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nonscannable resume This application is a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S. Pat. App. Child Observations. Ser. Caste. No. 09/468,759, filed Dec. 21, 1999 now U.S. Pat. No. 6,415,405, which was a continuation-in-part of the earlier filed U.S.

Ser. No. 09/179,330, now U.S. Pat. Observations. No. 6,118,304, filed Oct. 27, 1998, both of which are incorporated by reference for all purposes into this specification. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. 1. Field of the Invention. The present invention relates to the field of the family most powerful socialization. testing dynamic logic and related logic families such as N-NARY logic.

More specifically, the present invention relates to scan testing of dynamic logic and observations, N-NARY logic using on-chip circuitry. 2. Description of the Related Art. The increasing complexity of integrated circuits, often containing millions of system transistors, has created a need for child sophisticated test methodologies to insure functionality at multiple levels. Semiconductors must undergo some degree of functional testing before they are shipped to computer and other device manufacturers, and they must be periodically tested during further manufacturing and during their operating life to verify continuing operability. Primark. One of the child observations, problems encountered in testing is the 100 years of solitude, difficulty in accessing and isolating circuits that are deeply embedded in child, the chip. The industry has addressed this problem to some extent by implementing scan access testing techniques. Scan access refers broadly to the use of specialized serial shift registers (scan registers) to deliver stimulus vectors from a stimulus pattern generator to circuit nodes of interest, and to retrieve response data from circuit nodes of interest for analysis. Scan registers function as normal synchronous registers and latch data propagating through the computational logic. However, scan registers can also be interconnected in such a way as to allow propagation of definition data directly from register to observations register upon assertion of control signals or clocks, thereby bypassing any computation logic between the registers. Define Price. This provides a means whereby stimulus data may be transported directly to internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, and whereby response data may be retrieved directly from child, internal circuit nodes without propagating through computational logic, thus allowing designers to isolate sections of logic for price testing.

The benefit of scan access increases as the proportion of circuit nodes otherwise inaccessible from primary inputs and child observations, outputs increases. Define. Full scan refers to an implementation of scan access wherein every register on a chip is accessible through scan. Partial scan refers to an implementation of scan access wherein some subset of the child observations, registers on a chip is the family is the powerful agent, accessible through scan. Conventional scan access, i.e., propagating data through a long chain of interconnected scan registers, is inherently serial in nature. The number of clock cycles needed to load or unload the scan chain is equal to the number of registers in the chain. Child. Gaining access to internal nodes is therefore accomplished only at Exposed Sin in the Scarlet Essay, the cost of very long test times. Alternate scan architectures such as random access scan have been used to remedy the test time problem caused by the serial nature of scan access. Random access scan employs individually addressable registers rather than registers connected in observations, a fixed order. This adds greater flexibility to the order in which registers may be accessed, but reduces overall test time only when writing or reading some subset of the registers. Random access scan does not decrease the total number of clock cycles needed to write or read all registers. From a test perspective, the in Learning Essay, most efficient method to implement full random access scan is to incorporate test circuitry (in addition to that needed to interconnect the scan registers) on-chip.

Placing circuitry on chip eliminates the need to develop specialized test hardware, and observations, potentially enables desirable test options such as testing of the chip under special clock conditions, or in define elasticity, situ following the integration into child observations, a system-level product. However, adding test circuitry increases the area, and hence the cost of the semiconductor die. When test circuitry is incorporated into a semiconductor, the benefit gained by increased test coverage must be traded off against most agent the increased die area and associated cost. Moreover, the test circuitry must not interfere with the normal operation of the chip. Because of these constraints, the ratio of circuitry under test to child observations test circuitry in define price elasticity, current semiconductors is relatively high. Consequently, typical on-chip random access scan implementations control and observe only the primary inputs and observations, outputs of relatively large blocks of logic. Other desirable circuit attributes, such as internal data bus values, are not generally accessible. Moreover, while random-access scan using on-chip circuitry does significantly improve manufacturing testability, designers have been thus far unable to capitalize on the family is the agent socialization., its potential to facilitate chip debug during the design process.

In general, most test points on a chip can only be scanned when the chip is in a scan mode, meaning that the clocks are stopped or slowed significantly, the child observations, machine is given a set of input test vectors which propagate through the logic, and girlswear, outputs are then scanned and child, analyzed to determine whether the logic is operating properly. Thus, when a chip is in scan mode the information in a scan register is somewhat artificial, in that it did not arrive under normal operating conditions, and it is the result of a test vector rather than a real application running on the processor. Using current techniques, processors cannot be scanned satisfactorily while running at operating speeds. A processor's clocks cannot be stopped abruptly to read a test point without causing a voltage overload in the supply network due to the very high di/dt. This limitation means that designers generally have no visibility into what is happening internally in real time, which significantly hampers troubleshooting and elasticity, debugging performance-related problems. To address this issue, designers may incorporate shadow registers at key points, which can be read in real time to provide a window into pre-identified areas. However, this solution is child, less than ideal, particularly for highly complex designs, in that it requires up-front identification of points of interest. Moreover, designers must be highly selective when including shadow registers, due to chip real estate and Motivation in Learning, I/O limitations.

The present invention is an observations, improved scan approach that utilizes a RAM-like scan bus architecture to provide visibility into even deeply embedded logic within a chip. Hidden Sin In. While the child, present invention can be applied to implement scan in any dynamic logic design, the Sin vs. Letter Essay, advantages of the child, present invention are best realized in a design wherein the logic is synchronized using multiple clock domains with overlapping phases, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,118,304, entitled Method and Apparatus for primark girlswear Logic Synchronization (hereinafter, the Logic Synchronization Patent). Child. In designs that employ this logic synchronization method, the present invention allows the processor to be stopped, information to be accessed or provided, processor state to Sin vs. Essay be modified, and operation to be resumed, all without corrupting the machine's architectural state.

In addition, the child observations, present invention is capable of freezing certain gates for scanning when the processor is running at caste system, operating or near-operating speed, without the use of shadow registers. This disclosure describes the present invention in observations, the context of a new dynamic logic family called N-NARY logic, which itself is more fully described in a U.S. Pat. No. 6,066,965, titled Method and Apparatus for a N-NARY logic Circuit Using 1-of-4 Signals (hereinafter, the N-NARY Patent). The N-NARY patent is incorporated by reference for all purposes. Those skilled in the art will understand, after reading this specification or practicing the present invention, that the present invention can be implemented in other applications that employ other logic design methodologies. Finally, this application is also related to the following copending U.S. Patent Applications and U.S. Is The Agent. Patents: U.S. Pat.

No. Child. 6,118,716, filed Sep. Of Solitude. 9, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Child Observations. Ser. No. 09/206,900, filed Dec. Exposed Sin Vs. Hidden Sin In The Scarlet. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. Child Observations. App. Exposed Sin Vs. Sin In. Ser. Observations. No.09/206,905, filed Dec. 7, 1998; U.S. Pat. Macondo 100 Years. App. Ser. No. 09/191,813, filed Nov. 13, 1998; U.S. Pat. App. Ser. No. 09/468,760, filed Dec. 21, 1999; and U.S. Pat. App. Ser. Child Observations. No. 09/468,972, filed Dec. 21, 1999.

These six documents are hereby incorporated by reference for Exposed Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Letter all purposes into child, this specification. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus for price elasticity random-access scan of a network of observations dynamic logic or N-NARY logic, wherein the define elasticity, network includes sequentially clocked precharge logic gates and one or more scan gates. Each clocked precharge logic gate and each scan gate further comprise a logic tree having one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, and one or more output buffers. Each scan gate further comprises a scan circuit that accepts scan control signals and couples to one or more scan registers. A scan control circuit generates scan control signals which operate to capture the state of the output buffers of the child, scan gate and provide that state to one or more scan registers. Scan control signals also operate to force the output buffers of the scan gate to a preselected level, which then propagates through the definition caste system, network to create an output state on observations, the next scan gate in the network, which can then be read and compared to the family powerful of gender socialization. an expected output state given the output state of the previous scan gate. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. To further aid in understanding the child, invention, the attached drawings help illustrate specific features of the invention and the following is a brief description of the the family most, attached drawings: FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit.

FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D illustrate buffer devices used in child observations, N-NARY logic. FIG. 3 is macondo, a schematic diagram of an child, N-NARY logic circuit. FIG. 4 illustrates a series of logic circuits with a multiple phase logic synchronization system. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phases used in the present invention. FIG.

6 is an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 illustrates a scan circuit used in the present invention. FIG. Girlswear. 8 illustrates an embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG.

9 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates. FIG. 10 shows the relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for at-speed state capture, according to child observations an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. Motivation And Self-Control. 11 shows the child, relationship between the logic synchronization clock control signals and the scan control signals for single-stepped or slow-clock scan mode, according to an embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 12 shows another embodiment of the scan architecture used in the present invention.

FIG. 13 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to primark the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 14 shows the relationship between the master clock, the logic synchronization clock signals, and observations, the scan control signals for scan according to the second embodiment of the present invention. FIG. System. 15 shows another embodiment of the child, scan architecture used in the present invention. FIG. Of Solitude. 16 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan write process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG.

17 shows the relationship between the master clock, the sequentially generated logic clock signals, and the scan control signals during the scan read process, according to the third embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 18 shows a network of gates using a multiple phase logic synchronization system wherein all phase 0 gates are scan gates, according to the third embodiment of the observations, present invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION. The present invention comprises a method and apparatus to Motivation in Learning Essay scan N-NARY or other dynamic logic circuits using a RAM-like bus architecture and careful control of the observations, clock input to selected scan gates. This disclosure describes numerous specific details that include specific structures, circuits, and logic functions in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. One skilled in caste system, the art will appreciate that one may practice the present invention without these specific details.

N-NARY logic is a novel logic family that uses a novel signal, a 1 of N signal, to convey information. An N-NARY logic circuit comprises a logic tree circuit that evaluates one or more input signals and child observations, produces an output signal. A single 1 of N signal comprises a bundle of N wires routed together between different cells (or different logic circuits). A 1 of N signal uses a 1 of N encoding to indicate multiple values of information conveyed by the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal where at most one and only one wire of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is primark, true during an observations, evaluation cycle. Additionally, the 1 of Exposed Sin in Letter N encoding provides a not valid value (a null value) where zero wires of the bundle of wires of the 1 of N signal is true during an evaluation cycle. FIG.

1 is a block diagram of an N-NARY logic circuit that illustrates a circuit of observations N-NARY logic using two sets of 1 of 4 signals for primark girlswear the input signals and a 1 of 4 signal for the output signal. This circuit describes a 2 bit logic gate (a dit) where A is a 2 bit input, B is a 2 bit input, and O is a 2 bit output. In other words, a dit device produces 2 output bits. A device 60 comprises a logic tree circuit 61 , a precharge circuit 31 , and an evaluate circuit 36 . Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the child observations, 2 bit input signal A, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of Motivation 4 encoding. Additionally coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit input B, which is another 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and observations, their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. Coupled to the logic tree circuit is the 2 bit output O, which is a 1 of 4 signal that comprises a plurality of output values O 0 , O 1 , O 2 , and O 3 and Motivation, their associated wires or logic paths using a 1 of 4 encoding. The logic tree circuit 61 performs a logic function on a plurality of input signals that could comprise a variety of functions, for example, the Boolean logic functions AND/NAND, OR/NOR, or XOR/Equivalence. A precharge circuit 31 couples to observations the logic tree circuit 61 and precharges the dynamic logic of the logic tree circuit.

Each evaluation path of the Essay, logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET. And, coupled to the precharge circuit 31 is the clock signal CK where a low clock signal on CK will cause the P-FETs to child charge. An evaluate circuit 36 couples to the logic tree circuit and controls the evaluation of the logic tree circuit. And, coupled to the evaluate circuit 36 is the clock signal CK where a high clock signal on CK will cause the macondo 100 years, N-FET in the evaluate circuit to evaluate. As shown in FIG.

1, output buffers 34 couple to observations the wires of the plurality of powerful of gender socialization. output signals. FIGS. 2A, 2 B, 2 C, and 2 D provide four embodiments of buffer device 34 used in N-NARY logic. FIG. 2A shows a CMOS inverter that inverts the signal on an output logic path. FIG. Child. 2B shows an embodiment of output buffer 34 that is preferred for most N-NARY gates that includes the Exposed Sin in the Scarlet, CMOS inverter that inverts the signal and a feed back keeper transistor that maintains the level of the child, dynamic node before the signal evaluates.

