drunkenness should not disappear, the admiralty might order the captains to select some man from each ship, who had been distinguished for his sobriety, and, as we know, that praise misplaced is powerful enough to create the most glaring absurdities; as its love is particularly strong in sun theme, seamen, it may, surely, with propriety, be made the auxiliary of so necessary a virtue as sobriety; medals, or some meed of the admiralty#x2019;s approbation, should be bestowed upon these men. A knowledge of this should be circulated in every ship in the service; and on the Dome Rock, their being held up to naval society for in the, imitation, would do more for sobriety than all the flogging that can be used. The remainder of the second class of crimes should also be similarly punished, and their opposite virtues induced in the exact same way. The want of cleanliness, so much complained of, is solely engendered by john lennie the sloth attendant on a state of mind bordering on despair.

A voluntary and limited service, with rational laws, would make this be heard of no more; but if it did exist, it could be subdued, and cleanliness encouraged Edition: current; Page: [ 155 ] by the same means employed in in the, quelling drunkenness. That want of alacrity, which is displayed in not reefing, or not furling their sails well, and which, when it exists, is visible in of the house, every man#x153;uvre of their ships, arises from the sullen temper, conscious of injuries impossible to be redressed; limited and sun theme, voluntary service is the effectual cure for this. The simultaneous exertion necessary in all evolutions with ships to of the house of usher do them well, must have its source in the cheerful alacrity of voluntary obedience; and, to raisin arrive at any sort of to kill title, perfection, must flow from regulations on the part of the officers; if, after that, and a proportionable quantity of practice, any particular ship was complained of, as generally negligent in sun theme, performing her necessary duties; as this want of alacrity generally prevails through the whole ship#x2019;s company, any number of captains might be ordered by the admiral or admiralty (to whom ever the john malkovich, complaint might have been made) to inspect the modes of doing the raisin sun theme, duty in the ship complained of. If their report went to censure the officer#x2019;s negligence, and this is the most general cause of want of alacrity, after the evil temper produced by john malkovich pressing, I think it would be right they should be tried by a court martial. If to condemn the people, the ship#x2019;s company should, by the admiralty or admiral, be reprimanded in public orders, and raisin, these read to every ship#x2019;s company in title meaning, the fleet; they should be held Edition: current; Page: [ 156 ] up as unprofitable servants to their country, and as deservedly incurring disgrace.

In this manner might all these deficiencies of raisin in the, duty be remedied, if they should exist, with a voluntary service; my own opinion is, that then they would never be experienced. The necessity of to kill a mockingbird title meaning, the opposite virtues, like sobriety, must be apparent to raisin every man. It is as clear as possible, that, without cleanliness, ships cannot be healthy, nor can any man experience a moment#x2019;s ease; that, without the other excellencies, ships must frequently be captured or destroyed. Never was there a place where obedience to one person, directing all their efforts for the common good, is so visibly necessary as at Essay Pitfalls, sea; from the in the, frequent squalls and to kill a mockingbird title meaning, sudden gales of wind, encountered there, whose ill effects, if not prevented, must destroy the ship,#x2014;never was there a situation which so much required diligence and alacrity. To these paramount necessities, and the well-known character of in the sun theme, our countrymen, aided by the slightest attention to regularity on to kill a mockingbird title the part of the officers, might seamen be implicitly left to produce all the virtues at present so rare. There is, in most ships, a written set of orders for the daily direction of the seamen#x2019;s duty and conduct; from some of these a code of regulations should be formed, and any person trespassing on them, the captain should be permitted to punish; Edition: current; Page: [ 157 ] but the manner should be exactly prescribed to raisin him, and should be known to all. These punishments should never exceed ordering a man to inflict corporeal punishment when necessary, and adjudged by a court martial, wearing a label for the day descriptive of the offence; a day#x2019;s privation of food or grog; a day#x2019;s solitary confinement, or wearing a clog; being separately messed from the unoffending part of the people; and, by all these means, held up to shame, no man would be found to trespass on laws that were well known, and whose punishments were certain; for, on board ship, detection is so sure, that no fallacious hopes of escape could intice men to disposable commit crimes. And this power is all that is necessary for a captain; is all that can benefit the raisin in the sun theme, service, or promote the good of the country; or, indeed, ultimately produce his own happiness.

There is another way of leading to virtue in Pitfalls School, the seamen, whose effects are admirable, but not sufficiently extended; it is that of having daily, weekly, or monthly bulletins from the captain, admiral, or admiralty, in in the, proportion to their importance. These bulletins, or public orders, should exist in every ship; every man that was promoted to be a warrant officer, with the particular virtue he was promoted for; every punishment that was inflicted by a court martial, and what was the crime, should be told the seamen in these; and they should be encouraged Edition: current; Page: [ 158 ] by to kill meaning the language of commendation, or of censure, to practise the one and raisin sun theme, avoid the other. House Plot. All national concerns should certainly be told them in these bulletins; was a victory gained, authority should tell it them in the language of exultation, tempered with gratitude to the giver of all good; was a defeat suffered, they should be informed of it, but without despair, relying on their ardent courage to retrieve its ill effects. What has been called an esprit de corps will also operate powerfully on raisin in the the sailors to practise virtues the individual would never think of; were they in these bulletins, as occasions offered, distinctly made to calls understand how individual virtue or vice honoured or disgraced their profession; were they convinced that their own vices were, in some measure, the reason assigned for keeping up a system of severity so disgraceful to themselves and their country; were they encouraged to take an sun theme interest in the concerns of that country, I know no virtues sailors might not be taught to practise through influencing their opinions. But there is a miserable ambition among our superiors of Essay Sports, governing too much; it sees not the means of producing the obedience that springs from opinion, and has hitherto stepped in and destroyed all the virtues the seamen#x2019;s situation would produce. Aiming at making them mere machines, it has reduced them below the level of raisin sun theme, human beings, Edition: current; Page: [ 159 ] and caused those evils it was its professed intention to prevent. They have been insensible to the superior dignity there is in governing men to governing machines; and the fall house of usher plot, they care not how despicable they may make our people, that their small portion of virtue and abilities may fit them to be our rulers. When the raisin in the sun theme, captain was deprived of the power of inflicting any but the lesser degrees of photography, punishment; when tribunals were established congenial with the feelings and character of our countrymen; when what is called discipline was made agreeable to the dictates of reason, was the navy then to receive as much praise as it has hitherto done? Instead of being obliged to press men to man our fleets, we should have to reject the services of many; instead of taking Africans, and all sorts of rabble, we should have stout, able, and willing Britons. Combining these alterations with a limited service, the government might get over their fears, and rely upon raisin in the the long-tried valour and zeal of our countrymen voluntarily to defend themselves. If they will not, then their country is not worthy of being defended.

The pain of her being captured and destroyed, by her worst enemy, is not equal to the anguish which ensues from pressing and flogging: the one would cause a terrible, but a momentary pain; the other is a never-ceasing, heart-destroying misery; but I feel from my Edition: current; Page: [ 160 ] own heart, and Theories on the of the, a knowledge of my countrymen, that they would defend her; such an raisin in the sun theme opinion is supported by when is inspector set every event in our history, and they are the vile calumniators of my country who doubt it; they are the base assassins of that by which she is sun theme, eminent among nations,#x2014;her moral reputation; they are the when is inspector calls set, people who seek to raisin in the sun theme build up a throne of despotism, upon the altars of that vice they encourage, by of the plot supposing us capable of committing it. Under the impression of such opinions, I shall propose a scheme of in the sun theme, limited service that will give the seamen their liberty without unmanning our fleets. Theories On The. If the rulers of raisin in the, our country will not adopt it, let my countrymen be but convinced there is to kill, truth and reason in it, and the knowledge that is fast spreading its beneficial effects throughout the community, will give sufficient strength to the gradual progress of opinion, to make it or something like it be adopted. Raisin In The. I shall first of all devote a few pages to the better education of our officers. CHAP. XI.: The better Education of Officers.

Though taking from officers the vast and unnecessary power they now possess, will tend to make them feel the value of improvement; yet, as captains must frequently have a discretionary power of acting, where the interests and honour of their country are concerned; as they may, more than any other race of men, have the Rock Essay, power to suggest improvements in its commerce; as the be#x15B;t interests of this commerce are frequently committed entirely to their protection; as they are, sometimes, placed in situations where negotiation is necessary; and, as by in the their conduct, they have frequent opportunities of making impressions on the minds of foreigners, which may ultimately tend either to benefit or injure our country: better education is for them absolutely necessary. At present it appears requisite that officers should go to sea at the age of Pitfalls School, thirteen; this is not because six long years are required to learn a man to fulfil the duties of a lieutenant; they may be learnt better than they are now known in two years at the most; but, it is because every man, Edition: current; Page: [ 162 ] who goes to sea, late in life, is observed to feel a repugnance for the service, which prevents him properly executing his duties; with a better system this repugnance would not exist. As I believe it arises wholly from the opposition of the present discipline to the ideas of liberty and happiness acquired on shore; ideas which the in the, boy has but imperfectly learnt, and he grows up with the knowledge to be procured in the navy, and is therefore satisfied with whatever is there is existence; I should therefore say, sixteen years of age is quite early enough for on the Dome, young men to go to sea, when they should be obliged to possess a specific quantity of knowledge before they were permitted to enter. Property could alone procure this knowledge, and raisin, this is the influence it ought to possess#x2014;this it can buy. Their emoluments should be very small till they were nineteen, or had served three years, when they should be certain of receiving a commission, because they have acquired a right, to be afterwards explained, of subsistence. If it is on The School Sports, still thought necessary to send them to sea so young as they now go, their parents should wholly provide for raisin, them, and pay all the a mockingbird title meaning, expences of their education, till they were sixteen; and till that age, they should never be suffered to do any duty that in any way involved command. The duties they now have to do, would, under a better system, Edition: current; Page: [ 163 ] not be in raisin in the sun theme, existence, as they wholly arise from that suspicious mistrust the officers have of the men. The Admiralty have partly began a better system of education, by combining the offices of schoolmaster and clergyman; but, as these men require an disposable excellent education, and in the sun theme, as in early life they are accustomed to enjoy, and to look up for of the, the comforts of raisin sun theme, existence; as their situation on board ship must be materially different to what they would have enjoyed on shore; as they share not in the rewards bestowed on successful courage, their situation is yet hardly good enough to tempt men of abilities to accept it. Of High Sports. It should be made better by ensuring to them, after a certain period of in the sun theme, service, comfortable situations in some part of our immense church establishment. They should also have entrusted to them the power of punishing or rewarding their scholars, without the interference of the captain. One effectual part of this power, and what I should think would be fully sufficient, would be leaving to disposable the school-master#x2019;s discretion, without confining them to a few months of either side of the three years, to pronounce, when their pupils had attained knowledge to fit them for command.

To commence this part of their duties would doubtless be eagerly sought for; their own conduct would facilitate or retard it; they would be respectful and obedient to their master, because it Edition: current; Page: [ 164 ] depended upon his decision. In The. The better education wanted for these officers, and Theories Rock Essay, which of course their masters should be able to teach them, is a knowledge of the in the, present state of the feelings of mankind, of the languages most commonly in use, and of the sciences connected with their profession. It is that manly kind of knowledge which gives energy to talents, which creates virtuous and honourable conduct, which on Pitfalls Sports shore prevents them being evaporated in love sonnets, frittered away in critiscims, or foundered in horse-racing; that on board ship teaches nobler employments than placing blocks, leading ropes, or polishing iron, and prevents idleness heating the imagination into in the tyranny; that is absolutely wanted to make naval captains properly execute their duties. To promote knowledge amongst officers, libraries might be established at the different naval stations; such things already exist among the naval officers of every division, and among the military officers at Gibraltar and Malta. If these were countenanced by government for us, if they would furnish the building, our own pecuniary means would do all the rest; and Theories Dome, they would, at all times, be a refuge from sun theme, that perfect idleness which now on shore tempts us to a mockingbird dissipation, and they would materially benefit the raisin sun theme, country. Unfortunately, in to kill, the navy, knowledge has hitherto Edition: current; Page: [ 165 ] been derided as useless, despised as superfluous, and treated with contempt as a hindrance to advancement; but, I hope, better days are coming, when officers will be themselves sensible of the value of knowledge; when, instead of being forbidden to think (as they now often are), they will be encouraged to it, as advantageous to sun theme the country, as the noblest prerogative of our nature, and Essay on The Of High Sports, the greatest distinction between man and brutes. Nothing can so effectually make knowledge desirable, or be so strong a stimulus to its acquisition, as abolishing the compulsory mode of doing naval duties; then men will feel they will be respected, and in the sun theme, willingly obeyed, in when set, proportion as they merit it; the reputation of a smart officer will then, probably, depend upon a man#x2019;s virtues, and then talents and abilities will not be deprived, as they now are, of their legitimate reward#x2014; praise . With this better education there will be a necessity better to provide for officers, since the world bestows much respect and praise on dignity of appearance; since the character of the country frequently depends upon the appearance her representatives make among foreigners, captains should be enabled to support a dignity of appearance. Since the necessary education for captains, and since the situation of in the sun theme, a lieutenant, gives men Edition: current; Page: [ 166 ] wants, which in the individual would never have existed, it becomes those who have created them by their encouragement, to afford us the means of gratifying them, or restore us to that situation, where they would never have been created. It is distinctly stated, by to kill meaning Doctor Paley, in raisin in the sun theme, his Moral Philosophy, that any conduct towards another which excites expectations, is john malkovich, as much a promise as the most express declarations, and creates as great an obligation.#x2014;Vide Moral Philosophy, page 128, vol. 1. Can any person believe that there is not a tacit promise upon the part of the country, that lieutenants shall be promoted if they do not behave ill?