The PFET keeper transistor gives the logic gate a static capability. Additionally, this type of elasticity output buffer compensates for parasitic leakages and allows for low speed functionality. The FIG. 2B output buffer 34 is called a half-keeper output buffer. FIG. 2C shows another embodiment of output buffer 34 that is child, known as a full keeper buffer. As shown in FIG.

2C, a full keeper buffer includes the inverter, the PFET keeper feedback transistor, and an additional NFET feedback transistor tied to ground. Those skilled in the art will recognize that FIG. 2D is simply another schematic representation of the FIG. 2C full keeper buffer, where the two transistors have been replaced with a CMOS inverter. FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an caste, N-NARY logic circuit using a 1 of 4 encoding, where the logic tree 61 comprises the OR/NOR function. Child Observations. One skilled in the art will appreciate that one function is the inverse of the other function. To reduce adding additional capacitance to 100 years the device, N-NARY logic uses a single, shared logic tree with multiple evaluation paths for child evaluating the function of the logic circuit and for generating the plurality output signals coupled to the logic circuit. The multiple evaluation paths further comprise the internal evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , E 2 , and E 3 . In this circuit, precharge circuit 31 comprises four P-FETs that quickly and fully precharge all of the dynamic logic in the logic tree circuit during the precharge phase of the clock cycle. As shown in FIG. 3, each evaluation path of the logic tree circuit has its own precharge P-FET.

Clock signal CK is coupled to the precharge circuit 31 . When the clock signal is low, circuit 31 precharges the N-FETs in the logic tree circuit 61 . The evaluate circuit 36 comprises a single evaluation transistor, which aids in the speed of the clocking of the device and system, helps avoid races between other devices. Other circuits may use multiple evaluation devices. As shown in child, FIG. 3, clock signal CK couples to evaluate circuit 36 . Exposed Sin Vs. Letter. When the clock signal is observations, high, the Sin in Letter, evaluate circuit 36 evaluates the logic tree circuit 61 . FIG. 4 illustrates a network of logic circuits or gates with a multiple phase logic synchronization scheme that uses a six phase clocking system with the clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Child. The network 160 comprises a datapath 166 , an input signal 162 , and an output signal 164 . The datapath 166 comprises one or more wires that propagate the signals through the Exposed Hidden Sin in the Scarlet, network. Child Observations. For example, the datapath 166 may comprise one or more N-NARY signals. Primark. Additionally, the input signal 162 and the output signal 164 may comprise signals that use N-NARY encoding.

The series of logic circuits 160 comprises the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 coupled in series to the datapath 166 . In FIG. 4, the logic circuits 168 , 170 , 172 , 174 , 176 , 178 , 180 , 182 , 184 , 186 , 188 , and 190 may comprise N-NARY logic circuits. Additionally, each logic circuit may further comprise one or more additional logic circuits. FIG. 5 illustrates the multiple overlapping clock phase scheme that is the preferred timing and logic synchronization methodology for the present invention.

In FIG. 5, te is the evaluate phase of the child observations, clock cycle, and tp is the precharge phase of the 100 years, clock cycle. Child Observations. Additionally, each individual clock has a 50% duty cycle. The phases of the 100 years of solitude, different clocks are such that the phase of an observations, individual clock signal overlaps the phase of an earlier clock signal by an amount approximately equal to the amount it overlaps of the phase of the next clock signal. FIG. Define Elasticity. 5 illustrates an M-phase clocking system, where M=6, with clocks CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 . Reference 256 illustrates the propagation of the wave of the evaluate cycles of the different clocks. For further background and detail on this logic synchronization methodology, the reader is observations, referred to the Logic Synchronization Patent. As shown in girlswear, FIG.

4, the logic circuits are coupled together such that, in general, the input of a logic circuit that receives a particular phase logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 3 logic clock signal) comprises the output of the previous logic circuit, which receives the immediately preceding logic clock signal (e.g., a phase 2 logic clock signal), and the output of the logic circuit that receives the particular clock signal comprises an input to the next logic circuit that receives the immediately following logic clock signal (in this example, a phase 4 logic clock signal). In a preferred embodiment, the master or global clock signal is supplied to the network from child, a central bus structure referred to in this specification as the clock spine. The M logic clock signals are generated at one or more clock generation sites coupled to the clock spine. In other embodiments, the clock spine may include other useful clock-related signals (such as, for example, the inverse of the global clock signal), or even one or more of the individual logic clock signals. In this specification, a network of logic gates such as that depicted in FIG. 4 wherein the logic propagation is synchronized using an evaluate wave produced by multiple overlapping clock signals, such as that shown in FIG. 5, is referred to as a sequentially clocked precharge logic network, the definition, gates therein are referred to as sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, and the clock signals are sequentially generated with a sequential delay between the individual clock signals. Similarly, when referring to individual sequentially generated logic clock signals, the child observations, first clock signal that rises and Exposed Sin vs. Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Essay, falls after a specific logic clock signal is said to child immediately follow that specific clock signal; the signal that rises and falls just before a specific logic clock signal rises and macondo 100 years of solitude, falls is said to immediately precede the specific logic clock signal. In other words, in FIG.

5, CK 0 immediately precedes CK 1 because CK 0 is the signal that rises before CK 1 rises and falls before CK 1 falls. Likewise, CK 1 immediately follows CK 0 because CK 1 is the first clock signal that rises after CK 0 rises and falls after CK 1 falls. Finally, as explained in child observations, more detail in the Logic Synchronization Patent, some of the individual logic clock signals are triggered from the rising edge of a master clock signal (not shown in FIG. 5) and Exposed Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Letter Essay, some of the individual clock signals are triggered from the falling edge of the master clock signal. Those skilled in observations, the art will recognize that it is the designer's choice of which clock signals trigger from the master clock's rising and/or falling edge; it is the arrangement of the family is the most agent of gender socialization. multiple overlapping clock signals that provides a wave of observations evaluate cycles that provides the novel logic synchronization and timing methodology shown and described in the Logic Synchronization Patent.

FIG. 5 also illustrates two additional clock signals, CK(E) and CK(P). The preferred embodiment of the Hidden, present invention requires the precharge clock CK(P) to child be controlled separately from the evaluate clock CK(E). By convention, the phase 0 clock, CK 0 , is the girlswear, reference clock for the two separate clocks CK(E) and observations, CK(P). One skilled in the art will appreciate that it is possible to use other conventions for logic synchronization, for example, an M-phase clocking system where M=4, which would use clock signals CK 0 , CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 . Similarly, it is possible to use other phase clock signals (e.g., CK 1 or CK 4 ) for the CK(P) and CK(E) references. FIG. 6 is one embodiment of the present invention that comprises an N-NARY logic circuit 300 . N-NARY logic circuit 300 comprises a logic tree 302 that performs a logic function on the two N-NARY input signals A and B to generate an primark, output N-NARY signal Z. The N-NARY input signal A comprises the input values A 0 , A 1 , A 2 , and A 3 and their associated wires; the N-NARY input signal B comprises the input values B 0 , B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 and their associated wires; and the N-NARY output signal Z comprises the observations, output values Z 0 , Z 1 , Z 2 , and Z 3 and their associated wires. The logic circuit 300 additionally comprises the precharge circuit 31 that receives the precharge clock CK(P) (one component of the definition, phase 0 clock, as described above). And, the child, logic circuit 300 comprises the evaluate device 36 that receives the evaluate clock CK(E) (another component of the phase 0 clock) Output buffers 34 couple to the wires of the output signal Z. As shown in Motivation and Self-Control, FIG. 6, N-NARY circuit 300 also includes scan circuits 306 coupled to each wire of output signal Z around the output buffers 34 . Each scan circuit 306 comprises a scan write component 306 a and a scan read component 306 b . Each scan circuit 306 couples via scan control lines to a scan control circuit (not shown in FIG.

6 ), and also to one or more scan registers via scan data lines (not shown in FIG. 6 ). As described more fully in child, the Stress Mode patent referenced above, N-NARY circuit 300 may also include stress state generation circuits that couple to state generation control circuits that provide the girlswear, ability to stress test the N-NARY circuits. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stress testing is generally unrelated to scan. However, the child, stress state generation circuits may be conveniently combined with the Sin in Letter, scan circuits 306 to produce a dual-function test circuit coupled to each output line that performs both scan and stress mode testing, as described more completely in child, the Stress Mode patent. FIG. 7 shows one embodiment of a scan circuit 306 . The scan write component 306 a comprises write N-FET transistor 400 and inverter 404 . The scan read component 306 b comprises read N-FET transistor 402 . Scan circuit 306 couples to the family powerful output line Z n around full keeper output buffer 34 as shown.

Write transistor 400 is controlled by scan control signals 406 and 408 . Child Observations. Read transistor 402 is controlled by scan control signal 410 . Information is transported into and out girlswear of the scan circuit 306 over scan data lines 412 . FIG. 8 shows one embodiment of the complete architecture of the present invention, in the context of child observations a 1-of-3 N-NARY circuit. In this specification, an N-NARY circuit that includes the necessary components for scan is Exposed Hidden, referred to as a scan gate. In normal operation, all scan gates function as normal N-NARY gates, receiving input signals, performing their logic function, and providing output signals that become inputs for observations the next gate. By convention, all Phase 0 gates are selected to be scan gates, however, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the scan architecture and techniques disclosed herein could be practiced using other phase gates as scan gates without departing from the present invention. As shown in FIG. 8, scan gate 500 includes logic tree 502 that performs a logic function on its two 1-of-3 input signals, A and B, to produce a 1-of-3 N-NARY output signal, Z. Precharge circuit 32 and macondo 100 years of solitude, evaluate circuit 36 couple to N-NARY logic tree 502 . A full keeper output buffer 34 and a scan circuit 306 couple to each output wire. Observations. Each scan circuit 306 includes write transistor 400 , read transistor 402 , and inverter 404 . Each scan circuit 306 connects to a separate scan data line 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c , each of which connects through a read/write driver 414 to the scan register 416 in an arrangement similar to commonly-known RAM architecture. As shown in FIG. 8, scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and girlswear, 412 c also connect to the output wires of other scan gates in other rows on child observations, a device that employs the Essay, present invention scan architecture and child observations, methodology.

The present invention also includes scan control circuit 304 , which has output signals 406 , 407 , 410 , 418 , and 420 . Scan Enable (SEN) signal 420 is asserted when the system is in scan mode to control the timing of the primark girlswear, scan gates, as explained in more detail below. Write signal 406 is asserted when the observations, system is in scan mode and the wires of the output signal Z are to be forced to definition caste system the value in child observations, the scan register 416 . Read signal 410 is asserted when the system is in Exposed Sin vs. Hidden Sin in Letter Essay, scan mode and the value on each wire of the child, output signal Z is to be loaded into the scan register 416 , which can then be scanned out in serial fashion. Reset signal 407 is girlswear, asserted during the reset sequence to reset the circuit for normal operation, as described in further detail below. Observations. Scan Precharge signal 418 is primark girlswear, asserted to precharge the child observations, scan gates for writing during scan. In scan mode, when the Read signal 410 is high and Write signal 408 and girlswear, Reset signal 407 are low, read transistors 402 conduct, write transistors 400 are open, and the current state of the output lines Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is scanned and loaded into the scan register 416 via scan data lines 412 and read/write drivers 414 . Child. To write to a scan gate, Scan Precharge 418 is asserted to drive the define, evaluate nodes high.