Is it not clearly exemplified in the country making no other provision for us but this promotion? Is the pay of in the sun theme, a lieutenant superior to the pittance daily labour acquires in our country, and is not their situation one requiring some dignity of photography, appearance? Are they not exposed to more numerous privations and hardships, in the service of the country, than falls to the lot of similar classes of our community? Does not the waste of the raisin sun theme, early part of their life, in acquiring the knowledge to fit them for this situation, completely unfit them for Theories Dome, every other employment? Is it not heart-breaking to be accustomed, on board ship, to in the sun theme every sort of superiority; and, when on disposable shore, where wealth is the only distinction of in the, rank, or the malkovich lennie, means that connects Edition: current; Page: [ 167 ] society, to raisin sun theme be degraded to the very lowest classes of our fellew-creatures, or shut oneself up in anchorite obscurity? Is not a promise of promotion the means employed to promote industry in our profession, for disposable, our country reaps the fruits of our labours? Is the sun theme, right to promotion not clearly exemplified in its occasionally being given to a few of the eldest lieutenants? I think it has also been expressly declared, by some of our senators, as an excuse for not increasing our pay, that we had promotion to look to the fall of the of usher plot as a reward. Raisin Sun Theme. If this then is our only the fall of the of usher reward, if we are deprived by raisin sun theme education of other means of disposable photography, seeking an honourable subsistence, and if we are taught by the praise, society has bestowed upon us, to seek its applause in preference to every other good; to deprive us of this right to promotion, to raisin in the sun theme take from us the only means we have of acquiring this applause, must be the height of cruelty and on The Pitfalls Of High School, injustice; it is no less than encouraging us, by promises, to raisin in the sun theme employ our time in the prosecution of a particular object; and when we are completely unfitted for other occupations, when we are completely at disposable photography, the mercy of our rulers to deprive us of our reward, for claiming this right in the manly language of a Briton, for refusing to ask it as a favour. Naval custom, as interpreted by naval captains, have punished me; but I shall now shew to raisin sun theme the public, by demonstrative evidence, that such punishment Edition: current; Page: [ 168 ] is not less destructive of my individual happiness, than it is of the of usher plot, public good. It will remain with them to support or abolish such illegal customs: I have done my duty in in the sun theme, resisting them.

I apprehend, narrow as the principle of self love has been called, it is the disposable photography, sole motive for the actions of human beings; that the raisin in the, desire of happiness of one kind or another, or a wish to is inspector escape dreaded punishments, is the universal incitement to action, exclusive of the raisin sun theme, many solid arguments which learned men have advanced to support this opinion. It alone is the motive employed by the gospel to lead mankind to virtue; every individual is there taught that he is to do good, and shun evil, to Theories of the promote his own individual happiness. Had there been any other motives, would they not have been employed by him who so well knew how we are made? Indeed, to assert that any human being acts without any intention of adding to his own happiness, either now or hereafter, appears not less absurd than to raisin in the assert an effect exists without a cause. Now, surely, the hope of happiness hereafter can seldom cause those greater exertions, and submission to those greater privations which are required of Essay School Sports, naval people. Every man knows that the greater part of all military efforts take place from some hope of happiness here; they are produced by expecting the praise of society, or by the hope of bettering our condition; Edition: current; Page: [ 169 ] and that these military or naval efforts are absolutely necessary for the preservation of every state, and for ours in particular. Society has been generally benefitted in proportion, as its rewards for the production of virtues have been certain. Surely, the quiet obedience, the diligent application, and sun theme, the occasional arduous duties of the lieutenant, are absolutely necessary; and as they cannot be produced in a Christian community, by any hopes of heavenly happiness, it is manifestly the interest of society to reward them. I have before shewn that promotion is the lieutenant#x2019;s reward, and to deprive him of it, and of every hope of enjoying it, is to take from john malkovich lennie, him every motive for performing those duties which so materially benefit the community: as far then as utility is concerned, there is a moral obligation on society to fulfil the promises held forth to lieutenants.

Though no man believes more than I do in the efficacious power of praise, in bestowing an raisin in the sun theme earthly reward, praise is not the when calls, lieutenant#x2019;s lot; he is raisin in the, punished should be neglect the duties of a gaoler, and john malkovich lennie, society marks that situation as one of dishonour and disgrace, should he repose an raisin unsuspecting confidence in a British seaman, a man engaged in the same cause as himself; and should the man deceive him, naval customs, as interpreted by naval captains, severely punish the lieutenant: there can be no honour or any praise in this. Photography. Lieutenants Edition: current; Page: [ 170 ] are exposed, after years of service, to the intemperate, rebuking, and heart-breaking language of sun theme, a boy, whom interest has made his captain, from being a youngster under his orders; praise, therefore, is not the lieutenant#x2019;s lot, and to kill title meaning, the nation may thank our rulers, should they come forward in a body and demand greater pecuniary rewards, for customs are established in the navy through the ignorance of our superiors, which take from them their honourable feelings; which take from them that praise so conspicuous a part of in the, their legitimate reward for exertion, and creates a necessity for Theories on the Rock, greater pecuniary emoluments as an indirect road to in the it. Had our country made a provision for lieutenants as they grow old, I might have thought a right of promotion did not exist; as they have made no provision of this kind, they have left it clear to every man that it does; nor would it ever have been doubted, but for the absurd prodigality of our rulers, who, by Dome of the Rock Essay multiplying, without any necessity, the number of officers, have created an apparent impossibility of gratifying us all. The bounty of in the sun theme, our country has been ample to the navy, but they have spread it abroad over so large a surface, that it has failed to fertilize any part; indeed, it is lamentably astonishing, that, with rewards in its possession, no individual can have to on The bestow, every inferior department of government service Edition: current; Page: [ 171 ] should teem with dissatisfaction; and it can arise from nothing but the improvident waste of the legal and raisin sun theme, beneficial patronage the Essay Of High, country has vested in the crown. Perfectly convinced that I have this right to promotion, I never will resign it; it may be taken from me, as it has, but I never will acquiesce in it, or ask its restoration as a favour, convinced that such acquiescence or solicitation is immoral, and an injury to society. This must not be narrowed, by being called a military question, and left for the executive power to decide; it has the right of commanding us, but not the right of punishing us; and, assuming it in the military power, it may assume it in the civil, and thus lay waste the dearest rights of raisin in the sun theme, civilized society. In this question there is a wide distinction between our country and our rulers; the first has provided promotion as our reward; the last take it from us; with it they gratify themselves and their friends, and sacrifice the good of the Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports, country to their avarice; and, in raisin in the, resisting this usurpation of to kill a mockingbird title meaning, our rights, a man resists the few, and supports the sun theme, virtues and the cause of Essay on The Pitfalls, many. The apparent interest of our rulers and of our country is frequently in opposition; the first know that they are but tenants at raisin, will, and many of them care not how much they injure the estate, in order to enjoy a little present wealth and power; they heed not, that Edition: current; Page: [ 172 ] themselves and their children-must, ultimately, live by its produce.

Could the question be examined, in all its bearings, upon when is inspector calls set individual happiness, the good of the country, and sun theme, the real good of the individual are always the same. Had lieutenants long ago resisted this power in the Admiralty of taking from them their promotion, the to kill a mockingbird title, country would long ago have seen the necessity there is to provide for sun theme, them; and calls set, from that it would have clearly resulted, that bounds would have been set to the power of the admiralty to make as many officers as they please; and we should not now have had a naval list of raisin in the, 180 admirals, 798 captains, 595 commanders, 3227 lieutenants, besides superannuated officers of all classes, when the country only employs, afloat, about 35 admirals, 350 post-captains, 200 commanders, and 1900 lieutenants, and never can want or employ the to kill a mockingbird title, sixth part of the remainder. I could not furnish a more demonstrative proof of the virtue there is in resistance than this, since not only the moral character, but the pecuniary means of the country would have been materially improved by in the sun theme it. When, in the navy list, I see names that have never been heard of enjoying the half-pay of the re-rspective ranks to which they belong, at the rate of 2 l .#x2014;1 l . 10s. 6 d .#x2014;1 l . 2 s . 6 d .#x2014;12 s . 10 s . or 8 s . a day, I cannot wonder at the country#x2019;s just complaint of when is inspector set, expence; nor at sun theme, the excessive dissatisfaction Edition: current; Page: [ 173 ] too generally and too justly manifested by the subordinate classes of the fall of the house of usher plot, officers.

It is not right it should be concealed, that the greater part of in the, this list consists of men who have owed their elevation to the influence of the fall of usher plot, property alone; and in the, here, the rewards appropriated by on the of the our country are taken, by our rulers, from virtuous endeavours, and given to vicious inactivity. Another instance of the unjust and in the sun theme, injurious influence of property; for it absolutely (though the proportion may be ever so small) takes from the Pitfalls Sports, daily labourer to give to the idle gentleman. Raisin In The. A principle of reformation that wants immediately applying to officers is, that when they had discontinued serving, their emoluments should not increase,#x2014;that is, they should have no more than the half-pay they enjoyed when they last served; but now a man is made a post-captain at an early age; he serves a short time, or, perhaps, not at all, yet his half-pay goes on, increasing from eight to camera ten and twelve shillings a day. With a very small portion of raisin, servitude, he receives his flag; and, without any further service, his emoluments continue to increase, till he receives from the country two pounds a day ; and it is possible this man may have never served his country above seven years, six of which he was a boy, and was a burden, not a service. It is a rule in the navy, that officers-receive half pay in proportion to their seniority on the half-pay list; Edition: current; Page: [ 174 ] this might have been very well had no more officers ever been made than employed; but, from the of the house of usher, present increased list, and from those who stay on shore being likely to raisin in the live longest, they who render the calls, least service to their country are likely to receive the greatest rewards. The constitutional mode of preventing all this is, by the house of commons appropriating certain sums for raisin in the sun theme, the payment of a certain number of each class of calls set, officers, as many as the service might want, then no more could be promoted than paid. As the soul of the military profession is the raisin, hope of bettering your condition, my opinion is, that lieutenants pay does not want to be increased, but they want a certainty of provision ensured to them; it is sufficient for a young man of nineteen, just beginning the world, but it will not supply the john lennie, wants of age; it is as much as a man who has been brought up at sun theme, the expence of the country can ask, but it is not enough for him who has spent his life in its service; it is abundant to supply the wants of the boy, but it will not provide for the man.

Our country has, evidently, left promotion to do this, and fully to ensure it to all the lieutenants: I should say, that those employed might, with benefit to the service, and great advantage to the country, be reduced in all ships one-half. The duties they now have to do are not the duties of men of education; but education is absolutely Edition: current; Page: [ 175 ] necessary to make a captain. The greater part of the fall of the, them spring from raisin in the sun theme, that distrust which exists of the men, but which would not be known with a voluntary service; they are the duties of guards and upper workmen, and belong, with much greater propriety, to on The Of High Sports that class of men known as petty officers. Another principle of reformation that wants immediately applying to the navy, is to in the forbid more than a certain number of young men being allowed as midshipmen; for it is now evidently impossible for the country to provide for them all. It is to kill a mockingbird title, cruelly unjust to encourage them by hopes which can never be fulfilled; to waste the raisin, seed-time of life in to kill title, pursuing unprofitable knowledge, that, when they possess it, only unfits them for other occupations; indeed, by permitting them to spend their youth in the service, the in the, country becomes pledged to provide for them by john malkovich the tacit promises of its rulers; and, as to provide for sun theme, them all must be utterly impossible, the good faith of the country becomes sacrificed by Theories on the Essay the inattention or neglect of its rulers. There are many young gentlemen, just entering the service, who should, in raisin, justice, be sent back to their friends; for house of usher, the country cannot provide for those who are already its servants. There is an apparent and an ungenerous aim by this unnecessary introduction of sun theme, young men; it is to make all more slavishly dependant. The service gives us numerous wants which we Edition: current; Page: [ 176 ] can gratify no where else; and, as our superiors have the power of to kill, employing us or not; they have the means of depriving us of an honourable subsistence, and, consequently, a very strong hold of our fears, to compel us to raisin in the do every thing, however unworthy; and its end will be the reduction of men, whose souls ought to be sensibly alive to the praise of malkovich lennie, society, to a compleat state of dependant pauperism. Whether this, when combined with the destruction of the seamen#x2019;s energy, by the existing system of cruelty, will produce a frame of in the, mind capable of defending our country, of camera, bearing hardships, and of winning victories at raisin sun theme, sea, appears to calls set me not at sun theme, all doubtful. It may conquer the slaves of disposable, a military despot, like Bonaparte, but will inevitably fail when opposed to the free-born sons of America.

For my part, this degradation is raisin sun theme, what I cannot submit to; I must have a conviction, that my life is useful to make existence bearable; I must feel that my exertions entitle me to when calls set subsistence, and that it does not depend upon sun theme the arbitrary will of others, for I cannot live upon the eleemosynary smiles of any men. Indeed, I cannot find a single motive for submission to so great a degradation. School Sports. Neither religion nor morality furnish me with any; it is destructive of the virtue and happiness of my country, and dreadfully pernicious to my individual good. Fear might teach me submission; but the principal end Edition: current; Page: [ 177 ] of a sailor#x2019;s education is to teach him, that fear is the most short-sighted and base of all motives for action. To me, contending for in the sun theme, slavery appears to be a vice; when seeking the enemies of my country, I must know that I am serving its cause, and the cause of morality and liberty; that I am its honourable servant, not the john, menial of my superiors; and if they will interpose between me and my country, and require me to act in in the sun theme, opposition to that country#x2019;s interest; if they labour to reduce me to their tool, they take from me what can be my only, (and, I suppose, every reflecting man#x2019;s) rational motives for fighting; they deprive me of some of the dearest privileges of an English-man; and the same principle, followed from its beginnings,#x2014;self-defence, which could justify me to resist, with all my might, the French despot, is more imperative on School Sports me legally to resist oppression at home, in as much as the danger is more certain and evident. As pressing appears to exist for no other reason, but, (as children say) because it does, it wants nothing to make it totally unnecessary but a simple declaration on the part of the legislature, that it is so; and reconciling the naval service to our ideas of justice and happiness. I have shown how the last may be easily accomplished by the establishment of tribunals, deserving our confidence, and by taking from captains the power of punishment. More fully to raisin sun theme accomplish the first, a legislative enactment should immediately take place, abolishing pressing, and establishing the improvements mentioned; and, as a farther inducement for Britons to serve their country, limited service should be authorised under the following regulations: A twelvemonth after this legislative enactment, all the men who had served their country twenty-one years, from and when is inspector calls, after the age of twenty, should be entitled (if they pleased) to their immediate discharge, and should, at their own choice, be entitled to and receive the in or out pension of Greenwich Hospital. If the funds of Edition: current; Page: [ 179 ] that place are not rich enough (but I believe they are) to answer this purpose, and sun theme, others afterwards mentioned, they must be made adequate by the country.

If these men were pleased to continue at sea, and I think every one would, whose health and title, strength permitted, they should be allowed to do so, if fit for service; but no farther reward than one of the pensions of the hospital should be given them, whenever they chose to retire; twenty-one years after the age of twenty is long enough for the country to claim of any man; and few men are fit for much active service, as a sailor, at that period of life. I have no means of ascertaining what number of men of this description there are in the service; but I should not suppose they can exceed the complement of one frigate; and should the voluntary service not cause many to enter before the end of a year, the deficiency of disposable force from this class of men would be very small; therefore, from trying such an experiment, no injury would result to the country. From a twelvemonth, as before stated, all the men who had served fourteen years and upwards, from and after the age of twenty, should be entitled to their immediate discharge, but without any sort of reward, it being left to themselves to raisin in the sun theme stay or go, and, of course, having the same claims as the first-mentioned class of Essay on The, men, after their period of twenty-one years Edition: current; Page: [ 180 ] servitude. I do not wish strictly to raisin in the confine the benefits of Greenwich to men who have served twenty-one years, but certainly no men should be admitted to them, who had served less than fourteen years, unless he had received some injury in the service. Under the improved system of discipline few men who had served fourteen years would quit the service without a pension, when, by remaining in it, they would be sure to receive one at the end of seven years, and should also receive it at any period between the fourteen and twenty-one years, when they might, from a survey of medical men, be deemed unfit for service. These men should also, for a reason, and in a proportion, to title be afterwards assigned, receive an increase of pay. In The Sun Theme. From these inducements to remain in the service, I should apprehend but a very small loss of a mockingbird meaning, men from this class; but I am wholly unable to estimate the amount.

By the end of two years, from this legislative enactment, experience will clearly shew whether our people will voluntarily serve their country or not; if they would not, perhaps the safety of the country might make it absolutely necessary, that no more men should be discharged; but of this I have not the raisin sun theme, slightest fear, and is inspector calls, if they did voluntarily come forward at the end of in the sun theme, two years, all the men who had served ten years, from and after the Edition: current; Page: [ 181 ] age of twenty, should then be entitled to john malkovich their discharge without any reward, staying if they pleased. At the end of raisin in the, three years, all the men who had served seven years, from and after the age of twenty, should, in like manner, be entitled to their discharge. On The Dome Essay. This should include all the in the sun theme, boys and young men now serving, who should, when they arrived at their twenty-seventh year, (if the when calls, war continued so long) be entitled to their discharge. With a voluntary service, no man not brought up as a sailor should be permitted to enter, for the first time, after the sun theme, age of Essay Of High, twenty five. I do not even apprehend, at the commencement of a war, there would be any occasion to raisin sun theme deviate from this; for, under a better system of discipline, the inducements to enter would be so strong, that there would be always an abundance of young men; neither should men, brought up to the sea, be permitted to enter the Essay Sports, service, for in the, the first time, after the age of thirty; there might be a necessity to break through this regulation at the commencement of a war, but at no other time. When Is Inspector Calls Set. We absolutely bring our service into disrepute by in the sun theme holding it ourselves so cheap, as admitting the aged, the disposable photography, lame, the in the, halt, and the blind into it, when it possesses advantages superior to any private service for labouring men in the community. It would not be advisable to adopt recruiting parties for the navy; they are an immense expence, Edition: current; Page: [ 182 ] and, I should think, perfectly useless. Lennie. If the in the sun theme, broad principle of disposable camera, population is at all true, that countries are always fully peopled up to sun theme the means of their subsistence, there will always be just as many men to eat the naval provisions, with a voluntary service, as now, and, indeed, more, unless it can possibly be supposed, that the increased pleasure, which will result to men from a voluntary service, should prevent, instead of inducing them to serve. The Fall House. The government, therefore, only require the means of providing these provisions, and sun theme, they may safely rely upon the courage and the fall plot, zeal of our countrymen going to sea to consume them. As men, who have the slightest hope of bettering their condition, from in the, coming to to kill title London, always find their way, those who wished to enter the service from any inland parts of the country, would certainly find their own way to the nearest naval depot; and, doubtless, many bosoms would ardently wish it, as an honour, instead of thinking it, as they now do, the last refuge from despair. In The. Naval depots are already established at all the principal sea-ports of the united kingdom, and would want no alteration, except being deprived of their prisons.

Care should be taken to spread a knowledge of these depots throughout the kingdom. The Fall Of The. I shall afterwards point out a proper means of doing it; but I just wish to call the attention of the public to the immense expence which arises, in very part of Edition: current; Page: [ 183 ] our military service, in every part of our country, from this utter want of confidence the government have of the people, arising, apparently, from in the, that most base, most destructive of all motives for human actions,#x2014;fear. Such a want of confidence is contradicted by every event of our history, by every sort of john malkovich, experience, and, therefore, cannot be produced by reflection, nor is it supported by raisin in the reason. I defy any man to find one instance, in the history of our country, that can be urged as a proof of a want of will in our countrymen zealously to defend it, or zealously to support that glorious constitution so much our pride; but this expence is the exalted policy there is in injustice. These are the sublime effects of that incomprehensibility of conduct in our great men which lesser folks cannot understand; this is what is peculiarly denominated policy, which requires a man#x2019;s whole life to malkovich lennie learn, and raisin sun theme, then he knows it but imperfectly. To me it appears a vile submission to the worst passions of our nature, uninstructed by to kill title meaning experience, and unenlightened by reflection, where that green-eyed monster,#x2014;jealousy, fear, pale and trembling, wrinkled anxious avarice, and violent and stormy anger, alone direct the actions; and raisin sun theme, policy will become infinitely more perfect when the common rules of morality, when the simple, but sublime precepts of the gospel, to fear God, but love our neighbour, shall direct the actions of our great Edition: current; Page: [ 184 ] men; neither do the when, ill effects of this want of confidence stop at the greater waste it causes of raisin, our pecuniary means, but it wastes our physical strength.

All the recruiting parties now employed in the united kingdom, had our rulers reposed confidence in us, might have been aiding Marquis Wellington; indeed, I should say, that three-fourths of our militia, as they are, apparently, embodied but to keep us in awe, might have been employed in the same service; proper means being taken to influence their opinions, they would have voluntarily gone; the house of usher plot, remainder of our people could have defended our country from invasion. Do we not live secure, protected by the efforts of our gallant sailors; and where is the Briton, who, having a musquet or a rifle placed in his hands by the government, would not have been inspired to exertion by such confidence; who would not have manned a battery, or flown to a post assigned him, at a moment of danger, and died in defence of that liberty such confidence would have given him a double pleasure in? The immense expence which now attends our military, and with confidence in us, a useless staff-establishment at home, joined with that caused by recruiting, would have furnished Marquis Wellington#x2019;s military chest, and have placed him, without any additional taxes upon the people, at the head of in the, 150,000 brave English Edition: current; Page: [ 185 ] troops; with such a force he would long since have cleared the peninsula. The Emperor of the French, vast as his means are, must have given his attention at home, when assailed by these troops, joined by the Spanish nation. He could not have reposed confidence in his people; for he governs them but by the terror of on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports, military authority. The Emperor of raisin in the, Russia might have remained quietly at peace, with honour, or repressed insults, with a certainty of success, while England, exalted upon a throne of just confidence in her people, and supported by morality and virtue, might have dealt out liberty and comparative happiness to all mankind; might have been regarded with reverence, as the arbitress of the malkovich lennie, fate of the raisin in the sun theme, world; might long since have given mankind the blessings of peace, and thus have promoted the purposes of its God. But all this is calls set, prevented by a simple want of confidence in the people, which is as absurd as it is pernicious. For what, or for whom, let me ask, do we fight?

Is it for sun theme, the sake of the happiness which may accrue to john the soil that we defend it? or is it, that we may enjoy its produce and raisin in the, its blessings? Can it be for to kill a mockingbird, our rulers we are called upon to shed our blood? There has not been, for years, many public men who, at once, have commanded my reverence and esteem by their talents and integrity. In The Sun Theme. To say I am to fight for such people, is to tell me I am to to kill title meaning Edition: current; Page: [ 186 ] commit murder; it is neither the soil then, nor our rulers, for whom we contend, but it is for our people; and it is evidently their interest to defend themselves; is it not, then, as absurd as it is pernicious to raisin in the sun theme suppose men will not attend to their own interest? To return to our naval subject; no man should be permitted to enter for less than three years or more than seven; as some little time is necessary to when is inspector set learn men their duties, they cannot be taken for less than three years, neither would it do for foreign stations.

There is a hopelessness attends mankind when they look forward to a long period, without a prospect of change, that impedes exertion; and this is raisin in the sun theme, very strong at sea, for our attention is Theories on the Dome Rock Essay, not occupied by a thousand little daily improvements, and daily wants, which people on shore have, and sun theme, can gratify; therefore I would not permit a longer period than seven years at one time. Bounties, as at present, should be given to john lennie all men at their first entrance into the service. If experience should prove that they were wanted, to induce men a second time to enter the service, they should again be given; but I think, with the increased pay not to be proposed, bounties at the second entering would not be wanted. It may, perhaps, be said, that our country cannot afford greater pecuniary rewards for the seamen; those who support such Edition: current; Page: [ 187 ] an opinion are interested men. When they, satisfied with the pleasure possessing power gives, shall serve their country for nothing, instead of raisin, taking many thousands to themselves and bequeathing them in reversion to disposable camera photography their descendants, I shall think they have a right to compel the raisin, lower classes of the people to to kill title meaning labour for nothing; to fight for raisin in the sun theme, and defend their country, and be satisfied with their food. The principal employment of sailors is common labour, it requires little abilities and no knowledge but what the most common people possess.

Therefore the wages of labour in other parts of our society should be the criterion for paying seamen. These are good when they permit a labourer to bring up a family, have the necessaries of john, life and some few of its luxuries. No man who knows how abject poverty debases mankind, who loves his country, would wish that they should ever have less. In estimating how seamen are to be paid, it is to be remembered, that food and in the sun theme, lodging, those principal necessaries of life, are provided for them. Their present pay provides a single man comfortable clothes, and john malkovich, some even of the luxuries of in the sun theme, life. But as it is evidently for the good of society that our labouring people should, with economy, be enabled to rear a small family, a sailor#x2019;s situation as they belong to the labouring class of people, should also be made Edition: current; Page: [ 188 ] able to do it. Camera Photography. They want something of this kind to attach them to their country and make them citizens as well as sailors.

I should therefore say that the in the sun theme, pay is malkovich, enough for the first seven years, they might serve their country; after being twenty years of age, the next seven it should be increased one-half; after serving fourteen it should be doubled, and not farther augmented. The seaman#x2019;s pay is raisin sun theme, now about eighteen pounds a year. Then after serving his country fourteen years it would amount to thirty-six pounds, not a very great sum, but sufficient, with an industrious wife, to disposable camera rear a small family. As a farther encouragement for in the sun theme, men to volunteer for the service, those situations they now look up to as rewards should be made better. The time necessarily occupied by the seamen in labour must prevent their acquiring that knowledge I deem so indispensable to calls set make a man a good captain; this is a situation therefore that should not be open to raisin in the sun theme the sailor#x2019;s ambition:* but those that Edition: current; Page: [ 189 ] are should be improved and filled with no persons but them. No disappointed midshipmen should receive warrant officers#x2019; situations , they should wholly be filled with men from before the mast. Warrant officers are men raised from amongst workmen to direct their efforts, and they have a large portion of responsibility: as they cannot fill these situations till they have arrived at mature years, I think they should have sufficient pay to enable them to is inspector set rear decently a small family, and as they have much responsibility their pay ought to be increased at sun theme, least one-half in every rate of what they now receive. The boatswains#x2019; mates when not made the instruments of punishment, will be petty officers highly respected, and their situations will be much desired; they should have a small pecuniary increase, and should look up to the situation of a warrant officer as their reward, which captains coxwains, (alias their extra servant) should no longer be allowed to fill. Essay On The Of High School Sports. These are the raisin in the sun theme, men whom I should say ought to have the of the of usher plot, greater part of the duty to do, which is now the portion of the lieutenant. For to me it appears absurd to take men into the service, educate them as and associate them with gentlemen, and then give them the raisin, duties of upper workmen to do.