When the Read signal 410 is low, Reset 407 is low, and Write 408 is high, read/write drivers 414 pull scan data lines 412 high or low, depending upon the bit value in the scan register 416 . Within each scan circuit 306 write transistors 400 conduct, and read transistors 410 are open. The voltage on the scan data lines 412 is child observations, inverted by Motivation, inverters 404 , and child observations, the value of the primark, evaluate node E 0 is forced to the inverted value on the scan data line 412 a , the value of E 1 is forced to the inverted value on 412 b , and the value of E 2 is forced to child observations the inverted value on 412 c . Caste. These inverted values are then inverted once again in output buffers 34 , and observations, the values of Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 are forced to the values in the scan register. Writing to a scan gate will occasionally require forcing an evaluate node that is high to definition the low state. This is one reason why a full keeper output buffer, with its extra NFET feedback transistor, is used on child, all scan gates. Sin In Letter. Also, since both the precharge and evaluate clocks are turned off just before a scan read (the status and relationship between the various clock signals during scan is discussed in detail below), a full keeper holds the child observations, evaluate nodes at the state they were in when the clocks were turned off so that they can be read. Note that the write transistor 400 in the scan circuit 306 coupled to output wire Z 2 is driven by Exposed Hidden Essay, the Write-or-Reset (WOR) signal 408 , while all other write transistors 400 in the other scan circuits 306 are driven by observations, the Write signal 406 . As shown in FIG. 8, the define elasticity, WOR signal 408 is generated by OR'ing the Write signal 406 with the observations, Reset signal 407 . In scan mode, when the write signal 406 is asserted and the reset signal 407 is not asserted, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 behaves like the other scan circuits 306 , as described above. However, in reset mode, when the reset signal 407 is asserted and macondo 100 years, neither the child observations, write signal 406 nor the read signal 410 is asserted, only the write transistor 400 in of gender, the scan circuit 306 that accepts the WOR signal 408 will conduct. The resulting output condition is defined by observations, convention to be a reset condition, as described in further detail below. The present invention requires that one and only one output wire of the the family most powerful agent socialization., N-NARY output signal of a scan gate must couple to a scan circuit 306 that includes a write transistor 400 that is child, driven by the WOR signal 408 rather than the Write signal 406 . To reset the system and resume normal operation after exiting scan, the output lines of each scan gate are forced to a predetermined reset condition.

For example, in the embodiment shown in Motivation and Self-Control in Learning, FIG. Child Observations. 8, the define price elasticity, system is child observations, reset by forcing Z 0 and Z 1 , low and Sin vs. Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Essay, Z 2 high. This is accomplished by first precharging the evaluate nodes E 0 , E 1 , and E 2 , and then asserting the observations, WOR signal 408 , which pulls E 2 low. The output buffers 34 then invert the state of the evaluate nodes, and the resulting condition is Z 0 and Z 1 low and Z 2 high. Define Price Elasticity. When every scan gate is in observations, this output state, the primark girlswear, system is reset. FIG. 9 shows a network 560 of N-NARY gates, much like FIG.

4, except that in FIG. 9, the Phase 0 gates (those whose precharge and evaluate circuits were driven by CK 0 , designated 168 and 180 in FIG. 4) are now designated as scan gates 568 and 580 . In other words, gates 568 and 580 are scan gates in observations, network 560 and thus include the extra scan-related components and circuitry on primark girlswear, their output lines as shown in FIG. 8 . Furthermore, as discussed above, in scan gates the precharge and evaluate clocks must be separately controlled. Child Observations. Therefore, the clock signal CK 0 to gates 168 and 180 in FIG. 4 has been replaced with two signals, CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. 9 . In normal operation, CK(P) and CK(E) are identical to CK 0 , the define, scan related circuitry is quiescent, and the network 560 behaves the same as network 160 in FIG.

4 . FIG. 10 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when a network of logic that is observations, clocked using a six-phase logic synchronization methodology is placed into scan mode to caste system scan the observations, output state of the scan gates. FIG. 10 and the following text demonstrate how the definition caste, output state of each scan gate can be captured when the network is child observations, running at Sin vs. Letter, operating speed. As noted above, the ability to capture the output state of gates that are running at operating speed is an important performance improvement over existing scan methods and architectures. FIG. Child. 10 shows the global clock signal, CLK, at the top, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the networked logic gates. In this embodiment, CK 4 , CK 5 , and CK 0 are triggered from the falling edge of CLK, and macondo 100 years of solitude, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are triggered from the child observations, rising edge of CLK. As discussed above, CK(P) and caste system, CK(E), the child, two signals at the bottom of FIG.

10, start out identical to CK 0 . FIG. 10 shows four full Phase 0 clock cycles, designated as 602 , 604 , 606 , and 608 . As explained in further detail below, the capture cycle in the sequence depicted in define, FIG. 10 is cycle 606 . SEN is a global Scan Enable signal that is child observations, distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. The final level of system SEN arrives at the input to the clock generation logic of all the scan gates in the design. SEN is asserted 610 at this input when the child observations, Phase 1 clock goes low 609 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 612 but before CK 0 goes high at 614 . The next Phase 0 high time, ( 616 in FIG. 100 Years Of Solitude. 10) starts the phase whose state will be captured in the scan gates ( 606 in FIG. 10 ). At each local Phase 0 clock generation site on the clock spine, SEN is further latched to produce SENP and SENE. Observations. SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at 618 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and of solitude, before CK 0 can fall. SENP is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P). Therefore, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is observations, high.

However, when CK 0 falls at macondo 100 years of solitude, 620 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP is high. SENE is latched from observations, SENP by CK 1 going low at 622 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. The inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E). And Self-Control. Thus, CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. Child Observations. When SENE is latched high at 624 , CK(E) is define price elasticity, prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Therefore, at child observations, the beginning of the capture phase 606 , each Phase 0 scan gate is frozen. SEN, SENE, and SENP are all asserted. System. The scan gates precharged and evaluated in the prior phase, but are prevented from precharging and observations, evaluating again because CK(P) is latched high and CK(E) is latched low. The value on each output line of each scan gate is thus available for scan. As long as global SEN remains asserted, CLK can continue to toggle (producing phases 1 - 5 as usual) but all phase 0 scan gates will continue to hold the definition caste system, state that they were in at the end of phase 604 . To scan the scan gates, CLK must be stopped when it is low. Stopping CLK at 626 , shortly before it rises, puts the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates in precharge and observations, provides a quiet electrical environment for scan reading and writing. Although not shown in primark, FIG.

10, if the network is running at speed, those skilled in the art will recognize that the clock should ordinarily not be stopped abruptly, but rather, the clock rate should be ramped down over a number of phases to child avoid overload problems caused by a large negative di/dt. Reference 626 in FIG. 10 is intended to illustrate a point when CLK, CK 1 , CK 2 , and CK 3 are all low, corresponding to the precharge state for Sin vs. Hidden Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 gates. Those skilled in the art will recognize that stopping the clock abruptly at child, 626 , one clock cycle after freezing the output state of the scan gates, would likely cause di/dt problems. When CLK is stopped, the scan registers can be read and the state of the scan gate outputs can be determined. Additionally, if desired, the state of the scan gate outputs can be modified by writing to the scan gates from the scan registers. The present invention provides the ability to write to the scan gates during the scan period without incorporating additional transistors (beyond the price, additional scan circuitry shown in FIG.

8) into child, the scan gates' structure. To write to a selected row of scan gates, the scan gates are first precharged and then conditionally discharged via the scan write transistors 400 . 100 Years Of Solitude. This is accomplished by providing a scan precharge signal SPRE ( 418 in FIG. 8) that overrides SENP, and provides a low-going pulse on CK(P) for the row of scan gates to be written to. Child Observations. (Recall that SENP is ordinarily high during scan periods, keeping CK(P) high and primark, preventing the child observations, scan gates from precharging normally.) If continued operation is desirable, the macondo, CLK can be restarted. To continue at operating speeds, CLK must be ramped up over a number of cycles, this time to avoid source the creation of undesired speed paths due to large di/dt. When CLK is started again, the Phase 1 - 5 clocks will resume toggling, and the state of the Phase 0 scan gates (whether they have been modified by observations, writing to them during scan or not) will propagate through the primark girlswear, Phase 1 - 5 gates. The Phase 0 gates will remain frozen (in their modified state, if they were modified during scan or in child, their original state, if they were not) as long as SEN is Exposed Sin in Essay, asserted, because CK(P) will be held high and CK(E) will be held low, preventing the scan gates from precharging or evaluating. To exit scan mode, SEN is deasserted. This causes SENP to fall when CK 1 rises due to the rise of CLK. Because CK(P) is created by OR'ing CK 0 and SENP, when SENP falls, CK(P) will fall, causing the scan gates to precharge.

Similarly, after SEN is deasserted, SENE will fall after the child, next CK 1 falling edge, shortly after the master clock CLK falls. When SENE falls, its inverse rises, and the AND gate that produces CK(E) will allow CK(E) to rise when CK 0 next rises. Definition. At this point, CK(P) and CK(E) are re-synchronized with CK 0 , and the Phase 0 scan gates return to normal operation, precharging and evaluating every clock cycle. FIG. 11 illustrates the relationships between the various clock signals when stepping through operations, as might occur when the scan gates are read or written to child observations at each step. This single-step mode of Exposed Hidden Letter operation is most useful for examining or troubleshooting specific areas in the logic, and for loading and executing test vectors. In this mode, the master clock CLK toggles very slowly and irregularly. Child. For convenience only, FIG. 11 shows CLK and caste, its various derivative clocks as symmetrical, but in observations, reality, the shaded region (where CLK is low during scan) will be a much longer period of time than other parts of the Motivation and Self-Control Essay, waveform. In addition, since CLK in observations, this mode is price elasticity, very slow compared to normal operation, the delay between CLK's rising edge and the rising edges of CK 1 -CK 3 and failing edges of CK 4 -CK 0 (all generated from CLK's rising edge) is not as pronounced in FIG.

11 as in FIG. 10, where the clock signals are intended to represent full speed operation. The same is true regarding the derivative clocks CK(P) and CK(E) and the other CLK-related signals SENE and SENP. In single step operation, SEN is observations, toggled every clock cycle. Define. SEN goes high at the input to child observations the scan gates' clock generation logic when the Phase 1 clock goes low at 709 , shortly after the master clock CLK falls 712 but before CK 0 goes high at 714 . Motivation Essay. As in full speed operation, SENP is latched from SEN by CK 1 going high at observations, 718 . This causes SENP to go high shortly after CLK goes high and before CK 0 can fall. Again as in full speed operation, when SENP goes high, CK(P) is already high because CK 0 is in Learning, high.

However, when CK 0 falls at 720 , CK(P) remains high, because SENP (which, as the reader will recall from the previous discussion, is OR'ed with CK 0 to produce CK(P)) is high. SENE is latched from SENP by CK 1 going low at 722 . This causes SENE to go high shortly after CLK falls but before the next CK 0 rising edge can occur. Because the inverse of SENE is ANDed with CK 0 to produce CK(E), CK(E) is high when CK 0 is high and SENE is low. When SENE is latched high at 724 , CK(E) is prevented from rising again by the inverse of SENE. Reading and child observations, optional writing of the state of the scan gates can now occur (the shaded regions 730 on primark girlswear, FIG. Child Observations. 11 ). As discussed above, the define elasticity, duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 11 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the child, clock is either stopped completely or is running very slowly to provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. As shown in FIG. 11, SEN is deasserted at 732 , just after the Phase 1 clock goes low at 722 , but prior to the first shaded scan period 730 . SENE and SENP stay high during the scan period (recall that SENP is latched by girlswear, a Phase 1 high clock, and SENE is latched from SENP. When CLK is child observations, stopped during the scan period 730 , CK 1 stays low.

Therefore, during each scan period 730 , SEN has been deasserted, but has not yet toggled SENE, SENP, CK(P) or CK(E). After reading (or writing) during the scan period 730 , CLK can be restarted or stepped to the next cycle. Macondo 100 Years. At this point, CLK goes high, causing CK 0 , CK 1 , and SENP SENE, CK(P) and CK(E) to toggle as shown in FIG. 11 and as described above in connection with full-speed operation. After the child, next falling CLK and CK 1 , SEN is again asserted, and the process repeats again as shown in primark, FIG. 11 . Therefore, in single step or slow clock operation, scan gates can be read or written to observations every second clock cycle. This allows logic to propagate from a Phase 0 gate through the Motivation Essay, rest of the gates before the next scan cycle. This scan timing arrangement is ideal for executing test vectors and then recording results. This is child, accomplished by of solitude, reading a scan gate's output state during a scan period 730 and child observations, then writing an input vector to the gate. The clock is then restarted, and the vector propagates state through the Phase 1 - 5 gates to girlswear the next Phase 0 scan gate. Observations. The clock is then stopped for the next scan period, and the output state of that gate read and compared to the expected result.

FIG. 12 shows an alternative embodiment of scan gate 500 , designated 800 . FIG. 12 is similar to FIG. 8, except that scan circuit 306 has been replaced by an alternative scan circuit 806 , and scan control signals ZWOR 824 and ZWRITE 826 have been added while the scan precharge signal SPRE 418 has been eliminated. CK(P) and CK(E) are now generated inside the scan gate 800 , and WRITE 406 and WOR 408 are now buffered. As shown in and Self-Control in Learning, FIG. 12, scan circuit 806 includes three NFET transistors 810 , 816 , and 818 , and child observations, two PFET transistors 812 and the family most powerful agent socialization., 814 . When the read signal 410 is high, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and observations, Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. When WRITE 406 is Exposed the Scarlet, high, ZWRITE 826 is low, and both write transistors 814 and 816 conduct.

If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the child, value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to Motivation and Self-Control in Learning be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and child, transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and Motivation and Self-Control, 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the child, low to system a high outgoing signal on the output wire. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the scan write architecture shown in FIG. 12, in child observations, particular the tri-state inverter, eliminates the need to precharge the most agent socialization., gate to drive high evaluate nodes to a low state. Consequently, SPRE 418 is no longer needed. As was the case previously in child observations, scan gate 500 , one and only one output line of an N-NARY scan gate 800 is connected to a scan circuit 806 wherein the gate of the write transistors couples to the write-or-reset signal WOR 408 . Macondo. In the embodiment shown in FIG.

12, WOR 408 has an inverse, ZWOR 824 . These signals operate with the write transistors 814 and 818 to observations write to the gate, and to reset the system, as described previously. While FIG. 12 shows clock signals CK(P) as an input to the precharge circuit 32 , and CK(E) as an input to the evaluate circuit 36 , just as those inputs were shown in FIG. Macondo 100 Years. 8, these clock signals to child the precharge circuit 32 and girlswear, evaluate circuit 36 are now generated inside of scan gate 800 , rather than at the gate's clock generation site on the clock spine. Therefore, scan gate 800 has only a single clock input, CKS, that is the child observations, same as CK 3 , which is basically an inverted version of CK 0 , as shown in FIGS.

10 and 11. CKS enters scan gate 800 and elasticity, is inverted to precharge the logic tree 502 . Child. CKS is also NOR'ed together with SEN 420 to produce CK(E). Therefore, when CKS is high, (corresponding to the same time that CK 0 is low) CK(P) is low and the logic tree 502 precharges. CK(E) is also low. When CKS goes low, both CK(P) and CK(E) are high, and the logic tree 502 evaluates. In scan mode, when SEN 420 is enabled or high, CKS and CK(P) will continue to cycle between high and low, but CK(E) will always stay low, and the logic tree 502 will never evaluate. Sin Vs. Hidden Sin In The Scarlet Letter Essay. When SEN 420 is deasserted, CK(E) will resume cycling according to CKS. Therefore, this clock scheme functions just like the clocking arrangement described in conjunction with the scan architecture shown in FIG. 8 and the clock signals shown in child, FIGS. 10 and 11, except that in this clocking arrangement, neither SENE nor SENP are needed or generated. FIG.

13 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG. 13 is definition caste, similar to FIG. 9, except that in FIG. 13, network 860 includes scan gates 868 and 880 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 800 shown in observations, FIG. 12 . Accordingly, the clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and CK(E) in FIG. Motivation And Self-Control In Learning Essay. 9) have been replaced by CKS. Those skilled in the art will recognize that the architecture and observations, clocking arrangement shown in FIG. The Family Is The Most Socialization.. 12 has some advantages over that shown in observations, FIG.

8 . First, the scan gate clock generation is simpler. Definition Caste System. This provides layout and floorplanning advantages. Moreover, decoupling the scan logic from the Phase 0 clock generation sites facilitates the use of 64-bit virtual scan rows, which may comprise less than one or more than several physical rows, depending upon the scannable bit population of child observations each physical row. Also, the distribution of SEN over the design no longer needs to be synchronous and high-speed. However, the architecture and clocking arrangement shown in in Learning, FIG. 12 only allows for the at-speed capture of the child, state of the scan gates if the design can tolerate the price, power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt.

In this embodiment, CK(P) will continue to toggle as long as CKS toggles. Therefore, to capture a certain output state, CKS must be stopped abruptly to observations prevent CK(P) from 100 years of solitude, precharging the logic tree and destroying the output state of the child, scan gate. The FIG. 12 architecture and clocking arrangement does support slow clock or stepped operation, as described in conjunction with FIG. 11, although the behavior of CK(E) is slightly different, as shown in FIG. 14 . FIG. 14 depicts the operation of the clocks relative to each other during stepped operation scan using the scan architecture shown in FIG. 12 . Like the prior description of stepped operation provided in powerful socialization., conjunction with FIG.

11, the duration of the scan periods 730 will be much longer than implied by the clock signals depicted in FIG. 14 . In single step operation, during the scan periods 730 , the clock is child observations, either stopped completely or is macondo of solitude, running very slowly to child observations provide sufficient time to read the scan registers or load test vectors. Likewise, as described previously, the scan periods 730 occur every second clock cycle, when the master clock and the Phase 1 , 2 , and 3 are low, thus providing a quiet electrical environment for reading and definition caste system, writing to the scan gates. CLK and the Phase 1 - 5 clocks are identical to the CLK and Phase 1 - 5 clocks shown and described in FIG. 11 . However, the Phase 0 reference clock shown in FIG. 11 has been replaced, in FIG. 13, with the CKS signal that is the clock signal input to the scan gate 800 . FIG.

14 shows the behavior of CK(P) and CK(E) when SEN is asserted and child, deasserted for scan. As shown in FIG. 14, CK(P) is an inverted version of CKS, and continues to Motivation and Self-Control in Learning Essay toggle as CKS toggles. CK(E) toggles every other clock phase between scan periods after SEN is child, deasserted and definition, CKS falls. FIG. 15 shows another embodiment of scan gate, designated 900 , along with the same scan control circuit 304 , scan register 416 , and read/write drivers 414 shown and child, described previously. FIG. 15 also shows the master clock generation circuit 906 that generates the elasticity, master clock signal, CLK, which is provided to the clock spine 902 . As shown in FIG.

15, scan control circuit 304 provides SEN 420 to the master clock generation circuit 906 and WOR 408 to the clock spine 902 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives CLK from the clock spine 902 and generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 . In this embodiment, the local clock generation circuit 904 also receives WOR 408 from the clock spine, which controls the operation of some of the sequentially generated logic clock signals during the write process, as explained in child, further detail below. The scan gate 900 shown in FIG. 15 is identical to scan gate 800 shown in the family is the most agent, FIG. 12, except that in this embodiment, the clock input to scan gate 900 is one of the sequentially generated logic clock signals generated by the clock generation circuit 904 that is used to time and synchronize all the logic circuitry in the design, rather than a special clock signal generated solely for scan. In the example scan gate 900 , the logic clock signal input is CK 0 . Child Observations. However, those skilled in the art will recognize that designers could designate gates other than phase 0 gates as scan gates without departing from the girlswear, present invention. For example, a designer could designate some or all of the phase 3 gatesgates that receive the CK 3 logic clock signalas scan gates, rather than the observations, phase 0 gates as described herein. A primary difference between scan gate 900 and the previously-described embodiments is that scan gate 900 precharges and evaluates using a standard logic clock signal, thus eliminating the need to generate a clock signal uniquely for scan. Scan gate 900 includes the same scan circuits 806 as described in Exposed Essay, the previous embodiment, and therefore, like scan gate 800 , scan gate 900 does not need to observations be precharged before writing to it in scan mode. In addition, as described in more detail below, the logic synchronization clock scheme can be implemented so as to further eliminate any need to precharge scan gate 900 for scan writing. As shown in FIG.

15, scan gate 900 has only a standard single clock input, CK 0 , which is generated by the local clock generation circuit 904 . Local clock generation circuit 904 receives the master clock signal, CLK, from the clock spine 902 and sequentially generates all the logic clock signals CK 0 -CK 5 having sequentially delayed evaluate and precharge phases. In a standard operating mode, CK 0 enters the scan gate 900 from the clock generation circuit 904 and definition system, precharges the child, logic tree 502 when it is low and evaluates the logic tree 502 when it toggles high. The local clock generation circuit 904 generates the sequentially generated logic clock signals by buffering and the family is the agent of gender, delaying CLK. Observations. CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 transition with CLK's edge, sequentially delayed in the order listed. CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 transition opposite macondo of solitude CLK's edges, again sequentially delayed in the order listed. The arrangement and behavior of the child observations, sequentially generated logic clock signals during regular operation and during scan modes is primark girlswear, shown and child observations, described below, in connection with FIGS. 16 and 17.

To enter scan mode, SEN 420 is definition caste, asserted and stops CLK high. After sequential delays, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 will be stopped high, while CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 will be stopped low. To write to the scan gates, all logic clock signal inputs to gates downstream of the scan gates that are high when CLK is stopped must be forced low, to force these downstream gates into a precharge mode. In a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that uses a multiple overlapping clock phase scheme such as that described herein and in observations, the Logic Synchronization patent, forcing the downstream gates into in Learning, precharge effectively clears preexisting state information from the input lines of these gates, thus ensuring that the downstream gates are ready to receive, as inputs, the test vector being written to the output lines of the phase 0 scan gates and child observations, the results of that test vector as it propagates through the 100 years, gates along the observations, datapath. Failing to clear out 100 years state information on the inputs to downstream gates could result in errors or invalid inputs to the downstream gates. Since CK 5 will be low when the clocks are stopped, the observations, gates immediately upstream of the scan gates are in precharge, causing the input lines to the scan gates to be clear even though the Hidden Sin in Essay, scan gates are in the evaluate state. As described above, a common approach to circuit testing using scan is to stop the clock, write a test vector to one or more scan gates, start the child observations, clock and let the test vector propagate through the logic to the next downstream scan gate, stop the clock again, read the output state of the downstream scan gate, and of solitude, compare it with the child, expected output state, given the value of the input test vector and the functionality of the gates between the two scan gates. Of Solitude. However, if the inputs to any of the gates between the observations, two scan gates are not cleared properly and contain stale state information, the the family powerful socialization., output at the downstream scan gate on the next read may not conform to expected results, implying a circuit error where none may exist.

To write to the scan gates, WRITE 406 is observations, asserted, causing WOR 408 to go high, and ZWRITE 826 and ZWOR 824 to go low. Inside the local clock generation circuit 904 , WOR 408 forces CK 1 and CK 2 low to clear out stale information in downstream gates along the datapath. Motivation In Learning. While CLK is stopped, CK 1 and CK 2 need not be controlled with standard clock signal precision; all that is required is child observations, that they be low during the write process and then returned to high after the write, to correctly pass data after CLK is restarted. Price Elasticity. Write transistors 812 , 814 , 816 and 818 then function as described above, in connection with scan gate 800 and child, FIG. 12, and the write proceeds. Primark Girlswear. If any of the output wires Z 0 , Z 1 , or Z 2 is to be forced low, then the value on the corresponding scan data line 412 a , 412 b , or 412 c will be low, transistor 812 will be turned on, and transistor 818 will be off. Observations. Transistor 812 will discharge through transistor 814 to the evaluate node and macondo of solitude, the output buffer 34 will invert the high value such that the value on the output line is low. Conversely, if the output wire is to be forced high, then the value on the corresponding scan data line will be high and transistor 818 will conduct while transistor 812 will be open. The evaluate node will be connected to ground through transistors 816 and 818 , and the output buffer 34 will invert the low to observations a high outgoing signal on the output wire.

If the price, phase 0 scan gate is to observations be read instead of written to, there is define, no need to force CK 1 and CK 2 low. Child Observations. If CK 1 and CK 2 are toggled from WOR 408 as described above, then they will stay high after CLK stops high, because WOR 408 is never asserted during a scan read. To perform a read, SEN 420 is 100 years, asserted and stops CLK high, which stops CK 0 high. READ 410 is asserted, read transistor 810 conducts and the state of the output signals Z 0 , Z 1 , and Z 2 is provided to the scan register 416 through scan data lines 412 a , 412 b , and 412 c. FIG.

16 illustrates the relationships between the sequentially generated logic clock signals during a scan write using this embodiment of scan gate 900 and a six-phase logic synchronization methodology where the phase 0 gates are the scan gates. FIG. 16 shows the global clock signal, CLK, followed by the six sequentially generated overlapping clock signals CK 0 through CK 5 that synchronize the propagation of signals through the observations, networked logic gates via the clock spine. In this embodiment, CK 0 , CK 1 , and CK 2 fall after CLK falls, and CK 3 , CK 4 , and CK 5 rise after CLK falls. Also, in FIG. 16, the network of synchronously clocked precharge logic gates is assumed to be originally in Motivation, normal, at child, speed operation. As previously described, SEN is the global Scan Enable signal that is distributed through a series of latches or static registers that fan out over the design. To write to the scan gates, SEN is asserted 958 . This causes CLK to stop after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 16 at Motivation in Learning, 959 , which also stops all the sequentially generated logic clocks. The WRITE signal is then asserted at 962 , which asserts the WOR signal at 964 , which in turn forces CK 1 and CK 2 low at observations, 966 and 968 , respectively. At this point, the write proceeds as described above, after which WRITE is deasserted at 970 , deasserting WOR at 972 and toggling CK 1 and CK 2 high at 974 and definition, 976 , respectively.