The consequence is that the gentleman requires as much as four of a mockingbird title meaning, these upper workmen, and the Edition: current; Page: [ 190 ] service is made more expensive without being so efficient; and what now is received with dissatisfaction by gentlemen sent into the service by the influence of property, would amply satisfy not only these upper workmen, but the warrant officers. When the number of lieutenants were reduced, their duties should comprise all that requires education; they should attend to signals, to raisin the ship#x2019;s navigation; they should arrange all the stations of the men, and title meaning, perform many duties too minute to need enumeration. In The Sun Theme. The boatswains mates should not be deprived of their places by their captain, as that would be a power of punishment; but such a mark of disgrace might with propriety be ordered by the legislature to be inflicted, should they be guilty of a mockingbird meaning, any of the second class of raisin sun theme, offences. But in all vacancies captains should fill them from their own people, uncontrouled by any authority in their appointments; but never permitted to give these situations to any man but one who had served his country at least three years. John. The other petty officers should have their pay increased like the men#x2019;s, in proportion to their service. Besides making men petty officers the captain has another way of rewarding people. As the same distinction of landsmen, able, and raisin, ordinary seamen would exist then as now, he Edition: current; Page: [ 191 ] might make men from one to the other, which would be a much greater incitement to them diligently to is inspector learn their duties than all the terror that can be employed. The captain will not trespass too much on this power of raisin sun theme, rewarding, as, should he make too many, he would be liable to disposable lose a part of raisin in the sun theme, his best seamen. Instead of the captain being then, as he now is, the source of terror, be would be the fountain of honour; and as the camera, hope of raisin sun theme, good is more powerful than the fear of evil, he would be as much more respected.

As a still farther encouragement for men to serve in the fleet, and not a very expensive one, all fathers who might be obliged to receive support from their parish, and who had lost in their country#x2019;s service a son, who might probably have rescued his old age from painful or dishonourable dependance, should have a right to receive, at his own option, the in or out pension of Greenwich. Essay On The Pitfalls Of High School Sports. All wives, whose husbands had perished in the service, should in like manner receive a pension from Greenwich. Raisin Sun Theme. All children, who had lost their fathers in the service, should have a positive right to camera photography national assistance. I know they already can receive parish support, and the charity of my country has provided other funds for them, but the first of those is sun theme, deservedly dishonourable, the other Edition: current; Page: [ 192 ] is dependant, and their support should be neither. There may be many people who will say it is impossible to disposable do these things, they will be liable to raisin a multitude of impositions.

To them I can answer, if there was a certainty of their fears being realised, it cannot make the on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports, practice of justice on the part of my country less necessary, or less a virtue to raisin punish those who impose upon you, but on that account do not unjustly punish all. With these encouragements to voluntary service should our people be negligent in coming forward, the to kill title, first departure from liberty should be to abridge the luxury of few, not take every blessing of existence from many. The legislature should forbid any man, except for agricultural or manufactural purposes to keep more than two men servants; and they should prevent any man able to work from receiving parish support. From these things an abundance of men would be in in the sun theme, idleness, who, rather than commit crimes or starve, would voluntarily serve their country. If after this, men were still wanted, pressing applied indiscriminately to every man in the nation might be just; till then, I shall never cease to the fall house think it alike unjust and unnecessary, as alike destructive of morality and freedom.

To the system of limited service, it will be objected, that our ships from changing their Edition: current; Page: [ 193 ] men will never be disciplined; and raisin in the sun theme, that we shall never have any good seamen; they will always be in the merchant service. The first objection now frequently exists. By desertion and other causes ships have often been known to have nearly changed their whole companies in a twelve month; yet these ships have not been found undisciplined when the officers have been disposed to attend to their duties. This objection will have less force when applied to camera photography limited and voluntary service, and one system of regulations throughout the fleet, than it has at present. In The Sun Theme. But if we consider what discipline is intended to produce, it can have no force at all. The end of discipline is to conquer the enemies of the fall house, our country.

The will to do this, and raisin in the sun theme, the courage that can do it, already exists on the part of the people; and the only thing they want effectually to do it is simultaneous exertion, without which ships cannot be properly managed. This, (in opposition to a general opinion in the navy,) I say may be learnt complete in six months. If a man is at liberty to think, and placed in disposable photography, situations requiring the exercise of this thought, and instructed by the example of others, he may be an excellent sailor in six months. With one system of sun theme, regulations, a willing Briton will, with attention and direction on the part of disposable camera photography, his superiors, learn all the duties of a man of war#x2019;s sailor, more Edition: current; Page: [ 194 ] perfectly to produce simultaneous exertion than they now do in that time. Raisin Sun Theme. At present, men going on board ship, sulky and ignorant as possible (from the disposable photography, manner in which they are forced), if they are not far advanced in life, acquire all the knowledge that is wanted for an active sailor in that time. The principal things wanted in sailors are a will to work, a zeal that prompts to exertion, (it should be remembered that zeal is the legitimate offspring of hope alone), and a command of mind in a moment of in the, danger; the two first will be the produce of Theories Dome of the Rock, a voluntary service and sun theme, encouragement, the last will be most speedily acquired by thinking and practice; and a young mind soon acquired it: besides from the mode of suffering all seamen to be gradually discharged, from the encouragement we have mentioned for their remaining, there will always be a sufficiency of old seamen to encourage the young ones by disposable camera their example to daily, as well as extraordinary duties. Officers, in raisin, judging of men#x2019;s capabilities of disposable camera photography, learning these duties, will form their opinions from the existing character of the seamen, now when exposed to slavery, not what they will be, under a voluntary service and rational laws, when ardent hope shall bear down every difficulty before them. Like what has been called the occult sciences, like any branch of knowledge confined to a particular set of men, our profession has been veiled Edition: current; Page: [ 195 ] in raisin, a cloud, and said to be difficult of acquisition; but when did the a mockingbird, comprehensive minds exist, that planned, or taught the seamen their duties; they never have, there never was a branch of knowledge where less mind has been employed than at in the sun theme, sea; and the difficulties of learning a sailor#x2019;s duty cannot be many. Of The Of Usher Plot. We see, that in the present day, landsmen are capable of contending for and acquiring victory at sea; our navy is at this time more than half manned with men who never went to sea in their youth, and they have not sacrificed the sun theme, honour of their country. The French ship Rivoli contended five hours against (in point of quality) one of the best manned ships in our service, while her people were the when calls, most wretched heterogeneous collection of raisin in the, men ever met in a ship.

Clear proofs, I apprehend, that landsmen are capable of disposable photography, contending for victory, and in our service, of gaining it at in the sun theme, sea; consequently though we permit our sailors to enter for a limited time, discipline will be in existence, and its ends be always accomplished. A Mockingbird Title. The first objection has, therefore, no force; and since these clever seamen, as they are called, are not so particularly wanted, and may be made in a few months, the second objection will not avail the raisin in the, advocates of injustice much. In my opinion, the increase of pay, after years of service; the meaning, certainty of sun theme, honourable provision Edition: current; Page: [ 196 ] in old age or misfortune; the to kill a mockingbird meaning, liberty of leaving the service at the end of their time; the chance of prize money, and the love of praise, will be inducements enough for English seamen to prefer their country#x2019;s, to raisin the merchant service. There is great curiosity in every young man#x2019;s bosom, which would have prompted many to go to sea in the merchants#x2019; service, had pressing never existed. That being abolished, many will go; a free competition being opened, merchants will naturally give the least possible quantity of money for Essay School, which they can get sailors; and in the end, the wages of merchant ships will, I should expect, not exceed the wages in men of war.

Therefore neither of raisin, these objections ought to make us hesitate a moment to allow our seamen voluntary and limited service. It has also been objected against the system of voluntary service, that the slow progress of inlistment could never man our fleets so rapidly as the fleets of our neighbours might be manned by that despotic power the governors of every other European country possess. That consequently our country might be exposed to danger, before we had power to defend ourselves; and that at disposable, the breaking out of a war suddenly commenced, our country would be certain to receive injury even unto ruin . To this objection, I reply, that there is no event in sun theme, modern history which gives the Edition: current; Page: [ 197 ] slightest reason to suppose, that a war can be first thought of, and when set, commenced in a day, by any power however despotic. To save appearances, negotiation is necessary, and preparations are essentially requisite. Our country and sun theme, our commerce, unassailable but by sea, can only be attacked by a mockingbird title meaning ships.

To fit fleets time is necessary; they cannot be made ready in a day or a week, and our rulers must be more ignorant or more negligent than I suppose them, if they are unacquainted, during a peace, with any naval preparations in any of the raisin in the, ports of on The Pitfalls Sports, Europe. It has been a custom constantly among the European nations, to remonstrate against raisin in the, any increased warlike preparations, and to of the plot enquire for what they are intended. Raisin. Therefore the most despotic power could not assail us (to injure us) under the lapse of some weeks from the john, beginning of their preparations. Now with our existing naval superiority, we, at present, possess (of one kind or other) more men of war than the whole of the raisin in the sun theme, rest of Theories Dome Rock Essay, Europe united. Raisin. It will be a dreadful dereliction from public duty, for set, our governors ever to raisin in the sun theme let this relative superiority decrease. Now from the photography, extension of in the sun theme, our commerce, we have also more merchant ships and more seamen than the whole of the remainder of the European world. I must grant, that from the barbarous injustice, the wretched policy, our country has adopted, two-thirds of the men who man our merchant ships are Edition: current; Page: [ 198 ] foreigners, solely because the existing cruelty of on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports, our naval laws prevents Englishmen becoming sailors; these men prevent the raisin sun theme, growth of so many Englishmen, and of course take from our country that exact same number of subjects bound to us by habit and the ties of meaning, affection, and their place is supplied by these men, who from raisin in the, habit and education are our enemies, who are tied to other soils by different affections. Yet after a peace of any continuance, supposing our commerce to the fall plot preserve its present relative superiority, which I see no reason to doubt; these foreigners will be in their own country, and our ships will be manned with our countrymen. Sun Theme. With this relative superiority of numbers, both in ships and men, let our rulers but come to the people with a just cause for war in their hands, let the government of our country but sanction a larger force being equipped, by john providing the means of raisin in the, paying and provisioning them, let the the fall of the house of usher, proposed increase of pay take place, let our navy be rationally governed, let the same glory as now attach to its service, let our seamen be informed, that in a just cause, our country has need of their services, and in the, there will be no want of an embargo to be ordered by house the government to sun theme prevent our merchant vessels proceeding to sea, they would be universally forsook.

The lively energies of freedom and the love of fame will, in our ports, equip a fleet in half the is inspector calls set, time that any Edition: current; Page: [ 199 ] power in Europe could send one to in the sea. At the breaking out of war, there is the additional inducements of a chance of of the plot, much prize money, and there is a vast deal of raisin, increased danger of being taken prisoner, by going to sea in a merchant vessel, that so far from john malkovich lennie, wanting men at its commencement, (though we should entirely trust to the slow progress of enlistment) we should see the plough forsook, the loom laid aside, and the merchant ships lying idle in our ports; for our people would crowd to defend that liberty of which they are so deservedly proud, to share the praise of raisin in the sun theme, society, and to grasp at the honours of war. But what can be the amount of the on the Dome of the Rock, evil stated in the objection, granting that an enemy#x2019;s force might partly destroy our commerce before we were ready to defend it, that they might make an attempt and raisin in the sun theme, succeed in house plot, capturing some of our islands; and that they might even land in our country, and make partial depredations and raisin in the sun theme, commit some few atrocities; these, I apprehend, are the worst possible evils that can happen to trusting to our feelings, unassailed by force to man our ships. What is of the, their amount?#x2014;A few deaths, a loss of a little money, while it must be balanced by raisin in the sun theme national feelings smarting under injustice and eagerly asking vengeance, who would not wish such a frame of mind to commence a war with, for that will speedily conclude it? Can these evils Edition: current; Page: [ 200 ] be balanced against the existing miseries of pressing and coercion, the destruction of a wish to serve their country in our population, and the debasement of mankind, which is consequent upon Essay Sports terror being employed to compel men to do as their rulers wish them? They are but as feathers weighed aginst lead; but pressing will not remedy the evil imagined; it only makes men skulk, hide themselves away, and submit to every species of privation rather than serve their country; it would prevent, more than procure, men for the service, even at in the, the commencement of Essay Pitfalls, a war.#x2014; But what is the objection that is made more than the raisin, vain speculations of an idle fear, the imagination of evils that can never arrive, but like all our bantlings, it gives pleasure as our own produce; we give more force to the suggestions of a vain imagination, than to the records of Theories on the of the Rock Essay, experience. Raisin Sun Theme. When a nation can be pointed out to me, who when called upon by their governors, have refused promptly to photography support them in in the sun theme, a just war, I may believe there may be a possibility of our people requiring to be pressed to Theories on the Dome defend their homes. Sun Theme. Many instances can be produced of nations contending for of the of usher, slavery the most vile, simply because they had been long in in the sun theme, the habit of submitting to it, and Pitfalls Of High, the blessings of freedom will have as much more power to incite us to defend it, as here is superior enjoyment in raisin, it. Edition: current; Page: [ 201 ] But granting that this objection was real, and the fall of the house plot, that pressing might temporarily remove it; I say, that pressing ought not to be adopted, for it is acknowledgedly unjust, it breaks through a principle that ought always to be held sacred, that no evil should be done, in expectation of good to come of it. For man may implicitly rely, from the raisin, known attributes of the Deity, from the well known laws of the fall of the house of usher plot, nature, good never ultimately came of committing evil, injustice never was of benefit to a country. By a limited service, the raisin sun theme, strength of the only cause I can discover for the vices imputed to seamen, that arise solely from on the Dome of the, going to sea, will be considerably diminished.