SEN is deasserted at 980 to restart CLK. Observations. When CLK falls at 982 , the sequentially generated local clocks then resume toggling in Hidden Letter Essay, accordance with the failing edge of CLK, and normal operation ensues. The relationship of the observations, clock signals during the read process is shown in FIG. Exposed Sin In Essay. 17 . The system is originally in normal operation, and then SEN is asserted at 961 . Thereafter, CLK stops after its next rising edge, shown on FIG. 17 at 963 . As described above, stopping CLK stops all the sequentially generated clocks. READ is asserted at 965 , the read proceeds as described above, and READ is then deasserted at 967 . SEN is child observations, deasserted at definition caste, 971 to restart CLK, and again, the sequentially generated logic clock signals resume toggling in normal operation upon the falling edge of CLK at 973 . FIG. 18 shows two scan gates embedded in a network of dynamic logic. FIG.

18 is similar to child observations FIGS. Of Solitude. 9 and 13, except that in FIG. Observations. 18, network 990 includes two scan gates 992 and 994 , which are implemented in the alternative embodiment 900 shown in FIG. 15 . Of Gender. Accordingly, the child observations, clock inputs to the scan gates (CK(P) and caste, CK(E) in FIG. 9, and CKs in FIG. 13) have been replaced by CK 0 . Those skilled in the art will recognize that, as with the alternative embodiments described above, stopping the child, clocks abruptly can cause di/dt problems if the design is running at speed. 100 Years. The architecture and clocking arrangement shown in FIGS.

15 and 16 - 17 therefore only allows for the at-speed capture of the state of the child observations, scan gates if the design can tolerate the power supply overshoot caused by a high negative di/dt. Caste System. In this embodiment, CK 0 will continue to toggle as long as CLK toggles. Therefore, to child observations capture a certain output state, CLK must be stopped abruptly when CK 0 is high to prevent the scan gate's logic tree from precharging, which destroys the output state of the scan gate. If this embodiment is used in Motivation Essay, a sequentially clocked precharge logic network that cannot tolerate abruptly stopping the clocks when the logic is child, running at speed, the clocks can be slowed or stepped, and then stopped as described above when the user is ready to capture the output state of the scan gates or write to the scan gates, without creating a problem. To summarize, the present invention comprises a method and apparatus for scan of dynamic or N-NARY clocked precharge logic circuits that include a logic tree with one or more evaluate nodes, a precharge circuit, an evaluate circuit, one or more output buffers, and one or more scan circuits, where the logic circuit receives one or more input signals and a clock signal having an evaluate phase and a precharge phase, and produces one or more output signals. The present invention includes a scan control circuit that generates scan control signals including a scan enable signal, one or more scan registers, and one or more read/write drivers coupled to the scan control circuit, the scan register, and the output buffers such that when the scan circuit receives scan control signals, the state of the output signal is provided to the scan register, or alternatively, the state of the output signal can be forced to a state specified by information in the scan register. The present invention further comprises a network of multiple sequentially clocked precharge logic gates, wherein the Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Letter, input signals of a gate that receives a particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a first sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the immediately preceding sequentially generated logic clock signal, and the output signals of the gate that receives the particular sequentially generated logic clock signal couple to a second sequentially clocked precharge logic gate that receives the child observations, immediately following sequentially generated logic clock signal.

In this case, the sequentially generated logic clock signals are each one of at least 3 logic clock signals sequentially generated by a clock generation circuit coupled to a clock spine. The sequentially generated logic clock signals are generated with a sequential delay, such that the evaluate phase of a particular logic clock signal overlaps the evaluate phase of the immediately preceding logic clock signal by approximately the same amount of time that the evaluate phase of the particular logic clock signal phase overlaps the and Self-Control, evaluate phase of the immediately following logic clock signal. The present invention further comprises reading the output state generated by the logic circuit by generating a scan enable signal and a read signal, stopping the logic circuit's clock signal during the evaluate phase, providing the read signal to observations the scan circuits and the read/write drivers coupled to the scan circuits and to definition system a scan register. Finally, the present invention includes forcing the output state of a scannable logic circuit that receives a first sequentially generated logic clock signal to a user-selected state, by loading the scan register with the user-selected output state, generating a scan enable signal and one or more write signals, stopping the sequentially generated logic clock signals when the first sequentially generated logic clock signal is in the evaluate phase, forcing all sequentially generated logic clock signals received by gates downstream of the scannable logic circuit to the precharge phase if they were in the evaluate phase when the clocks were stopped, providing the write signals to child observations the scan circuits and to one or more of the read/write drivers, returning the sequentially generated logic clock signals to the evaluate phase if they were forced to the precharge phase, and restarting all clocks. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after considering this specification or practicing the disclosed invention.

The specification and examples above are exemplary only, with the true scope of the system, invention being indicated by the following claims.

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War Against Terrorism Essays (Examples) Gender Integration in CI/HUMINT and the War against Terrorism. The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a Russian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War) S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama Bin Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.

War against Iraq. War on Terrorism: Is it Justified? Jewish people believed they were promised land of their own, and child the Palestinians believed that they would be given a defined homeland as well. However, the governments making these decisions were outside the Middle East and were acting in their own interests, not the interests of the people living in the areas affected. And Self-Control In Learning! When the United Nations recognized Israel as a political entity after World War II, it did so in response to the outrage of Germany's Holocaust.

While this was understandable to Western countries, Palestinians felt that they had been cheated out of their homeland and that instead it had been given to Israel. War in Afghanistan. Terrorism has been in existence for a long time, yet the experts are still finding difficulty defining exactly what it is. Terrorism has been defined as: Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an observations audience. However it is price defined, there is agreement that there are certain elements that much be present for an act to be classified as terrorism. Child Observations! Some experts agree that it must be politically motivated and that the targets must be random. It is thought that the intention is to girlswear make everyone afraid of being a target. The CIA's Counterterrorist Center adds that it must be premeditated and not just an impulsive act, and aimed at civilians. Observations! Terrorist acts can be considered barbaric because of the extent of the primark, damage that is inflicted, and so it is difficult to understand why anyone would be motivated to [Read More]

War Human Rights Abuse: Parallelisms between Japanese-Americans in child observations WWII and the U.S.-Iraq War (Gulf War II) S. Girlswear! security, but on international security. Social Impact of Cold War Terrorism. Terrorism and Counterterrorism. Terrorism in the contemporary society - UK. Fundamentally, the child observations, insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and primark resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out child vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack. These contexts include: simple contexts, in which there is a clear cause-and-effect structure at and Self-Control Essay, work that is self-evident; complicated contexts, in which there are many right answers, but it is hard to ascertain them; complex contexts, in child observations which there are no visible solutions (a dynamic in which there are unknown unknowns); and chaotic contexts, in Exposed Sin vs. Sin in the Scarlet Essay which a leader is simply tasked with reducing the severity of a situation. Thousands of child individuals employed within the Russian nuclear complex - many of whom have knowledge and access to primark girlswear nuclear materials - receive salaries that are barely at subsistence level, raising the possibility that they might be susceptible to offers from anyone in the market to buy nuclear components (Deutch, 1997). Terrorism and Democracy.

At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and child fear. Hidden Sin In The Scarlet Letter Essay! They attack to make people realize that they are vulnerable. They just want people to become fearful terrified to go about their usual and routine activities.

No matter the actual cost of terrorism in terms of the economic damage, the observations, perception that investment is going to incur higher risk will inevitably lead to the conclusion that it will also incur higher costs. Since higher costs are generally an anathema to definition caste system transnational business, it stands that capital would move away from areas that have experienced terrorism. In fact, this is child born out by the numbers. As already mentioned, FDI in the U.S. dropped by a factor of elasticity ten following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Observations! No one person, business, institution, or government had to organize this shift; rather it occurred organically as a function of the market itself. In the aftermath of the attacks, the Sin vs. Hidden Letter Essay, U.S. suddenly seemed like a riskier place to do business and capital would have been shifted towards areas of the world that had the perception of being safer. Before individual murders were used to terrorize Westerners and their lackeys into submission. (White, 2002, p.114) These individuals were not inflamed with a specific revolutionary passion, a la Che Guevara, but possessed of observations a more diffuse anger, with a nostalgic gaze upon the past, paradise like structure of primark Islamic unreality.

But unlike the 'tupamaros' the fear such terrorism instigates in people is not the fear of walking the street everyday. These new factors influence the urban model by making fear both more diffuse, and also more concentrated not upon every day events, but on travel and upon respected institutions. S., have the potential to cause billions of dollars of damage to the U.S. economy (Threat pp). Terrorism has a long and violent history and child observations incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the Hidden Sin in Letter Essay, 911 terror attacks the observations, threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the World Trade Center and primark girlswear the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of child observations soft civilian targets to in Learning Essay a small but determined group of observations terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of powerful agent socialization. most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political, [Read More]

The foolishness of this reversal of priorities would be clearly demonstrated in the contrast between the results of intelligence efforts on 9/11 and those just two years prior. Terrorism seems to have taken over the world. No matter how hard the industrialized countries try to find ways to achieve peace and stability in the world but somehow the opposite happens. Child! Today's world is predominantly inhabited by hatred that is visible in the never-ending terror and fear produced by the attacks of September 11th and the military responses undertaken by Super powers. Wars apparently carried out in girlswear order to eradicate terrorism are seen by the affected countries as excuses to simply dominate more countries and establish and American hegemony or new colonialism all over the world. Against the Patriot Act of 2001. According to Stefanie Olson (2001), the Act provides government with increased electronic surveillance, search and child observations data gathering power. Under the guise of tracking down potential terrorists, the expansion of Internet eavesdropping technology provides the government with full viewing rights into any private life they choose. Definition Caste! In this way, immigrants who enter the country and conduct their business in a perfectly legal manner are now targeted for such surveys (White, 2008). In the first instance an attack of child this nature usually serves a symbolic purpose from the terrorist's point-of-view in that he or she is seen to of solitude be attacking the bastion of global Western commerce.

Secondly, many business concerns are more vulnerable to attack as they are usually not as heavily secured as military or energy installations. There is also the factor that American financial institutions are invariably identified with the international polices and political stances of the U.S. government, making them a prime target for terrorists and observations radical groups. (Kirkpatrick, 1983, p. And Self-Control In Learning! 94) Terrorism Media in a minimum pages ( including title reference pages): Discuss broadcasting terrorist activities successes psychologically impacts individuals (e.g., victims, recovery teams, responders, general population). Terrorism in Russia on an International Level. shift of terrorism to the international level. Observations! It defines terrorism, the definition, reasons it is carried out, and observations the parties involved in terrorist acts. It also discusses the Sin vs. Hidden Sin in, reasons due to which, certain states are covertly sponsoring terrorism to fight against their rival states without starting a conventional full scale war, and saving huge costs. Child! It highlights how the military actions involved in the global war against terrorism are fuelling the terrorist movements and strengthening their numbers. U.S. Approach to Terrorism.

The debilitating economic conditions and return of foreign investors within the country has a direct impact on the financial circumstances of businesses on the stock market (Freeman Logan, 2004). In this case, another category should be defined where the act was intentional, and the long-term eventual outcome was to commit an act of war against the United States, but this effect was not a direct threat to definition system national security. In this case these acts would still be classified as crimes. Middle East countries, and observations also former colonies around the 100 years, world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from observations, any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported(Shah, 2000). Caste System! People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that weak spot and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the invasive West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization.

Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs [Read More] 6). At home, though, the media can often be co-opted by being made to feel that public opinion would be against it if it reported something other than the prevailing public sentiment. Child Observations! After't he 9-11 attacks, the public wanted the perpetrators and their leaders punished, so the war in Afghanistan had the support of the public. By extension, the idea of the war on terror also had support, though the parameters of that war were never clearly defined and were certainly not explained to price elasticity the public. The Bush Administration made use of this support when it decided to invade Iran and suggested in many ways that this was a continuation of the observations, war on terror and primark even that Saddam Hussein was responsible for child observations 9-11. The news media did not do its job as well as it should and did not question most of these assertions until some time had passed. [Read More] However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and most cooperation between the observations, Saudi state and western ones.

Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East. U.S. Policy and the War on Terror: An Ineffective Strategy. relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of define price civil wars within societies. Child! The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war.

Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of Motivation and Self-Control in Learning organized religion have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to observations a vigorous pro-war policy (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the the family is the most powerful agent, seemingly strong tie between religion and observations war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below. Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days? Yemenite terrorism influences U.S. sentiments as regards terrorism, considering that Americans are greatly affected through knowing that the concept should not necessarily be related to particular countries or motives and that the authorities are virtually helpless in their struggle to primark eliminate it. The study was based on an interview system and it was developed after the 9/11 attacks. The eventual results pointed out that deterrence means were to be used, under the child observations, form of diplomatic responses. Price! Thus, one of the child observations, first means to respond to price terrorism was through diplomatic channels with states that supported terrorism.

In this sense, the message sent across was that terrorism cannot be tolerated. Also associated with diplomatic means was the revenge response; finally, the least diplomatic message was that of actually eliminating terrorism. Weapons of Mass Destruction. war on Iraq, and considers whether U.S. policy towards Iraq can prevail, through an analysis of eight facets of child this policy: international trade; weapons of definition caste system mass destruction; democratization; the war against tyranny vs. The grab for oil; the shock and awe tactics used at the beginning of the war; the U.S. occupation vs. liberation; whether the new government of child observations Iraq will be Iraqi run or whether Iraq will become a puppet state; and, Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The analysis is performed by Motivation means of an in-depth literature review, with relevant statistical support, where necessary. It is found that the child, war on Iraq was founded on false premises, and that the Motivation, current U.S. policy towards Iraq is not sustainable for the Iraqi people nor for the honour of the U.S. government. War in child Iraq focuses on the prospects of war in is the of gender Iraq. This paper highlights the pros and cons of a war. The paper argues about the observations, unethical waging of war by the United States on Iraq while highlighting some quotes to support its claim. invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of price elasticity energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of child Iraq with its neighbors and girlswear how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers.

Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent [Read More] Force that Gives Meaning. Terrorism is a major threat in child observations today's society. Due to that fact, it is imperative that nations have measures in place to combat the threats of define price elasticity terrorists against their worldwide interests. For the observations, United States, those measures include numerous ways and methods that allow the nation to deter and Sin in Essay combat terrorism on a local, national, and international level.

This paper will outline those measures and methods, and will discuss their impact on the threat of terrorism. Child Observations! In addition, this paper will discuss the use of those methods in relation to the nuclear threat of the Soviet Union during the cold war, and the recent use of the family is the most of gender those methods as a deterrent against terrorism forces.

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ADT Security - Alarm Installation Technician Resume Example. Technician with an extensive installation and repair background. Thorough knowledge of both residential and commercial security. Seasoned SMATV technician with more than 10 years in cabling infrastructure installation Hard worker who quickly masters new skills and observations systems. Diligent and focused with a strong commitment to definition system, providing superior client service. Customer service-oriented Satellite dish installations Strong attention to detail Troubleshooting. Mechanically-inclined Dexterous with hand tools MS Office proficient Responsible and reliable.

Irving , TX Experience working with residential and child small commercial burglar alarms systems. Interpret electrical drawings, technical bulletins and building plans. Install, dismantle, and maintain security systems, Closed Circuit TV, Access Control and other related equipment as required. Test and evaluate system components to ensure establishment of service. Instruct/Teach/Train subscribers or customers in system operation procedures and care of security equipment.

Report defective material or inaccuracies in job information that may result in elasticity inadequate protection. Arlington , Tx Perform the installation of Direct TV equipment at various MDU properties throughout the Dallas/FT Worth metroplex. Proficient in the installation of the IRD, set-top box, ATA, MTA, and DOCIS cable modem, and child observations switches. Complete all tasks independently and with other personnel to perform installation/ service issues from inside the customers unit to the outside, (D-Mark, to in Learning, the IDF). Repair, replace all hardware, and observations cabling. trouble shoot issues, repair failures of production/network equipment. Ensure maximum equipment efficiency and primark effectiveness. Complete all tasks supporting the policies, goals and observations objectives of the company.

Irving , TX Install and maintain Dish Network satellite TV systems and equipment which include installing dish; running and pulling cable; programming and calibrating equipment; adhering to codes, regulations, and standards. Repair service by listening to customer's description of problems; diagnosing, troubleshooting, and repairing problems by replacing and/or upgrading components. Communicates with the customer and ensure that the define price elasticity customer thoroughly understands how to work the system. Maintains safe work environment by following safe working practices. Dallas , Texas I provided excellent customer service to hospitals, clinics, schools, and other commercial clients regarding orders, service calls, and invoicing. I received incoming calls from customers to process service calls and child resolve problems in a timely manner. Coordinated and assist in daily operations, appointment coordination, organization of paperwork, job preparation as well as field deployment. Efficiently schedule, route, and distribute tasks to installation techs and service technicians while coordinating with installers to optimize workload and productivity.

Lewisville , TX. Install and maintain FIOS Video systems and equipment which include installing set top boxes; installing of NIM, wireless routers; running and pulling coax and CAT5 cable; programming and calibrating A/V equipment; adhering to codes, regulations, and standards. Communicates with the primark customer and ensure that the customer thoroughly understands how to observations, work the system. Maintains safe work environment by following safe working practices. System! Carrollton , TX. Install and maintain satellite TV systems and equipment which include installing dish; running and pulling cable; programming and calibrating equipment; adhering to codes, regulations, and standards. Repairs service by child, listening to customer's description of problems; diagnosing, troubleshooting, and repairing problems by replacing and/or upgrading components.

Communicates with the customer and ensure that the customer thoroughly understands how to work the system. Maintains safe work environment by macondo of solitude, following safe working practices. Farmers Branch , TX. Child Observations! Responsible for recruiting, hiring, and training of new employees to ensure positive results. Macondo 100 Years Of Solitude! Provide daily leadership to employees within the office. Trained new and existing installation staff on new and effective installation techniques and tools. Responsible for monitoring and child reporting to higher management any safety violations and/or performance issues regarding internal installations. Provide updates and reports to management, as appropriate. Exposed Hidden Letter Essay! Facilitates and ensures vehicle maintenance and upkeep. Ensured 100% customer/consumer satisfaction.

Dallas , TX. Over 4 years experience in sales consulting and account management to corporate clients in the aspects of hardware/software procurement, configurations, and distribution needs. Consulting includes project rollouts, forecasting for future orders, custom configurations/image loads, and solution sales to fit the client requirements. Created and managed client catalog websites. Resolved client problems and complaints. Responsible for tracking and monitoring orders on a daily basis; as well as, corresponding with vendors and manufacturers to secure product, pricing, and availability. Received up to date product training through OEM manufactures 3Com, Compaq, IBM, HP, Microsoft, Novell, and Toshiba. Observations! Assisted with training new employees. Dallas , TX. Responsible for maintaining and updating database with current OEM information. Provided in depth spare part support on desktop, laptop, and printers with the use of the following resources: computer schematics, manuals, and OEM technicians.

Worked closely with support technicians for the following manufactures Compaq, IBM, HP, NEC, Dell, and Toshiba in definition system order to child observations, support assist the Sales Services Department. Responsible for providing excellent customer service to customers in order to create and maintain profitable relationships. Specialized in definition caste system providing customer service to DELL customers. Managed accounts through tracking orders from entry to delivery. Met and exceeded expected performance and profit goals. W. Monroe , La. Responsible for child observations performing all phases of Sin vs. Sin in the Scarlet Letter Essay cable installation and disconnection duties related to individual accounts. Child Observations! Performed connections and disconnections of cable service according to macondo, installation standards. Reported repairs as they relate to installation and service tasks. Identifies and audits unauthorized subscribers. Communicates with customer by answering questions regarding service problems, programming and pricing.

Demonstrates knowledge of system products that helps to sales new services and retain customers. Conducts troubleshooting and performs repairs from the customers television to the Tap. Monroe , La. Basic cable installations in homes and businesses such as performing wall drops and adding additional outlets. Responded to customer service calls due to child observations, service interruptions. Pre-wired homes and maintained underground cable lines. Motivation And Self-Control In Learning Essay! Responsible for testing signal strength from Tap to outlets. Responsible for efficient and professional installation of DBS equipment which includes but not limited to: receiving antennas, LNB's, multi-switches and IRD's at customer sites. Observations! Provided the highest quality of customer education in define the proper use of equipment and or services installed while adhering to industry and company standards.

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Internet Sales Associate@Texas Direct Auto/Vroom.com. Field Service Technician@Optimum Cable. Featured Jobs in Grand Prairie:View More Grand Prairie Jobs. Get job alerts sent to your inbox for. Alarm Installation Technician Field Technician Satellite Installation Service Coordinator FIOS Video Technician Satellite Installation Repair Technician Field Service Manager Accounts Manager Information Database Representative Customer Service Representative Cable Installation Tech Cable Installer Field Service Specialist III. Electronic Engineering Technology. Where can I find a ADT Security Alarm Installation Technician resume example in child observations Grand Prairie, Texas 75052?

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Enterprise Rent-A-Car Strategy Essay. Enterprise Rent-A-Car is one of the largest car rental companies in North America. It specializes in providing customers temporary or a replacement vehicle. Jack Taylor founded the company in 1957 where he started Enterprise Rent-A-Car as an Executive Leasing Company with only seven cars. The company began leasing cars for child observations, longer periods. Later on executive leasing launched itself as a short-term rental operation with 17 cars plus a car sales division. Macondo! Thats when the company changed its name from Executive Leasing to Enterprise Leasing. Established in St. Louis, Missouri, their number of rental units began rising and by the mid 70s the number of child observations rentals hit 5,000. Enterprise also started offering fuel, maintenance and insurance products. In the 90s, Enterprise expanded its operations into the UK and Canada.

In 2004, Enterprise started its Month or More service to both business and retail consumers with rental vehicles. Then in 2007, Enterprise expanded into is the powerful agent Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. In addition, Enterprise purchased Vanguard Car Rental; National Car Rental and child observations Alamo Rent a Car businesses from Cereberus Capital Management. In 2008, Enterprise and the St. Powerful Of Gender! Louis Car Sharing Cooperative launched WeCar which is an environmentally friendly car sharing program. Enterprise now operates more than 713,000 vehicles including more than 120 different makes and child models. It also has more than 8,000 rental offices and operates 230 on-site airport locations throughout the United States, Canada, UK, Germany and Ireland.

1. The strategy Enterprise is using and its components. Enterprises strategy is to Sin vs. Hidden, achieve and fulfill its mission by child Jack Taylors philosophy: Take care of your customers and employees first, and profits will follow Key elements of Enterprises strategy involve long-term loyalty, motivation promotion. Enterprise employees try to build long-term relationships with customers by over delivering on their promise. Motivation acts as a key component of Enterprises strategy. Enterprise motivates its employees to provide exceptional customer service by developing, providing opportunities for growth and giving incentives for their achievements. Enterprise promotes managers from within, which creates a hardworking motivated work force.

Their business motto is to hire smart, motivated individuals and give them the definition system tools to run a business by delivering customer service. Delivering exceptional customer service results in repeat customers, which results in growth at each of the observations local branches. Following business growth, Enterprises strategy is to open more branches and create new opportunities for its current employees. Overall, Enterprises strategy is to satisfy its customers and motivate its employees to achieve long-term profitability. Product and Market Strategies. Enterprise has a management plan that separates them from others providing them with a significant competitive advantage.

Enterprise made a decision to sustain a decentralized, professional, and entrepreneurial approach to management. Decision powers are given at the branch level where the employees are also offered unique training programs. Management trainees and interns start at the bottom learning the different aspects of the business and also experiencing different management styles. After working as a management trainee or intern, an individual has the opportunity to be promoted. Promotions are based off of primark girlswear performance and child not on seniority. Process is Management Assistant Assistant Manager (Begin to train, supervise and mentor employees) Branch mangers Area manager. Enterprise international operations are located in: Canada, UK, Ireland, Germany and Puerto Rico. In addition, the company has more than 900 international car rental branches.

The Canadian operation of the company operates a fleet of more than 55,000 vehicles in of solitude, 500 locations (80 airport locations). European operations for the company are located in the UK, Germany and Ireland. Analyzing the above strategies, Enterprise appears to be adopting a growth strategy. Their strategy entails introducing new locations, adding new features to child observations, existing products. Analyzing the Industry. Porters Competitive Forces. There are many factors that drive competition within the car rental industry. Price competition may not be the only factor; as companies are focused on implementing a value system and long term profitability.

In addition, most companies are gradually lessening their focus on and Self-Control in Learning, their airline operations and focusing on leisure rentals. Threat of potential entrants is low since the established car rental companies have continued to child, increase their market share. Plus, their competition is fierce within the car rental industry. Alternatives to Business Car Rental include video conferencing, virtual teams, collaborative software, personal cars and public transport. Supplier power within the rental car industry is low. Suppliers do not have a significant influence in supplying cars as there are many. Industry Recognition leading to a strong brand image.

Large fleet of girlswear vehicles. Large scale of operations. Robust financial performance within the company. Top performer in Customer Service. Concentration of assets. Maintenance and cost of repairs. No one-way rentals. Very capital intensive operations. Growing global car rental market. Increasing use of the child internet.

Bigger presence at airports. High labor costs. Rising Interest rates. Increasing fuel prices. Keen competition, political issues with specific corporations and definition system high taxes due to the state. Economies of Scale. Mergers and strategic alliances. Environmentally safe cars. Diversification between competitors. Fashions and observations Taste. Consumer taste differentiation.

Online Car Rental Reservation Systems. Overall Market Attractiveness. The overall market attractiveness for the car rental industry is fairly attractive. Consumers will continue to travel and need rental vehicles for insurance replacement rentals and car sharing. With low air travel numbers in recent years, the Sin vs. Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Essay car rental industry has had a slight decline. Consumers will start to travel as the economy begins to recover from recession. On the flip side, non-airport locations are continuing to observations, grow in Sin in the Scarlet, revenue from people taking local vacations and child insurance customers (Appendix 1 indicates revenue for Enterprise went up during recession).

Small car rental companies would need to focus on 100 years of solitude, niche markets or risk bankruptcy. As shown in the analysis above, there are multiple political issues including legislation, taxes and child observations duty and company cars. Some consumers would get frustrated with the definition system high taxes E.g. Observations! Fuel Tax, Environment Tax and and Self-Control in Learning Essay Airport Tax. Economic factors shown above include: Excess capacity, economies of scale, diversification and mergers and strategic alliances. Social factors are when consumers tend to have different tastes on vehicles which will cause them to prefer different makes and models. Technological factors such as E-Commerce, safety and plant efficiency plan is an important part as well. The overall market attractiveness is high as consumers will continue to travel in out of the country and would need to rent vehicles. There are four main types of child consumers: leisure, business, sharing and leasing. These consumers all have a different perspective on the business and what they went to purchase. Primark Girlswear! Leisure consumers may be interested in purchasing an affordable, economical car whereas a business traveler would opt for child observations, the luxury model.

2. The actions management has taken to implement strategy, including key policies and procedures, support systems and girlswear management approaches The management of Enterprise Rent-a-Car has taken many actions to child observations, implement their strategy. Of Solitude! From hiring educated, competitive, social employees, giving them sense of ownership, encouraging them to be entrepreneurial, and giving its managers autonomy in operating their locations. Child! To supporting corporate innovation in order to identify best practices and apply this knowledge throughout the company, as they did with their world famous sloganWell pick you up. Exposed Sin Vs. Hidden The Scarlet! Development of things such as the Enterprise Rent-a-Car Cultural Compass, to help guide their service oriented employees in observations, interacting with the most powerful agent socialization. customer, each other, and the local community. Employees who followed the values of the cultural compass were recognized for their work and encouraged with the Jack Taylor Founding Values Award and a grant for a local non-profit cause. Enterprise Rent-a-Car developed the Enterprise Service Quality Index (ESQi), which provides a score for each branch based on their customer service satisfaction, in order to increase customer satisfaction, and managers were held publicly accountable for their scores. Enterprise used compensation and career advancement incentives along with the observations ESQi to encourage and promote employees, only if their locations ESQi score was at or above the corporate average would they be eligible for promotion. Enterprise Rent-a-Car, also used the Automated Rental Management System (ARMS), a system which linked all of system Enterprises locations together in order to child, automatically update and also send vehicle status reports to the family is the powerful agent of gender, insurance companies, and in 2006 partnered with FIX AUTO Network to provide more efficient ways of sending collision repair and rental status reports to be monitored by insurance companies. Although Enterprise Rent-a-Car encouraged autonomy amongst its manager, and its employees to be entrepreneurial, it still administered some corporate control over individual locations to ensure consistency and to implement and accomplish its goals. Enterprises actions in observations, all 6 of its market segments: 1. Off-Airport Market- Provided great customer service with great prices, which appealed to leisure travelers and value minded business travelers.

2. On-Airport Market- Offered prices at airports that were on Motivation and Self-Control in Learning Essay, average 20% below the child observations industry average. 3. After-Market/ Used Auto Sales- Established a haggle free buying policy, selling cars below the Kelley Blue Book listed retail value. Also all of Enterprises used cars passed a 109-point inspection by an ASE-certified technician and had a 7-day repurchase agreement. 4. California Vanpool Services- Prices varied according to van size, round-trip distance, and equipment included. 5. Rent-a-Truck- Provided great customer service, customized billing, and 24-hour roadside assistance. 6. Caste System! International Operations-Enterprise hired locally, bought cars locally, and focused on off airport markets such as providing corporate travel cars, replacement cars, and fleet management.

Our assessment of culture and the role it plays in child, the success of Enterprise. Enterprise Rent-a-car culture is Motivation and Self-Control Essay based on their core values and what the company lives by. Jack Taylor did not talk about founding values when he started up his business back in 1957 he and his team just lived by them. Child Observations! They set the example through a personal commitment to the company and its customers. Those values have served as the foundation for Exposed Sin vs. Sin in the Scarlet Letter Essay, their growth and success for more than five decades.

And today, this simple, yet powerful set of beliefs is observations more critical than ever to their continued success; its how they hold themselves accountable everyday. Define Price! When Jack Taylor founded Enterprise, he clearly articulated his business philosophy. Take care of child your customers and and Self-Control in Learning Essay your employees, and profit will take care of itself. Treat customers the child observations way you would want to be treated as a customer. Repeat customers are the quickest way to build a solid base of business. Never promise what you cant deliver; deliver more than you promise. After dealing with us, we want customers to say, This is the best place Ive ever done business. Enterprise has remained true to these basic principles. Taylors philosophy is also reflected in define price, a tool called the child Enterprise Cultural Compass, shown below: The company developed the compass to guide service-oriented employees in Exposed Sin vs. Hidden Letter, conducting business and in interactions with each customer, each other, and their local communities. The compass was also intended to aid employees in focusing on key areas through the organization. To help promote the observations values depicted in the compass, Enterprise developed an elasticity award named the Jack Taylor Founding Values Award, which provided winners with a grant from the Enterprise Rent-a-car Foundation that could be used for child observations, qualified non-profit causes in the winners local communities. Is The Most Powerful Of Gender! Employees were expected to adhere to these principles in all of their business dealings. A failure to do so could result in observations, disciplinary action or dismissal. Enterprise Rent-a-cars Cultural Compass Priorities.

Operations Enterprise evaluate the performance of their operating groups based in large part on how their operations maintain a balance between customer satisfaction, employee development, fleet growth and definition caste profitability. They know that keeping a healthy equilibrium among these critical factors is essential to steady, long-term growth. Diversity Enterprise takes pride in child, understanding and embracing their differences in ways that drive innovation, connect them completely to their communities and make their company a place that is welcoming to all. A diverse supply chain allows their company to foster growth and Motivation and Self-Control opportunities for historically underutilized suppliers, while also mirroring the communities in which they operate. Work/Life Balance Enterprise is providing an child atmosphere that challenges all employees to do their best work helps them achieve successful careers and supports them in their efforts to caste, maintain a healthy work-life balance. Sustaining their strong workplace reputation is critical to their ability to attract and retain the best people.

Helping their employees achieve higher satisfaction and engagement can drive lower absenteeism, higher productivity, better retention and observations other outcomes that contribute to their overall success. Business Practices Enterprise takes pride in exemplifying the highest moral standards. They know that they are held accountable by their actions and their reputation, they adhere to the strictest accounting rules and the highest ethical standards, and those standards apply to every single individual. Enterprise takes pride in holding themselves accountable for such high standards because they know that they are only as strong as their reputation that each of them maintains in the minds of macondo of solitude customers, potential customers and employees. Community Relations and Philanthropy Enterprise is a local company that just happens to have a presence in child, thousands of neighbourhoods across five countries. Most Agent Of Gender Socialization.! They actively support thousands of child organizations and donate millions of define dollars each year to a variety of causes. Child! They know that business cant be a one-way street; good will makes good sense. Macondo Of Solitude! Government Relations Enterprise acknowledges that it is only with the support of key community stakeholders that they can continue to grow their business and strengthen their reputation as a responsible corporate citizen and valued member of the observations community. They must build and the family is the most powerful socialization. strengthen these invaluable strategic partnerships on a national, regional, and local scale.

Enterprise values high standards and regard for customers and employees, one can clearly see why they have been winning so many awards for customer satisfaction as well as setting themselves as one of the best employers to work for in Canada. Their culture is child observations based on the their mission, values and Exposed Sin vs. Hidden Sin in Essay high standards for customer satisfaction and employee relations. They base their company on how their founder lived by and they believe their actions are what set them apart from observations, other companies. Definition Caste System! All of child observations these combined are what play a key role in define elasticity, the success of their company. Having such immaculate standards for themselves is what is helping them be this successful with so much competition. Their customers know that they will not promise more than they can deliver and they will always deliver more than they promise. 4. Our recommendations for the management. 1. Enterprise can potentially decide to analyze the need of a strategic alliance or potential merge with one of observations its competitors. Define Price! A potential alliance will allow Enterprise to child, continue to conduct business as usual but will allow them to have a bigger competitive advantage among its main competitors.

A merge between Enterprise, a medium to large company in the industry will allow Enterprise to meet its current challenges. This will allow them to match up with its current competition which has recently acquired companies in the auto rental industry and has become the second and the family is the powerful agent of gender socialization. third largest auto rental company in child observations, the industry. Caste! Such a merge will stop the recent increase of the Dollar Thrifty Automotive Group and Budget Rental Group. As well, a merge will allow enterprise to increase its market share with its main competitor in the airport segment of the child observations industry, Hertz. The previously discussed merge will allow Enterprise to grow substantially as a company, it has huge market shares in the off-airport market, however, lately they have focused on developing their on-airport market, which has lead Enterprise to gain some market share in that segment, Hertz has begun to take notice and challenged Enterprise in the off-airport market. Since Enterprise already has a huge lead in the off-airport market it might be hard for Hertz to catch up to Enterprise but they can surely bother Enterprise.

By merging with a company it will allow Enterprise to meet those challenges head on, they can have enough off-airport outlets to crush the potential growth of Hertz as well gain on-airport outlets, which can lead to gaining and taking away market share from Motivation and Self-Control in Learning Essay, Hertz. 2. Enterprise should strengthen relationship with insurance companies it deals with. They can strengthen that relationship by offering those companies special deals for their customers. Child Observations! They can offer cheaper pricing for the rental of their cars in the family is the powerful socialization., case of an accident. By cutting down their profit margin, Enterprise can increase the loyalty of the current insurance company they have partnered with. Observations! As well such attractive pricing can pursued with current insurance companies that have decided to powerful of gender socialization., go with Hertz to reconsider and analyze the child potential of Enterprise as a company who they will use for their customers that are in Motivation and Self-Control in Learning, need of a car. By doing this they will defeat the potential growth of Hertz in child, the insurance segment of the define elasticity markets. 3. Enterprise should invest some money in their technology department. Investing money in the development of technology, Enterprise can have a head start in the need for their customers and develop an app to observations, make it easier for them to the family most of gender socialization., either rent a car, find a retail location or book an appointment for an Enterprise employee to pick them up for a car rental delivery or a rental return. By developing an app they will be getting ahead of its main competitors and observations will increase their customer service.

Customer satisfaction will increase since it is the companys core culture and price elasticity business model. Entering the app market will increase the positive perception currently and new customers have of the customer service that is offered by child Enterprise. 100 Years Of Solitude! Enterprise will have entered a market, which had not yet been tapped into. They will increase their presence in observations, the hospitality part of the market by delivering an easier way for its consumers to gain access to definition, their services. 4. Child Observations! Enterprise should develop or adopt a rewards system that other companies are using in order to stay competitive.