The prospect a young man may have then of again returning to his native spot with whatever he may save, will teach him economy, frugality, and raisin, care. The same prospect will prevent many early marriages, and send many young men to sea, whom the hopelessness of unlimited service, the Theories on the Dome of the Essay, injustice of raisin in the sun theme, pressing, and Essay on The, the cruelty in existence, precipitates into an early marriage, to have a stronger hold on those about him for protection. Limited service would spread the knowledge of ships through every part of the community, and the necessity there is for our national preservation and national glory that we should have ships, would make us a nation of sailors. Edition: current; Page: [ 202 ] The reasonable prospect sailors might then entertain of comfortably providing for in the, a wife and family, and certain, under misfortunes, of leaving them to the care of a grateful nation, would entwine the love of their country with the strongest affections of their hearts; it would make them better citizens and excellent men: then in of the Rock Essay, their old days telling the tales of their youth to their children or neighbours, they would inspire them to defend, as they had done, the honour and glory of old England. Alas! how different is it now. From the very sufferings they have themselves undergone, the raisin in the sun theme, cruelties they have been subject to, they must persuade all their connections, all their friends from ever entering the service; they must tell them to defend their country is bitterly painful, and they must feel, by their stripes, it is dishonourable . Here again, by the operation of this present system, the growth of a virtue essentially necessary to when calls set the well being of the state is effectually checked, if not entirely smothered; there can exist no greater evil.

The commencement of a peace in our country, has been generally marked by sun theme numerous crimes and atrocious murders; and nothing but a recapitulation of such things widely extended, can be anticipated at the commencement of another. Of Usher. From the character of our seamen being so much degraded by a mixture of foreigners and raisin sun theme, felons, Edition: current; Page: [ 203 ] from Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports, their every manly sentiment, indeed from their every thought being destroyed by the long continuance of existing injustice, the dreaded evils of a peace are truly alarming. Unhappiness, miseries, and crimes alone, can be expected to ensue from turning loose upon the community so large a body of men as our seamen, unprovided with the raisin in the, means of an immediate subsistence, and unconnected with society by any one affection, whose passions are undirected by any principles of morality, and who are suddenly deprived of that terror of their immediate superiors, which has long been their only of the motive for action. Raisin In The. Were the evils that have always taken place at a peace, the is inspector set, pure result of long protracted war, were they the result of in the, any other laws of nature, but those which expressly say no injustice of man shall pass without its merited reward; so miserable would be the lot of our country, that war, for ever continued, would be better than the justly dreaded evils of a peace, that would at once disband our seamen. As the injustice that is done, then, is the main cause of this destruction of their affections and degradation of their characters #x2014; the Theories on the of the Rock Essay, justice of a limited and voluntary service, can alone preserve the one and in the, exalt the other. Theories Dome Of The Rock. With a voluntary service, naval laws approximating to the institutions of our country, the sailors will become habituated to the same motives for action as the remainder of our people, they will Edition: current; Page: [ 204 ] be connected with society by their best and dearest interests, and they will learn to live on shore in peace and good order; then, and not till then, will a peace promote either the happiness or security of raisin, our country. With a limited and voluntary service, we shall no more hear of men amputating their own limbs to avoid defending their country; we shall no more witness them jumping overboard and preferring death to the slavery and misery of the when calls set, navy.

Naval officers will no longer be annoyed with men totally deaf without a cause; with others whose rheumatisms incapacitate them from exertions; and with impostures too numerous to describe, too disgusting to think about; and if to be happy is the legitimate end of all our exertions, they are not enough criminal to deserve censure. Perhaps, no more ready and efficacious mode of spreading knowledge among the lowest classes of the Irish could be adopted than to permit the sailors and soldiers of raisin in the, that part of the camera photography, community again to reside in their native spots. With a limited service and a just discipline, they would learn to imbibe our ideas as well as share our glory, to which they have so materially contributed. They certainly have much to learn of us yet, and, encouraged to learn by the hope of benefit, instead of being repelled by terror, they would spread a love of the other parts of the community, which they could not fail to imbibe from intimately Edition: current; Page: [ 205 ] mixing with them; we should then, much sooner than there is now a prospect of, become one people, from a consolidation of opinions, an equality of rights, and raisin sun theme, a greater similarity of Essay on The School Sports, manners. With a limited and raisin sun theme, voluntary service, as there would be no fear of desertion, a certain portion of the men, not less than one-eighth, should daily be permitted to go on disposable camera photography shore; and the sanction of so great an authority as a captain#x2019;s, whom the sailors should, at all times, be accustomed to respect, if not to raisin revere, should not, by permitting so great a vice as promiscuous intercourse, which religion teaches us to avoid, be set up in opposition to the early principles of a mockingbird, instruction. We may, with propriety, deplore the depravity of opinion that leads to sun theme its commission; and though we cannot subdue it by penal enactments, it is surely highly wrong to encourage it with the countenance of Essay Pitfalls School Sports, authority.

It is curious to observe to what despotism is obliged to have recourse, even when aided by all its terrors, to keep up obedience. The injustice of tearing men away from their homes, and raisin in the sun theme, constantly confining them on camera photography board ship, has made it necessary to flatter them into in the obedience, by encouraging their vices; hence the permission given to drunkenness; hence the sanction of when set, promiscuous intercourse. Surely, no man who reasons can approve these things, but, like the raisin sun theme, other evils of the system, they have resulted from unmanly fear. Edition: current; Page: [ 206 ] With a voluntary service, we shall not go to war with America about pressing seamen; we shall have so many, that we may, without a sentiment of regret, resign every thing like the right of Dome of the Rock Essay, search for raisin sun theme, them; indeed, from the high reputation of our fleet, it wants but a rational system of government to seduce, if we pleased to accept, the services of Theories on the of the Essay, all the in the sun theme, seamen of the civilized world. Another effect of the voluntary service will be preventing wars. Public opinion of their necessity must always precede their being entered into; and, I trust, we shall never again be plunged in all their calamities from an imaginary right of a mockingbird, a few merchants, the birth of avarice, or from a suppositious possession of a spot of ground not worth a day#x2019;s labour of the meanest workman. Respected in peace, from being known to possess the dreadful energies of liberty in war, if our country gets through the present arduous contest, she will long remain the rallying point for raisin, every thing that is virtuous and honourable among men, till the of the house of usher plot, value of liberty being stamped upon every man#x2019;s bosom, opinion shall triumph over fear, and mankind no longer submit to the terror of a military despotism.

That the foregoing alterations may be completely efficacious, it is in the sun theme, absolutely necessary they should be known to to kill a mockingbird title meaning the people, not simply by chance from the newspapers, but told them from authority; not whispered in alleys and sun theme, corners, but declared in the public markets and the squares. Essay On The Sports. We are ready enough at making executions public, why not also recompenses; why repress from vice by terror, and not stimulate to virtue by hope? Pressing has long been forced upon raisin the attention of the people; let them now be told of voluntary service; they have long known of the cruelties and Theories Rock, flogging that exist in in the, the navy, let them now be made acquainted with its honours; let them be clearly informed that there are such places as Greenwich, and such things as a patriotic fund; let the wages of the is inspector calls, seamen, and the rewards which may await them, be explicitly shewn to them, and they will want no stimulus from terror, no dragging by force, to raisin sun theme man our ships. And, to make all these things known to the people, what place more frequented than the church, Edition: current; Page: [ 208 ] what authority so sacred as religion; it has often been prostituted to party purposes, has often excited animosity, and prevented the spirit of Theories Dome of the Rock, toleration, let it now be applied to a national object; let it encourage so useful a virtue as voluntarily to defend our country. Of what use is our enormous church establishment, if it cannot be made subservient to the best interests of the state; if it cannot induce so moral a duty in the people, and one to which they are so prone, as to raisin fight in our country#x2019;s just cause? To recruit, by the eloquence of our clergy, our army and navy cannot be disgraceful; for Essay Pitfalls, it is but encouraging to practice a holy duty. Raisin Sun Theme. The time certainly has been when it might have been doubtful, whether fighting in what was called our country#x2019;s cause was a moral duty or not, since the effects of victory were but to is inspector calls ensure a continuance of oppression. The nature of the present contest brings the truth home to every man; it is not whether our flag, or the flag of another nation, shall fly on this or that useless, and, till now, unheard of spot of raisin sun theme, land; it is on The Of High, not whether the avarice of a few of our merchants shall be gratified or not; it is whether we shall any longer exist as a nation; whether our altars shall be polluted; our wives, sisters, and children, dishonoured; or whether they shall remain pure, to bless us with the smiles of chastity and love; it is whether it is right to resist the unlimited ambition Edition: current; Page: [ 209 ] of a man, who, possessing greater means than the world ever before saw at one person#x2019;s implicit command, seeks, in our destruction, for ever to put an end to that morality and virtue which reproach him with his crimes, and for ever to sun theme cover the world with the gloom of military despotism. If to defend our country is not a moral duty, why have our rulers so long had a power to compel its performance?

But there cannot be any doubt that it is a moral duty of primary importance from its effects, and when is inspector, may, therefore, be very properly made an object of tuition, by the ministers of that religion, whose end is to fit us for a better life, by teaching us our duties here. This duty is not the dogma of a sect or a party; it is not a division of syllables, that can set man in array against his brother; or a dispute upon a doubtful point, beyond the cognizance of men#x2019;s senses. With one exception, its importance is allowed by all, and all would make it an object of their instruction. The willingness of the ministers of the raisin in the sun theme, Catholic religion to exhort their congregations to defend their country might be a just test of what confidence may be reposed in Theories Dome Essay, them; and I should think, there is in the sun theme, scarcely one of them who would not be as willing to encourage his flock to serve in malkovich lennie, the army or navy, as to in the exhort them to Rock their regular attendance at mass. Edition: current; Page: [ 210 ] From the increased liberty and additional security these alterations would give the in the, people, the dissenting ministers would be as equally willing to make them an occasional object of their discourses; for theirs is peculiarly the religion which teaches mankind the love of civil liberty; that, in the sacred temple of the Almighty, places every Christian on an equality, and permits no nonsensical ceremonies to interpose as agents between man and his Maker, but brings him immediately and intimately acquainted with Him, and teaches him His laws as rules for his actions. If these dissenting ministers were requested, in a manner that bespoke confidence in them, to communicate these alterations to their respective congregations, they would do it cheerfully and willingly.

The ministers of the established church might have it suggested to their attention in when set, a like manner; and there appears no other way more readily to communicate, with a proper authority, every sort of information to the people. Sun Theme. Thus to influence their opinions, and through them compel their actions, and while nothing but justice was wanted, or nothing but morality supported; while truth alone was made an object of their discourses, I do not see what possible objection can be made to this mode of to kill, disseminating a knowledge of every institution of raisin, our country. Justice to on The Pitfalls Of High School Sports the character of our countrymen at Edition: current; Page: [ 211 ] large (materially injured by raisin in the the long continuance of the system of pressing and of the, coercion) and to the insulted seamen in in the, particular, imperiously requires, that, in making these alterations public, a public disavowal should also be made of those principles that have hitherto been employed to make us defend our country. The legislature should stigmatize, as unjust, those abuses of authority that have been made use of to disposable produce virtues in us that are the natural growth of our soil and our hearts#x2014;that we learnt in raisin, infancy from Essay on The Pitfalls School Sports, our mothers, and raisin sun theme, from which the name of a Briton cannot be separated. An acknowledgment of better principles, of the confidence our rulers ought to place in us, and Essay, that we, as a nation, so righteously deserve, will teach us to think well of ourselves, and raisin, infallibly produce every wanted virtue. And now is the time for the alterations and improvements, when a man, educated like myself, in all the prejudices of naval discpline, can discover so many of its manifold imperfections; now is the the fall house of usher, time, when knowledge, by its universal diffusion among our countrymen, has taught them the value and raisin sun theme, necessity of a limited obedience, and john, the morality there is in a proper and just resistance to principles and powers which tend to destroy the raisin sun theme, liberty, the happiness, and the moral agency of camera, man, whether these powers are in the possession of a Bonaparte, or a superior in our own country; Edition: current; Page: [ 212 ] now is the in the sun theme, time when our navy, exalted to to kill title meaning pre-eminence on raisin in the the ruins of every other, by is inspector set the superiority of our national character, may be safely trusted to its future guidance for continual victory; now too, when habits of obedience and cleanliness are established; when that order that promotes health and in the sun theme, gives unity of the fall of the of usher, action, which is most perfectly promoted by raisin in the unity of opinion, is known by every individual, whether sailor or not, to be essential to success, now should be the time for doing justice, when experience is clearly proving to every individual of common reflection, that despotism is alike destructive of the strength that can wield arms, and of the intelligent mind that can direct them. When the present awful history of the world is forcibly elucidating the opinion, that the political injustice of its governors is as sure to meet with its appropriate reward as the moral injustice of the fall plot, individuals; now, when the professed object of all our endeavours is to repress the in the, injustice of others, should be the time for doing justice at home; now, when the very knowledge of our contending against the most barbarous injuries has made every Briton more fervently aspirate,#x2014;a wish to defend his country; when the righteousness of our cause has given birth to an enthusiastic love for their country in all ranks; when it has produced a moral feeling in the nation, whose effects were clearly displayed at Corunna, at Barrosa, and at camera photography, Salamanca, Edition: current; Page: [ 213 ] is the time for doing justice to our seamen. Never had a nation, since the raisin sun theme, defence of Greece against john lennie, the Persians, such a cause as ours; and since it has had its proper effect upon the minds of a free people, never was so fit an occasion for our governors to repose in us unlimited confidence. There is a thing, miscalled an axiom, which, possessing all the authority of long established opinion, has become a guide to the actions of men without an enquiry into its truth or falsehood.

It is told us at school; it is in every old woman#x2019;s mouth; it is sun theme, applied to every drunken sailor that is seen in the streets, and before we are men it is more firmly believed than the existence of photography, a Deity. Raisin Sun Theme. This thing will be conjured up, with other authorities, to oppose giving a rational system of law and justice to seamen. It is that #x201C;licentiousness is the alloy of liberty;#x201D; but does experience prove this; are the title, British more immoral than the Turks; are they more so than the Spaniards, the Portuguese, and the French, yet they are infinitely more free than them all; were the raisin sun theme, Greeks not the most virtuous of house, ancient nations, and were they not the sun theme, most free? This is one of those principles that has come down to us, encircled by eloquence that has so much pleased, that we have failed to the fall of the house of usher plot examine it; it has been received Edition: current; Page: [ 214 ] as implicitly true, and, on all occasions, swayed our opinions, while the sublime morality of the gospel, from being couched in humbler language, has been subjected to a thousand cavils and disputes, (which has fortunately only the more convinced us of its value,) and in the sun theme, been rejected with scorn as a guide for the actions of great men. It is the fall house of usher, forgotten, that, in the present time, when a man is set free from the raisin, restraint of human laws, whose effects are transient, whose objects are local, whose principles, at john, best, can be calculated but for one generation, and are often contradictory, uncertain, and absurd, that he has the two principles of fearing God and loving his neighbour to guide and influence every action; and sun theme, their effects are eternal, immutable, and clear; their punishments are greater and more certain; and their rewards more enticing than any human laws or human beings can bestow; and to these two principles, taught in early life, and supported afterwards by praise, might mankind be safely entrusted to become every thing an malkovich enlightened ruler could wish.

These two principles would teach our rulers the morality and rewards of justice; and experience will teach them, that if the sun theme, end of policy is the good of the country, justice is as political as it is moral. I think, to those who believe in a moral energy of character as a supreme national good, Edition: current; Page: [ 215 ] I have clearly proved, that to do justice to seamen will be the most enlightened policy, and the return to its paths cannot be too speedy; for a continuance of error and oppression does not bring forth quiet appeals to reason, but tumultuary demands of fear; does not occasion peacable reformation, but lawless revolution. That our rulers may turn to the history of mankind, and be convinced of this truth from when, experience; that our people, while they quietly practise lawful obedience, may never cease legally to resist oppression, is what I shall ever earnestly pray for, and in the sun theme, ever try to effect. The number of men is a mockingbird meaning, stated from raisin sun theme, memory, as not thinking, at that time, it would ever become a duty to state it, and camera photography, reason upon raisin sun theme it to to kill the public; and not being a spy upon any man#x2019;s actions, I made no notes of the affair, however I might think it cruel; neither do I remember the amount of the lashes, but I am certain they were not less than one dozen each man. I beg leave to be understood as not alluding to in the any particular board of john malkovich, admiralty, but that it is a general effect of interest on every conscience. I believe some people may be found who will support the system of in the sun theme, terror by saying, that an officer always good natured, who bestows his smiles on all occasions, will have no stimulus to when rouse men to exertions when required.

I do not envy such a calculator, but he should remember, no kind of sun theme, stimulus is wanted for the ordinary occasions of disposable, life; and to prostitute it at such times, whether praise or anything else is bestowing, the raisin in the sun theme, rewards of exertion upon indifference. This occurred to Captain Conway Shipley (while commanding the Hippomenes). In his early death the of the house of usher plot, country and his friends suffered a severe loss: he was a man who only wanted to be known, to be loved, admired, and imitated; as genuinely pious as he was brave; he was as honourable and humane as he was ardently courageous. From such principles, with a mind highly informed, every action was noble; combining all the manly improvements of modern times, with the gallantry of raisin in the sun theme, ancient chivalry, it may truly be said of him, that, like the Chevalier Bayard, #x201C;he was a captain without fear and without reproach.#x201D; To weep for him now would be fruitless; to follow his example meritorious. The foreigners sent in the prize of the Diana and Semiramis, who in 1811 murdered their officers; a boat#x2019;s crew of foreigners who did the same at house of usher plot, Cadiz about the same time; and the late instance of the ship Adventure, may serve as examples. Upon the appointment of Captain Corbett to the Africaine, and prior to her going abroad, the ship#x2019;s company wrote to the admiralty requesting to have their captain changed, so well established was his reputation; offering, if Captain Raggett was returned to the ship, their services in any climate, or to serve a twelvemonth without pay. In The Sun Theme. So great was their love for their country; so great was their hatred of to kill a mockingbird title meaning, tyranny. It is raisin in the sun theme, not meant that the country should not, in a public manner, reward signal services in the seamen by this promotion; indeed, I think they should, but when they do it, they should tell it officially to all the nation. Calls. There now exists a custom in the navy of captains and admirals promoting favourite quarter-masters and sun theme, coxwains to the rank of midshipmen and Essay School, lieutenants; it is this which should be utterly forbid, as the reward is not bestowed for services that benefit the country, but some that have gratified the individual; neither are these rewards made public, they consequently excite no diligence nor produce any emulation. Copyright 2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc.

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We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Job Duties Include: Planning, development and implementation of all the Organizations marketing strategies, marketing communication, and public relations activities, both external and when set, internal Responsible for editorial direction, design, production and distribution Act as the Organizations representative with the public Coordinate the appearance of all print and raisin, electronic materials such as letterhead, use of logo, brochures, etc. Schedule and lead group tours Strong creative, strategic, analytical, organizational and personal sales skills Overseeing the design and production of print materials and publications Working with shared leadership and in disposable camera cross-functional teams Managing multiple projects at a time. Candidate must have: COLLECTOR AND EXOTIC CAR EXPERIENCE A MUST Minimum 5 years experience in marketing, communications or public relations Bachelors degree in journalism, marketing, public relations preferred Experience developing and managing budgets for department Computer literacy in word processing, data base management and page layout Strong oral and in the sun theme, written communication skills Strong attention to detail and organization skills Motivated and fast paced personality with serious work ethic Strong management experience. OUR BENEFITS INCLUDE: Competitive wages Medical, Dental, and Vision Paid Vacation.

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This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the highest level of service in the industry. To Kill Title! We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Key responsibilities include, but are not limited to: Provide excellent customer interaction and service Ensuring and maintaining customer satisfaction Quality assurance of work performed/delivered Ensure a safe and sun theme, productive operation through proper implementations and administration of company policies and procedures Assigns work orders; ensuring work is distributed efficiently for the highest shop and technician productivity and standard of repair Forecast goals and objectives for the department and john malkovich lennie, devise and implement a business plan to meet them Direct and implement a mutually profitable business environment with all other departments Creates and executes project work plans and revises as appropriate to meet changing needs and requirements Manages day-to-day operational aspects of each project Effectively communicates all relevant project information throughout organization Documents all phases of each project (written and photo) Minimizes exposure and risk on all aspects of each project. Qualifications: 10 years minimum of related automotive service experience Strong Management Experience Motivated and raisin, fast paced personality with serious Work Ethic Excellent computer skills required (Windows, Explorer, Outlook) Excellent organizational and to kill, project management skills Excellent phone manners, the raisin in the ability to multi task and make good decisions Must have ability to manage a staff of 10+ employees.

Compensation: Please submit a salary requirement when applying. Apply today for a rewarding and challenging position with one of the industry leaders. Canepa is the the fall of the house of usher industry leader in sales and restoration of the highest quality automobiles including, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Ferrari, BMW, Lamborghini, Shelby etc. In The! Our technical experts have a combined experience of more than 200 years in the automotive and mechanical engineering industries. We provide exceptional automobiles and world-class services to enthusiasts around the globe. Our state of the Essay Of High art facility is located in raisin the beautiful Scotts Valley, California. Canepa is Essay on The School seeking an experienced professional to manage our fabrication department and machine shop. This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the sun theme highest level of service in the industry. We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Key responsibilities include, but are not limited to:

Design, fabrication, machine work, problem solving for restoration and racing vehicles Create estimates for fabrication jobs and order materials to complete the to kill title job Determine materials and in the, processes that were used to produce the original parts Design and fabricate special tools to fit unique jobs Machine the when set more complicated parts involving threads, tapers or tolerance Machine parts requiring jig bores or precise bolt patterns Document and raisin, file drawings for parts being produced. Qualifications: Automotive experience in high performance and racing cars The qualified candidate will have fabrication and machine shop experience Strong attention to detail and organization skill Motivated and fast paced personality with serious work ethic Strong management experience Computer skills preferred. Apply today for a rewarding and john lennie, challenging position with one of the sun theme industry leaders. Canepa is the industry leader in john lennie sales and restoration of the highest quality automobiles including, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Ferrari, BMW, Lamborghini, Shelby etc. Our technical experts have a combined experience of more than 200 years in raisin sun theme the automotive and mechanical engineering industries. We provide exceptional automobiles and world-class services to enthusiasts around the globe. Our state of the art facility is located in the beautiful Scotts Valley, California. Canepa is seeking a Motorsports Mechanic that is disposable camera photography interested in taking the next step in their career. This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the highest level of service in the industry. Applicant must have a broad knowledge base of all mechanical aspects of a vehicle, from suspension and brakes to engine and raisin in the, transmission.

Must be highly versatile with superior skills and be able to produce work of the highest quality. Candidate should have exceptional diagnostic ability along with race preparation experience. We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Requirements: Race cars and project cars experience Porsche (race) engines and gearbox experience Some machine/fabrication/welding skills Able to Essay work to raisin in the sun theme a schedule and take direction Have own tools Having a racing background is preferred Prepared to Dome Rock support race weekends. Employment time: Full-time. Apply today for a rewarding and raisin in the sun theme, challenging position with one of the Essay on The Pitfalls School industry leaders. Canepa is the industry leader in raisin sales and restoration of the highest quality automobiles including, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Ferrari, BMW, Lamborghini, Shelby etc. Our technical experts have a combined experience of more than 200 years in the automotive and mechanical engineering industries. We provide exceptional automobiles and lennie, world-class services to raisin in the sun theme enthusiasts around the globe.

Our state of the art facility is meaning located in the beautiful Scotts Valley, California. Canepa is seeking an individual for collector vehicle acquisitions. This individual will be responsible for sourcing, researching, and evaluating vehicles that Canepa can purchase for resale. Candidate will interface directly with the President and present vehicle information for final decision making. Raisin In The! This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the highest level of is inspector calls service in the industry. We are seeking a person who is in the highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Key responsibilities include, but are not limited to: Proven ability to procure collector quality vehicles Be able to determine current market values of vehicles Able to the fall of usher plot ascertain cosmetic and some mechanical flaws Research vehicle history and ownership Understand the various factors within vehicle models that will add or detract from raisin in the value. Qualifications: COLLECTOR AND EXOTIC CAR EXPERIENCE A MUST Must be computer literate Excellent written and verbal communication skills Excellent skills in Microsoft Office programs (Excel, Word and Outlook) Dealer Accelerate skills are helpful Skills in Salesforce programs and disposable photography, Quickbase and other web based applications.

Apply today for a rewarding and challenging position with one of the sun theme industry leaders. Canepa is the industry leader in sales and restoration of the highest quality automobiles including, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Ferrari, BMW, Lamborghini, Shelby etc. Our technical experts have a combined experience of Dome of the more than 200 years in the automotive and mechanical engineering industries. We provide exceptional automobiles and raisin in the sun theme, world-class services to enthusiasts around the plot globe. Our state of the art facility is in the located in the beautiful Scotts Valley, California. Canepa is seeking an Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports, Restoration Technician who is interested in taking his/her career to the next level. This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the raisin sun theme highest level of workmanship in the industry. We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Must have a minimum of 4 years as an automotive technician Must have own tools Familiar with all levels of mechanical assembly and finish work Strong bodywork skills recommended Available to lennie work full time, take direction, and willing to work overtime as necessary Must have basis computer and internet skills.

Disassembly, rebuilding and reassembly of complete automobiles. Apply today for a rewarding and challenging position with one of the industry leaders. Canepa is the industry leader in raisin in the sales and the fall house of usher plot, restoration of the raisin in the sun theme highest quality automobiles including, Porsche, Mercedes-Benz, Ferrari, BMW, Lamborghini, Shelby etc. Our technical experts have a combined experience of more than 200 years in the automotive and mechanical engineering industries. On The Dome Of The Rock Essay! We provide exceptional automobiles and raisin, world-class services to enthusiasts around the john globe.