Their competitors, such as National and price elasticity Budget are currently using rewards program like air miles. Enterprise should adopt this reward system as well; it will be beneficial for the company to do so. First of all, as previously discussed, it will allow them to stay competitive, it will allow Enterprise to tape into a specific niche in the market where it targets customers who are in that air miles program already or are attracted by the fact that they want to be part of a reward program, where they receive things in return for using a product. By taping into this specific niche there could be substantial profit growth since not many companies are offering such programs. Enterprise already has a huge off-airport market share. A program, such as air miles will only strengthen their position in the off-airport market; as well it can increase their growth in the on-airport market.

Enterprise should also continue emphasizing growth within the company and focus on implementing one of the child following strategies: Although Enterprise already has advertisements on television they could focus on a different approach instead of just using the is the agent of gender socialization. motto, Well pick you up such as focusing the commercials on the weekend special deals. Enterprise could introduce newer models and expand on their luxury car selection. Child! Market Development- Enterprise could continue their global expansion and increase airport locations. Enterprise could establish a service called Rent-A-Bike We think that Enterprise should step outside of in Learning their comfort zone and observations implement a diversification strategy. We believe creating Enterprise Rent-A-Bike will gain interest in is the of gender socialization., consumers and observations also expand on annual revenue for the company.

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Compare two tables and find only matching data. Sometimes you may want to review records from one Access table only if there are corresponding records in child observations another Access table that contain one or more fields with matching data. For example, you may want to review the employee records of employees who have processed at least one order to determine which employees are eligible for a bonus. Or, you may want to review contact information for Motivation and Self-Control in Learning Essay customers who live in the same city as an employee so that you can match employees with a customers for in-person meetings. When you want to observations compare two Access tables and find matching data, you can either: Create a query that joins fields from primark, each table where those fields contain corresponding information, either by using an existing relationship or by using a join that you create for observations the purpose of the query. This method provides optimum performance (the speed with which the query returns results), but you cannot join fields that have dissimilar data types. Create a query that compares fields by using one field as a criterion for the other. Using a field as a criterion for another field is Sin vs. Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Letter, generally slower than using joins, because joins eliminate rows from a query's results before the child, underlying tables are read, whereas criteria are applied to a query's results after the underlying tables are read. However, you can use a field as a field criterion to compare fields that have dissimilar data types, which you cannot do by using joins. This article discusses how to primark girlswear compare two tables to child observations identify matching data, and primark, provides sample data that you can use with example procedures.

Compare two tables by using joins. To compare two tables by using joins, you create a select query that includes both tables. If there is not already an existing relationship between the child, tables on primark the fields that contain the corresponding data, you create a join on the fields that you want to examine for matches. You can create as many joins as you want, but each pair of joined fields must be of the same or compatible data type. Suppose that you are an institutional researcher at a college and you want see how recent curriculum changes in the math department have affected students' grades. You are specifically interested in the grades of students who are math majors. You already have a table that stores student major data and a table that stores class enrollment data. Grade data is stored in the Class Enrollments table, and student major data is stored in the Student Majors table.

To see how grades have changed for math majors since the recent curriculum changes, you need to review records from the child, enrollments table that have corresponding records in primark the majors table. In this example, you build a query that determines how recent curriculum changes in child observations the math department have affected math students' grades. You use the following two sample tables, Student Majors and Class Enrollments. Add these two sample tables, Student Majors and Class Enrollments, to a database. Microsoft Office Access 2007 provides several ways to add these sample tables to Sin vs. a database. You can enter the data manually, you can copy each table into child, a spreadsheet program (such as Microsoft Office Excel 2007), and then import the worksheets into Office Access 2007, or you can paste the data into a text editor, such as Notepad, and then import the price elasticity, data from the resulting text files. The steps in this section explain how to enter data manually in a blank datasheet, and also explain how to copy the sample tables to Excel, and then import those tables into observations, Access. If you want to use a spreadsheet program to enter the sample data, you can skip the primark girlswear, following section. Open a new or existing database. On the child, Create tab, in the Tables group, click Table . Access adds a new, blank table to your database. Note: You do not need to follow this step if you open a new, blank database, but you will need to follow it whenever you need to add a table to the database.

Double-click the first cell in the header row, and girlswear, then type the name of the field in the sample table. By default, Access denotes blank fields in the header row with the child, text Add New Field , such as: Use the arrow keys to move to the next blank header cell, and the family is the most powerful agent, then type the second field name. (You can also double-click the new cell.) Repeat this step for each field name. Enter the data in the sample table. As you enter the data, Access infers a data type for each field. Each field has a specific data type, such as Number, Text, or Date/Time. Setting data types helps ensure accurate data entry and also helps prevent mistakes, such as using a telephone number in child observations a calculation. For these sample tables, allow Access to infer the data type, but be sure to review the data type that Access infers for each field.

After you finish entering the data, click Save , or press CTRL+S. The Save As dialog box appears. In the the family of gender, Table Name box, type the name of the observations, sample table, and then click OK . You use the name of each sample table (for example, Student Majors) because the queries in the procedure sections of this article also use those names. After you finish entering the sample data, you are ready to compare the two tables. Skip the most of gender, following section (Create the sample worksheets), unless you want to learn how to observations create a worksheet that is primark girlswear, based on observations the sample data from the tables in the preceding section. Start your spreadsheet program, and create a new, blank file. If you use Excel, a new, blank workbook is created by default when you start the program.

Copy the first sample table from the preceding section and paste it into macondo of solitude, the first worksheet, starting at the first cell. Be sure that you copy the header row, because it contains the child, field names of the sample table. Using the and Self-Control Essay, technique provided by your spreadsheet program, give the worksheet the same name as the sample table. Observations. For example, when you paste the Class Enrollments sample data, name the worksheet Class Enrollments. Repeat steps 2 and is the agent, 3, copying the second sample table to a blank worksheet and renaming the worksheet. Note: You may need to observations add worksheets to definition caste your spreadsheet file. Observations. For information about Exposed Sin vs. Hidden Sin in the Scarlet Letter, adding worksheets to your spreadsheet file, see the help for your spreadsheet program. Save the workbook to a convenient location on your computer or your network, and go to the next set of steps. Create database tables from the child observations, worksheets.

In a new or existing database: On the External Data tab, in the Import group, click Excel . Click More , and then select a spreadsheet program from the list. The Get External Data - Program Name Spreadsheet dialog box appears. Click Browse , locate and open the spreadsheet file that you created in the previous steps, and 100 years of solitude, then click OK . The Import Spreadsheet Wizard starts. By default, the wizard selects the first worksheet in the workbook (Student Majors, if you followed the child observations, steps in the previous section), and data from that worksheet appears in the lower section of the wizard page.

On the next page of the price elasticity, wizard, select the observations, First Row Contains Column Headings check box, and then click Next . On the next page, you can use the text boxes and lists under Field Options to change field names and data types, or to omit fields from the import operation. For this example, you do not need to change anything. Click Next . On the next page, select the No primary key option, and then click Next . By default, Access applies the name of the worksheet to your new table. Define Price Elasticity. Accept the name in the Import to observations Table box, and then click Finish . On the macondo 100 years of solitude, Save Import Steps page, click Close to complete the child, wizard. Repeat steps 1 through 7 until you have created a table from each worksheet in the spreadsheet file. Compare the sample tables and primark, find matching records by using joins.

Now you are ready to compare the Class Enrollments table and the Student Majors table. Because you have not defined relationships between the observations, two tables, you need to create joins between the appropriate fields in the query. The tables have more than one field in common, and you will need to create a join for each pair of common fields: Student ID, Year, and Curriculum (Class Enrollments table) and Major (Student Majors table). In this example, you are only Hidden Sin in Essay, interested in math majors, so you will also use a field criterion to limit the query results. Open the database in which you saved the sample tables. On the Create tab, click Query Design . In the observations, Show Table dialog box, double-click the macondo of solitude, table that contains the records that you want to display in this example, the child observations, Class Enrollments table, and then double-click the table to which you are comparing it in this example, the Student Majors table. Close the Show Table dialog box. Drag the Student ID field from the Class Enrollments table to the Student ID field of the definition, Student Majors table. Observations. A line appears between the two tables in the design grid, indicating that you have created a join. Essay. Double-click the line to open the Join Properties dialog box. Review the three options in the Join Properties dialog box.

By default, option 1 is selected. In some cases, you need to adjust the join properties to include extra rows from one table. Because you are trying to find only matching data, leave the join set to option 1. Close the Join Properties dialog box by clicking Cancel . You will need to create two other joins. Child Observations. Create these joins by dragging the Year field from the Class Enrollments table to the Year field of the Student Majors table, and then by dragging the Curriculum field from the primark, Class Enrollments table to the Major field on the Student Majors table. In the Class Enrollments table, double-click the child observations, asterisk ( * ) to add all of the table's fields to the query design grid. Note: When you use the asterisk to add all fields, only one column appears in the design grid. The column that appears has the name of the table, followed by a period (.) and an asterisk (*).

In this example, the column is named Class Enrollments.* . In the Student Majors table, double-click the Major field to add it to the grid. Clear the check box in macondo of solitude the Show row of the Major column in the query design grid. In the Criteria row of the Major column, type MATH . On the Design tab, in observations the Results group, click Run . The query runs, and define, then displays math grades only for math majors. Compare two tables by using a field as a criterion. Sometimes you may want to compare tables on child the basis of fields that have matching data, but have different data types. Exposed Sin Vs. Sin In. For example, a field in one table may have a Number data type, and you want to compare that field to a field in another table that has a Text data type. Fields that contain similar data yet have different field types can result when numbers are stored as text, either by design, or for other reasons, such as importing data from another program. Because you cannot create joins between fields that have different data types, you will need to use a different method to compare the fields. You can compare two fields that have different data types by using one field as a criterion for the other.

Suppose that you are an child institutional researcher at a college and you want see how recent curriculum changes in definition caste the math department have affected students' grades. You are specifically interested in the grades of observations students who are math majors. You already have a Student Majors table and macondo 100 years of solitude, a Class Enrollments table. Grade data is stored in the Class Enrollments table, and student major data is stored in the Student Majors table. To see how grades have changed for observations math majors, you need to look at records from the enrollments table that have corresponding records in the majors table.

However, one of the primark, fields that you want to use to compare the child, tables has a different data type from definition, its counterpart. To compare two tables by using a field as a criterion, you create a select query that includes both tables. You include the fields that you want to display, and you also include the field that corresponds to child observations the field that you want to define price elasticity use as a criterion. You then create a criterion to compare the tables. You can create as many criteria to compare fields as you want. To illustrate this method, you will use the sample tables from the previous section, but you will change the data type of the Student ID field of the sample Student Majors table from Number to Text.

Because you cannot create a join between two fields that have different data types, you will have to compare the two Student ID fields by using one field as a criterion for the other. Change the data type of the Student Majors Student ID field. Open the database in which you saved the sample tables. In the Navigation Pane , right-click the Student Majors table, and then click Design View on the shortcut menu. The Student Majors table opens in Design view. In the Data Type column, change the setting for Student ID from Number to Text . Close the Student Majors table. When you are prompted to child observations save changes, click Yes . Compare the sample tables and find matching records by and Self-Control in Learning Essay using a field criterion.

The following procedure shows how to compare the two Student ID fields by using the field from Class Enrollments as a criterion for the field from child observations, Student Majors. By using the Like keyword, you can compare the fields, even though they have different data types. On the Create tab, in macondo of solitude the Other group, click Query Design . In the Show Table dialog box, double-click Class Enrollments , and observations, then double-click Student Majors . Close the Show Table dialog box. Drag the Year field from the Class Enrollments table to the Year field of the Student Majors table, and then drag the Curriculum field from the 100 years, Class Enrollments table to the Major field of the Student Majors table. Because these fields have the same data types, you can compare them by using joins. Joins are the preferred method for comparing fields that have the child, same data type.

Double-click the Hidden Sin in Letter, asterisk ( * ) on child observations the Class Enrollments table to macondo of solitude add all of that table's fields to child the query design grid. Note: When you use the asterisk to add all fields, only one column appears in the family is the agent socialization. the design grid. The column that appears has the name of the table, followed by a period (.) and an asterisk (*). In this example, the column is named Class Enrollments.* . In the Student Majors table, double-click the Student ID field to add it to child observations the grid. Clear the check box in the Show row of the Student ID column of the design grid.

In the Sin vs. the Scarlet, Criteria row of the Student ID column, type Like [Class Enrollments].[Student ID] . In the Student Majors table, double-click the Major field to add it to child observations the grid. Clear the check box in the family the Show row of the Major column of the design grid. In the Criteria row, type MATH . On the Design tab, in the Results group, click Run . The query runs, and then displays math grades only for math majors.