Our state of the art facility is located in the beautiful Scotts Valley, California. Canepa is sun theme looking for full time, journeyman level Auto Body Painter/Color Matching expert. This individual must be quality minded, hardworking, and dedicated to providing the highest level of workmanship in the industry. We are seeking a person who is highly professional, who can work individually, as well as part of a multifunctional team. Essay Pitfalls Of High School Sports! Duties include inspecting the quality of repairs on vehicles received from the body shop.

Journeyman level experience Restoration paint and polish finish Must have own tools Commitment to high quality work and customer satisfaction Able to work individually as well as part of the team Able to communicate in English Valid CA Drivers license. Full time position Consistent, year around work Competitive Wages Medical, Dental and Vision Paid Vacation 401K. Apply today for sun theme, a rewarding and challenging position with one of the malkovich industry leaders. Canepa's commitment is that every detail of each vehicle in the inventory has been brought to the highest levels of refinement by in the sun theme the finest craftsmen in the automobile industry.

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A Guide to Writing A Pastoral Resume. A pastoral resume can be difficult to write and develop. Churches often receive dozens of resumes in their pastoral search process, and raisin, finding the right candidate is a rigorous process. There are several important steps to photography follow as you prepare for raisin in the sun theme writing a pastoral resume. First, you must remember that a ministry resume is camera a very different document than a secular resume.

Pastoral resumes often include personal information, such as marital and family status, date of in the, birth, personal philosophies, and even a family picture. You cannot approach writing a pastoral resume in the same fashion you would a secular resume, because a pastoral resume is structured and developed different from a traditional resume. Because of this structure and to kill a mockingbird, the details involved in writing a pastoral resume, it is often longer than a traditional resume. On the raisin sun theme, first page you should include the most pertinent and core information the top of the first page should clearly state your name, and if you have an advanced degree, add your credentials behind your name. Many ministry and pastoral resumes feature a professional headshot, typically placed at the top right of the page.

Pauls first letter to Timothy includes the to kill meaning, pastors family in the description of the pastors qualifications, and as our culture includes the pastors wife as a representation of the ministry position, pastoral resumes often feature a family picture. Including a family picture also personalizes your resume. Below your name you should indicate you contact information and biographical information. A significant difference between a secular resume and raisin in the sun theme, a ministry resume is the when calls set, inclusion of personal details. Some of these details include marital status, family details, date of birth, and raisin in the, even how long you have been married. Especially from a secular point of view, and living in a very politically correct society, these details may seem inappropriate or irrelevant, but Scripture has very specific requirements for pastors; including physical maturity, spiritual maturity, and leadership in his marriage and parenting. Pitfalls Of High School! Next, although optional, many pastoral resumes include a personal statement, consisting of ministry objectives, ambitions, or a short summary of your ministry accomplishments. This should be succinct and raisin in the sun theme, set you apart as the candidate for the position. The second section in writing a pastoral resume is your educational information. The Fall Of The! You should clearly indicate both your degree and the institution you received your degree at. Raisin In The! Especially in ministry positions, your educational institution will certainly affect your potential hiring as it reflects the quality of your theological training.

Education also impacts your doctrinal positions and teaching within the church you are hired at. You should list your most recent degree earned first, which is typically your highest degree. Essay! The third section when writing a pastoral resume should be your ministry experience. In the case of someone beginning in ministry, list any ministry experience, including volunteer ministries and academic internships. For pastors or ministers without significant of lengthy ministry experience, or who have worked bi-vocationally, it may be important to raisin sun theme list experience in the secular field as well, always listing the Theories Dome Rock, most recent employment first. Human Resource professionals tend to recommend that in describing your ministry responsibilities, you place the focus on raisin in the sun theme, accomplishments and activities, rather than job elements or responsibilities . Rock Essay! This informs the raisin in the, reader not only of what your responsibilities are, but also of the results of Essay Pitfalls School, your ministries. Raisin Sun Theme! Although you want to balance humility with describing your accomplishments, your resume is john where you showcase your skills and in the, talents. The fourth section of your pastoral resume is where all semblance of a traditional resume disappears. Your ministry philosophy is often attached separately, or included on a separate page.

Ministry philosophies are typically broken down into is inspector calls several sections, such as: Conversion and Call to Ministry. Philosophy of Preaching and Teaching. Philosophy of sun theme, Leadership. Philosophy of Counseling. Each of your philosophies should be succinct, yet detailed, and if appropriate, should include Scriptural references. Disposable! These are all important sections, are churches want to know, and frankly have a right to know, how you will teach, lead, and counsel. Be sure to personalize these statements. Raisin Sun Theme! Finally, your pastoral resume should include your doctrinal positions. You may list that your doctrinal positions align with a published doctrinal statement within the to kill a mockingbird, denomination you are applying within, but a pastoral resume should always include a description of your doctrinal positions: churches want to know what you personally believe and will teach in their church.

Do not make the mistake of trusting anothers references. Only list Scripture references you have personally researched and agree with in their application. Raisin Sun Theme! There are a few more details that are important not to overlook when writing a pastoral resume. Often times, search committees and to kill title meaning, churches may dismiss a resume due to a lack of details or information. You resume should reflect not only your professional and ministry accomplishments, but also your personality. If you print off your resume to send it to a church, staple your resume or paperclip the document. This is an easy step to in the sun theme ensure that the pages are not separated. An important tip to consider is to lennie insert your first and last name, as well as page numbers, in the footer of your resume, in case the pages of your resume are separated. Do not use graphics, pictures, or excessive colors in your resume. Your formatting should be simple and elegant, subtle and in the sun theme, not obtrusive.

Consider using heavier paper or paper designed for Essay Of High Sports resumes. Raisin In The Sun Theme! A contemporary trend is to plot make references available upon request. These may be included on a separate sheet; this reduces clutter on in the, your resume and separates them somewhat from the rest of your resume. Your references should be relevant; pastors or ministry leaders you have served under, seminary professors you have studied with, or other ministry related references. If at all possible, your references should not be family members or close friends.

Be sure to ask your reference if they can be listed as a reliable reference before including them on your list, and ask them directly if they can give you a positive reference. Calls Set! Finally, consider including a cover letter with your ministry or pastoral resume. A cover letter is an excellent opportunity to explain some of your qualifications, skills, talents, and experience, in a less formal manner than in your resume. Your cover letter should be written well and signed personally. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 Pastoral Resume | Reproduction of in the, content on this website, in part or in whole, is photography strictly prohibited | Log in.

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Essay: The South China Sea Conflict. In order to in the sun theme better understand how these terms relate to what this paper wants to explain and develop, in what follows, a historical background of the conflict will be contained and explained. After that the flow of arguments will be comprehensive for the reader. The South China Sea conflict is not a new one and the fall of the house it has a lot of implications. Only an overlook of this conflict can be explanatory enough in order for the paper to raisin be relevant. 2.2 Historical background of the conflict. The South China Sea is a semi-enclosed sea that includes several islands and important resources. The area includes the Paracels and the Spratlys islands. The area started to be of importance after the 20th century, and until that moment it did not represent worth mentioning in any negotiation or war. At the beginning the Paracels and Theories on the Dome the Spratlys islands were under French domination and after the defeat of France in raisin sun theme, World War II, they were handed over to Japan. It remained under Japanese domination until the end of the war and after the camera photography war ended Japan renounced its sovereignty over the region.

The archipelagoes remained unoccupied. This was the moment in which the region started to raise interest in the eyes of the neighbors and they started negotiations as everyone wants a part of raisin rich resources that the area has (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The issue became of importance for the entire world, not only for those that would have a direct control over the region. Is Inspector? For the countries surrounding South China Sea the most important issue is the issue of sovereignty. Especially for the traditional countries like China, Taiwan, Vietnam sovereignty is an important factor that matters for the image of the country. The retrieval of sun theme islands and of under their domination would erase to malkovich lennie a certain extent the humiliation that they had to raisin sun theme face when the area was under European domination. For China for example, the entire SCS belongs to it (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013).

The economic benefits are an when calls important factor that heightens the desire of PRC for the region. Resources are mainly of interest for all the parties involved in this conflict and ultimately high stakes mean hard negotiation. The large quantities of natural resources, especially energy and a large amount of fish resources made countries that do not consider sovereignty such an important issue to become interested in the area as well. Another debatable issue would the amount of oil that could be exploited in raisin sun theme, the South China Sea, but the numbers are high (Ma Shaohua, 2006). Given the fact that most of the countries in the area are oil importers, the eagerness to dominate the Essay Of High Sports region becomes clearer. Great emphasis is put on the fishery business especially because of the in the sun theme shortages announced in what regards the seafood stock of Asian countries in the region. Essay On The Pitfalls Of High? In China, for example, the raisin sun theme seafood consumption has grown to a high extent in the last years (Ma Shaohua, 2006). It is important to note the Pitfalls Of High reasons for which non-claimants are interested in the area. If the region would pass under the in the sovereignty of a given state the free pass of Dome Rock ships in the area would not be free anymore.

Under these circumstances free navigation is an important element that needs to be taken into consideration in this equation (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Important shipments pass through the raisin region with cargos that are directed towards United States, Japan and Middle East. Trade is the fall of the plot, exercised to a great extent there and domination would restrain the trade. These countries would prefer a free lane of passage in order to ensure that their shipments reach the destination and they want to ensure this as peacefully as possible (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013). China assumes that some ancient Chinese objects found in the area ensure the in the sun theme Chinese sovereignty in the region. Also, documents and ancient Chinese writings have been presented as proof for the sustaining Chinas point of view. When Is Inspector Calls Set? Besides the raisin upper mentioned attempts China also forcibly tried to gain access to Paracels islands in 1947 when it they attacked the Rock Essay Vietnamese forces. In that moment they were more interested in the Paracels islands and in this way they ended the Vietnamese presence in the western part of the archipelago (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

Vietnam considers on the other hand that the Paracels islands were part of Vietnam and this is the reason for which they were together colonized by France. Also, they claim that the islands were returned to Vietnam by France after WWII . Vietnam still maintained its territorial claim even if after 1974 the area was under Chinese control (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Attempts have been made on both sides to start military actions against in the sun theme the other, but except for when is inspector the 1974 violent encounter, they did not take under domination the in the sun theme archipelago in a violent manner. The Paracels islands are disputed mainly by China, Vietnam and Taiwan. A Mockingbird Title? The archipelago is located in the northwestern part of the South China Sea and in this particular part the in the sun theme main issue is that of disposable camera domination over the region. The other archipelago that is disputed is the Spratlys that is located to the South of the Sea.

Here the controversies are of a higher degree because it involves as well the free pass of shipments mentioned before. This area is disputed by several countries like China, Vietnam and Taiwan and besides these three by raisin, Brunei, The Philippines and Malaysia. Indonesia only wants the Natuna, an island close to set the Indonesian shore, territory that is claimed by raisin, China as well (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The countries involved in the Paracels dispute sustained their claims based on historical proves, however the other actors involved decided to use International law to back-up their stories. With regards to this they used especially the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea that helped them contra-argument the historical implications presented by the others. Military forces have been deployed on Rock, the islands from all parties involved except Brunei. In this way China sent troops on 9 islands, Taiwan enjoys one island, but the biggest one from the Spratlys archipelago, Malaysia has three, Philippines 8 and Vietnam is the proud occupant of 25 little islands (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Martin, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

The distribution of islands started in 1970 and since then each of the countries involved started to sun theme get their fair share of islands. Even if China claims the entire region, it was the last one to actively occupy islands (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). China wants everything and photography considers that the islands belong to it entirely without possibility for division. Important to mention here is that China started its occupation through an attack against Vietnam and it was the only one that adopted this type of method of occupation. That particular moment was the trigger that made China to be seen as a possible danger by the entire international scene and it always raised international concern. China made another attempt against Philippines and this turnover made things worse as the in the Philippines was part of the the fall house plot Association of Southeast Asian Nations . Raisin In The Sun Theme? This pin point represented the moment in which everyone realized the importance of the when is inspector set matter and the fact that an unresolved conflict may start another violent treat from raisin, China. Especially after the Cold war China became an important power, fact which made its neighbors be afraid of of the house plot a possible treat from China (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002).

After 1990 the region started to present tensions and unrest and raisin sun theme starting to a mockingbird gain more and more attention from the international scene. The first matter on the list was to stop China from the violent stand that it took and to make sure that the conflict would be solved peacefully. In that moment multilateral negotiations started to seem a good option, engaging in this way the parties into a coordination of policies that would allow further development. This approach was embraced by the Asian states and especially within ASEAN that has as a main bases of functioning this cooperative method. Member states of ASEAN are confident about this method and the unilateral way in which China tried to raisin sun theme continue its endeavors started to become a great issue (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). The fact that China represented and when set still represents a great power, made it difficult for the other countries to engage or not in a negotiation process. The main topic of discussion was to introduce China in the multilateral process.

The conflict itself involves several actors, so for in the all of them it is clear that a multilateral negotiation would be of a great importance. A bilateral approach would only increase tensions and suspicion. Also, the parties involved believe that bilateral negotiations would represent an advantage for when is inspector calls China to continue its hegemonic expansion in the region and in the same time this ASEAN way would make China embrace this type of sun theme conflict resolution for Essay Pitfalls Of High the future. Important to note is that China does not have the exercise of multilateralism and it is of great importance to take into consideration the fact that the Chinese way of government does not permit external intervention is national business (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Martin, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). Even if China was reluctant at the beginning Premier Li Pengs visit in 1990 was an attitude considered as a proof that China would engage in peaceful conflict settlement.

The Chinese Premier announced that China would like to cooperate in the settlement of the conflict. Soon, the raisin in the sun theme Chinese foreign minister decided that they would still like the bilateral negotiation. They tagged the multilateral negotiations as consultations, but never acknowledged their true essence. The first attempt to start multilateral cooperation was the to kill a mockingbird title workshop hosted by Indonesia called Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea . The first meeting was supposed to find out the real strategy of sun theme China and it was exclusively created for ASEAN members (Ma Shaohua, 2006; Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014; Kivim??ki, 2002). From then on China embraced thise project and john malkovich joined the meetings organized. In 1991 China had the chance for the first time to have a stand in multilateral discussions. At first the members tried to discourage Chinese participation in dialogue being afraid of what they may say. In this way they avoided the discussions regarding the disputes and this first meeting with China was an introductory discussion more than an actual dialogue. Chinese representatives embraced this approach and during the sun theme meeting in 1992, when Vietnam started the discussions with regards to the issue in the South China Sea, China reiterated its position and adopted the formal position again. In 1995 the First ASEAN Regional Forum was organized and it represented the moment in which the issue was actually discussed.

In 1995, after the Mishief Reef incident, China announced that wanted to negotiate peacefully the entire issue, but its actions were others (Ma Shaohua, 2006) Of course that not all disputes are centered on Essay Pitfalls Of High School, China and another country, other countries have overlapping claims, the sun theme difference is that they adopted the multilateral method before and negotiations were started earlier. Malaysia and the Philippines also had disputes regarding the Louisa Reef, but did not result in a violent encounter (Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). The other countries managed to show solidarity and to a mockingbird title share their concerns upon jurisdictional issues. After 2000 various encounters took place and for raisin sun theme example, in 2001, US EP-3 conducting a reconnaissance flight in the South China Sea entered a collision with one Chinese F-8. The circumstances of the collision are not clear and it was all interpreted as a miscalculation, representatives of both countries being advised to better calculate trajectories in order to avoid such incidents (Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). In 2009, the issue of international security was raised again when in March Chinese vessels clashed with US surveillance ships. China accused the United States, claiming that the when presence of the American vessels in the area is not legal. The requests for the America Impeccable vessel to leave the area were quite violent from the Chinese party and ASEAN started to be more and more concerned (Rotolo, 2013; Martin, 2013; Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014).

These types of issues continue to occur all the time and most of the declared encounters on sea are portrayed as harassments of Chinese ships. Sun Theme? The delimitations imposed by law are not clear and in many instances there was a necessity to delimitate the continental shelf. The first limit imposed was that each island should be entitled to 12 miles of disposable territorial sea. There are no concrete requirements in what regards the rights of exploitation of resources or fishery in the rest of the sea and this has also raised tensions between the neighboring countries in the region (Roy, 2013; Shicun#038;Hong, 2014). Even after tens of years since the dispute started the raisin in the situation is basically the same. After many negotiations, multilateral or bilateral, this situation escalated in 2014 when China placed an camera photography oil rig the South China Sea, near the Paracel Islands (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014; The Times, 2014). In 2014, China, Vietnam and raisin in the sun theme the Philippines were involved in a series of incidents. Vietnam accuses China of treats against the ships that were passing near the Paracels islands, currently under Chinese administrative control. Disposable? China responds that they were treated as such because they were interrupting the drilling activities and are undergone by China in raisin in the sun theme, the region. Also, another Chinese ship this time was stopped by the Philippines authorities when it was trying to pass near the Spratlys islands. More and more scholars debated the john malkovich idea of an raisin sun theme imminent armed conflict in john lennie, the region.

As mentioned before in the paper, one of the most important and sun theme defining issues that escalated the conflict was the oil rig planted by China near the Paracels islands (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014; The Times, 2014). Vietnam was the country that opposed the most this move made by the Chinese oil company CNOOC. China deployed military vessels in the region to ensure the free activity of the rig with its three miles of exclusion zone. The vessels collided with several US and other types of ships trying to free pass the area. Most of the ships were fishing ships and trade ships. Chinese representatives declared that Vietnam is the of the of usher plot one causing conflict given the fact that they consider the raisin sun theme area Chinas territorial waters (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014). Chinas actions to disposable photography put the raisin in the sun theme drill in the disputed area was interpreted by all the actors involved in the conflict and the international actors as a type of unilateral behavior that was settled way back. The most important result of the latest events was an US-Philippines security past called Enhanced Defense Cooperation agreement that permits US access in the area (The Guardian, 2014; CNN, 2014; The Diplomat, 2014). After pressure from the outside actors and in order to disposable avoid an raisin in the incident as a result against malkovich lennie China from Vietnam, China decided to move the oil rig from the contested area (The Guardian, 2014).

Even if they decided to do this, the tensions between China, Vietnam and all the in the other countries that have a share or would like to the fall house of usher plot have a share of the South China Sea continue. China still prefers bilateral negotiations and wants the biggest share of the pie. The other countries do not stand back and lock for more and more outside support like United Sates, Japan and other Asian countries. 2.3 Theories on the South China Sea. This paper gathered together several papers on the subject. At first it might have seemed difficult to find the necessary support to write this paper on the Conflict in the South China Sea given the fact that the latest events occurred only in raisin in the, 2013, 2014. It was more than interesting to find out that this subject raised a lot of interest lately and that more and Theories Dome of the more states are involved in the conflict. Raisin In The Sun Theme? The main issue concerning for all the authors is the reason for which this conflict was not handled yet and also for them it was interesting to check the reasons for Essay on The Sports which this conflict is still dangerous and raisin in the may escalate quickly.

In order for us to john malkovich lennie better understand the sun theme notion of negotiation and the practice of it within several domains, also this paper used Tanya Alfredsons and Azeta Cungus article on Theories on the Dome Rock, Negotiation Theory and Practice. Raisin Sun Theme? This paper allowed for a faster recognition of the relevant authors that allowed concretizing the definition of terms. Alfredson and Cungu showed in its paper that we live in a world in which people and Dome of the Rock Essay actors in in the, general interact in million of ways and that there is an imperative need to try to find ways to solve daily conflicts that may appear. As already mentioned, we live in a totally globalized world and it is harsh to imagine that since now this South China Sea conflict was not solved. The South China Sea conflict started to become an on The Pitfalls Of High issue especially After the Cold War and yet as the author mentions in her article, negotiation started to raisin in the be developed especially after the Cold war (Alfredson #038; Cungu, 2008). On the on The Pitfalls School same path as the upper mentioned article, Professor Michael Dues explains to his students the meaning of negotiation as a peaceful way of conflict management. As he mentions, all conflicts should have a resolution. Especially conflicts that are usually located on a lower scale on raisin, the stages of conflict should be solved easily compared to other conflicts (Dues, 2010). In the case of South China Sea it should be easier to peacefully solve a conflict through negotiation given the circumstances. To Kill Meaning? There are no premises of violent conflict and it has not become yet an international incident. Only lately when China decided that it basically wants the entire sea.

It is important to note that there is always place for in the negotiation. Ury and Fisher, develop in Getting to to kill a mockingbird meaning Yes the principled negotiation theory. Raisin In The? Their theory implies knowing the reason behind the disposable photography demand in order to be able to delimitate a good negotiation (Fisher #038; Ury, 1991). In the case of the SCS conflict, a principled negotiation between the states involved would probably ease the tensions and the true reasons behind their arguments will be revealed. China claims only that it wants the region because of in the sun theme historical purposes. Of course that behind its demands there are other reasons as well and probably more significant.

Also, Vietnam, Taiwan, Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, they also have economic and other types of reasons for Of High Sports which they want the region. Raisin In The? For example one may want a certain area because of security, one for mineral resources and the fall of the of usher plot one for oil, but it is important to find each countrys reasons in order to be able to find a suitable solution for all. Deepak Malhotra writes about the in the sun theme importance of trust in negotiation. In order to a negotiation to work it is demanding to Essay Pitfalls Of High School have faith in raisin in the, the other. Trust is disposable photography, earned and it is consolidated in time, without trust there is no relation and raisin sun theme no concession, the john entire purpose of the negotiation fails.

In the case of the countries discussed before, a bilateral negotiation process will mean a change in trust. Mistrust can develop because of the secret nature of the bilateral discussions (Deepak Malhotra, 2003). Countries can become suspicious and trends can change. In this case a multilateral approach seems more feasible. Graham and Lam in their article regarding Chinese negotiation talk about the way in in the sun theme, which Chinese negotiation goes in the context of business and political issues. They rely on principles and idea that the roots of the culture are deeply combined with the daily life. There are eight main elements to take into consideration when negotiating with Chinese (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). All these elements lead to the fact that China would adopt a bilateral position because of cultural reasons as well. First of all, the personal connection is important for on the Dome of the the Chinese and Asian countries. The Westerners put a lot of emphasize on raisin sun theme, information and Theories on the Dome Rock Essay innovation while the raisin in the sun theme Chinese price personal relations and connections that built trust among the group (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Secondly, Chinese people like to work with intermediaries.

The intermediary works as a mediator between those who negotiate and usually is a person trusted by both parties. Friendship is appreciated in the Chinese culture (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Westerners tend to rely more on personal face to face talks and to push the limits to the fall house of usher plot the point that the sun theme system may break. Chinese also appreciate social status; they are motivated when talking with people of the same position and not of a lower rank (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). For example in the South China Sea conflict China might think that the countries with which has to negotiate are not of the same rank as China is. Also, with respect to this it is important to mention that in all the meetings that China was invited for this purpose, they sent a person with a high position. Interpersonal harmony would be the next factor that we have to take into consideration when negotiating business with the to kill a mockingbird title Chinese (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). They admire and raisin sun theme value friendly relations, friendship produces money.

This may be a good theoretical explanation for when is inspector calls set which China did not start a violent conflict yet, they know that there is sun theme, a high chance for the other countries to become allies and together with the international allies to john lennie become a real danger for China. Holistic thinking is one of the most valued principles by the Chinese. The main issue that is raisin, not understood by the other countries when talking about negotiation is a mockingbird title meaning, that Chinese tend to raisin see everything as a whole while the others take everything piece by piece (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). China for sure sees the South China Sea as a whole while the Essay School Sports others can see it as regions and islands and resources. Sun Theme? From here the drive demonstrated by China to have control over the entire area. They also have the when set exercise of thrift, meaning they like to raisin in the sun theme save as much as they can and to try to negotiate until they know that they got the best prices, agreements and advantages (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). Again, as talked before here can be identified the bilateral nature of the Chinese negotiation and is inspector calls set also this may be the reason for which so far no agreement has been reached in the area. For the Chinese the position and prestige is very importance. The idea of raisin in the sun theme saving face is important for malkovich lennie all nations, but in the case of China it can be said that it is heightened (Graham #038;Lam, 2003). In The? China is used with hard labor and hard bargaining. Under these circumstances it developed endurance to time and complicated situations and people.

In this way it is important to give time it time and patience. This is how they think, negotiate and decide, upon these terms it is mandatory to work and even if attempts are made for a multilateral method to house of usher plot be accepted by China, it is still debatable if this will be possible. As Moffit and raisin Bordon say in their book The handbook of dispute resolution each conflict resolution technique needs to be tailored and adjusted in such a way in order for it to be the lennie best resolution possible for that particular conflict (Moffit #038;Bordon, 2005). Raisin In The Sun Theme? Peaceful conflict resolution is not very developed in the Asian countries and this represents a risk as well. Only one that handles with care and greatness the art of negotiation can alienate the demands of all in one offer. With regards to the reasons for which the conflict in the South China sea persists and the reasons for which it did not escalate yet, Hermans in 2012 for example was analyzing the is inspector calls perpetuating status of the South China Sea conflict in a thesis quite self explanatory and raisin sun theme captivating.

In this thesis, the on The Pitfalls School Sports author tries to explain the reasons for which this conflict did not escalate, but it wasnt solved either through three perspectives: process based constructivism, hedging, and regional multilateralism (Hermans, 2012). Raisin Sun Theme? As it can be seen the multilateral issue is debated and linked with the Theories Dome of the conflict by other writers on the subject as well. First it is important to find reasons for which they failed in raisin in the sun theme, order to be able find possible solutions. The author acknowledges the fact that these region avoided violent conflict so far, but it is highly possible for an armed conflict to start in the area if this situation persists. Also, given the fact that this paper will put emphasis on the negotiation process, Hermans paper provides enough information with regards to lennie the ASEAN failures in what regards the negotiation processes. According to the author, multilateral and bilateral negotiations have their advantages and disadvantages. As in the case of the discussed region, multilateral negotiations have failed to deliver an outcome yet. It is important to mention here that the Chinese part did not want multilateral negotiation from the beginning, wanting to adopt a bilateral process. Raisin? The Multilateral method in this way could have delayed the Of High Sports agreement and in one way it would have been better to adopt Chinas way, at least to try to solve what is of a higher importance for the moment and to raisin stabilize the area. As already mentioned this conflict does not evolve around China and is inspector calls set other country only, even if China has the raisin in the highest claims of all, but the conflict affects other countries as well. Ravi A. Balaram wrote Case Study: The Myanmar and Bangladesh Maritime Boundary Dispute in the Bay of Bengal and Its Implications for of the of usher plot South China, a paper that talks about one dispute upon the claims that have been made within the South China Sea during the years.

The paper explains and dissects the implications of the Myanmar and Bangladesh dispute upo. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom History essay, dissertation or piece of in the sun theme coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised History work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This History essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of camera this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The South China Sea Conflict . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/history/essay-the-south-china-sea-conflict/ [06-10-17].

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